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Thomas Aquinas 3 Essay, Research Paper

Thomas Aquinas, is a well-known theologian, who brought about many new ideas, common beliefs, and laws that are still talked about today. His works reflect everything from trying to prove the existence of God to the human emotion of lust. What is acceptable in the Roman Catholic Church usually stems from Aquinas thoughts and understanding of humanity and the earthly world.

Aquinas beliefs about homosexuality are similar to how the Catholic Church views it. Sexuality has caused conflict among humans especially when the church is brought into the controversy. Homosexuality has caused a huge issue in the past ten years and in some churches Aquinas ideas are not excepted any more. Change is slowly taking place and the way Thomas influenced the church will not be given up easily. His influences create large problems when it comes to homosexuals in the church and until the church gives in the battle will continue.

Thomas Aquinas was born in 1224 or 1225 at his father s castle, on the road from Rome to Naples. His father was the Count Landulf and his mother was Countess Theodora of Theate. His people were distinguished in the service of Emperor Fredrick II during the civil strife in southern Italy between the papal and the imperial forces (Internet, utm, 1). Thomas was placed in the monastery of Monte Cassino at age five. His family wanted him to become an abbot so they could use it to their advantage. In 1239, after nine years in the monastery, Thomas was forced to return to his family when the Emperor expelled the monks because they were too obedient to the Pope. He later studied in Napal. While there he studied the scientific and philosophical works that were being translated from Greek and Arabic. Thomas then decided to join the Friars, Preachers, or Dominicans, which segregated themselves from the traditional paternalistic form of government. However, on his way to Paris, where his superiors felt he would be away from his family and could study at a prestigious university, his brothers kidnapped him. They took him back to his family where he was held captive for a year or two (Internet, trading, 1-2).

In 1245, Thomas made his way to Paris once again. He studied there under teacher, Alburtus Magnus whom he remained with for several years. This long-term encounter was the most influential in his development (Internet, utm, 1). When Thomas arrived at the University of Paris, Arabian-Aristotelian science, was becoming popular and arousing reaction from church authorities. Arabian-Aristotelian science involves naturalism and rationalism. Like his teacher, Thomas studied these works of Aristotle and eventually lectured publicly on them. New generations of men and women were reacting against the traditional notion of contempt for the world and were striving to master the forces of nature by their reason. The reality of universals was left behind and technology itself became a means of accessing the truth.

Thomas received his master s degree in teaching in 1257. Two years later he was appointed lecturer and theological advisor to the papal Curia. He traveled from one place to another for ten years, when finally he was sent to Paris in 1268 where he wound up involved in a doctrinal controversy that had just started. The Parisian masters were beginning to learn about the works of Averroes, who was known, for interpreting the writings of Aristotle. The structure of the religious knowledge and the rational knowledge was asserted in his works. He focused on two truths, one of faith and one of knowledge. Thomas found himself wedged between the Augustinian tradition of thought and now more empathetic than ever in its criticism of Aristotle and the Averroists (Internet, trading, 3). More than any other theologian of his time, Thomas understood that in view of the new significance of reason and the views of Aristotle and Averroes, it was no longer appropriate to seek to combine the whole reality without distinction into one great philosophical and theological union of reason and faith (Kung, 109). In 1270, Aquinas , who affirmed the independence of reason under faith, was discredited (Internet, utm, 3).

Thomas returned to Italy in1272, at the University of Naples, to establish a Dominican house of studies. He went to the University because King Charles of Anjou requested him and he was anxious to revive the university. Thomas Aquinas personally summoned by Gregory X to the second Council of Lyons in January 1274, in an attempt to repair the schism between the Latin and Greek churches. On his way he became ill and died on March 7, 1274. In 1277 the masters of Paris condemned a series of 219 propositions; 12 were those of Thomas. This was the most serious condemnation possible in the Middle Ages and its repercussions were felt in the development of ideas.

Thomas was canonized a saint in 1323, officially named doctor of the church in 1567, and proclaimed the protagonist of orthodoxy during the modernist crisis at the end of the 19th century. All of these accomplishments can not take away the historical difficulties in which he faced in the 13th century, during the radical theological renewal. At the time this renewal was contested but still brought about by the social, religious and cultural evolution of the West (Internet, trading, 4).

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