Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
только в названии
только в тексте
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
Les Mis?rables was written by Victor Hugo, and published in 1862. It has been translated into many different languages, and turned into a play and mov...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
World War I was to end all wars. The people of that generation truly believed that the aftermath of WWI had been destructive and painful for everyone....полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
In the opening pages of the story you can see how hypocrisy is already starting to change Goodman Brown for the worse. As he starts out on his errand ...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
I chose to look into Jesus death and the people who were involved in it. The first group of people who got hold of Jesus was the Roman soldiers. They ...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Lymphomas [Lymphatic Cancers] Essay, Research Paper

Lymphomas are cancers of the lymph nodes and lymphatic tissues which make up the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system produces lymphocytes, cells that help the body fight diseases. One type of lymphoma is Hodgkin?s disease, which along with at least 10 other types of lymphoma cause around 50,000 lymphoma cases globally every year. This accounts for about 5% of the world?s cancer cases.

The exact cause of lymphoma is still unknown, but some speculate that lymphomas could be hereditary, or that they are caused by viruses. Human T-Cell lymphoma and Burkitt?s lymphoma seem to be strongly tied to the presence of viruses in the human body, Burkitt?s being shown to occur more frequently in patients with the mononucleosis-causing Epstien-Barr virus in their bodies.

Occurrences of lymphoma are shown to be twice as frequent in males than in females, and non-Hodgkin?s? lymphoma appears to increase in frequency with age. Lymphomas associated with Hodgkin?s disease is extremely rare in children under the age of two, occurring most frequently in white males in their mid-thirties and -fifties.

Symptoms of lymphoma include the swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck and groin, weight loss, severe itching all over the body, fatigue, and the Pel-Ebstein fever pattern, characterized by high fevers in the evenings. The swelling of the affected lymph nodes is caused by the nodes producing excess lymphocytes, and histocytes. In the case of Hodgkin?s disease, unique and unusually large cells called Reed-Sternberg cells are produced, which are easy to spot for their large, prominent nuclei. These cells are not produced under normal circumstances and thus they make Hodgkin?s disease easy to identify and diagnose.

Before treatment of lymphomas can begin, the cancer must be staged, have its severity assessed. The appropriate treatment for a patient?s lymphoma is determined by the severity of the tumor. Stage one lymphomas usually affect only one or two lymph nodes in one area. If the lymphoma is identified and treated at this stage with local radiotherapy, the patient has a 90% chance of being symptom-free after five years. Stage two lymphomas affect more glands than in stage one, over a larger area, requiring more generalized irradiation . Treatment after this stage will usually give the patient a 60% of being symptom-free after five years. Stages three and four of lymphoma are characterized by an enlarged spleen, and the spread of the cancer to tissues outside the lymph system, respectively. Both stages are treated with chemo- and radiotherapy, and a patient wit stage three has a 40% chance of being symptom-free after 5 years, while a stage four patient has only a 20-40% chance.

Treatment using anti-cancer drugs usually involves a combination of two or more drugs that enhance each other?s qualities. One well-known combination of this type is called the MOPP protocol, consisting of doses of mechlorethamine, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednizone. Another combination is the ABVD protocol, consisting of doses of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine.

The subject of cancers of the lymph system relates to biology in that our class had just completed a study of mitosis and meiosis, the processes by which cells divide. Cancer is caused by one stage or another in this division malfunctioning, resulting in the uncontrolled division of cells. By researching this type of cancer, not only have I gained knowledge of cancers in general, but have learned about the lymph system and, of course, lymphoma. I have exercised my researching and note taking skills, and am now ready to tackle a new research project.


?Hodgkin?s Disease? Diseases, 1993 ed.

?Malignant Lymphomas? Diseases, 1993 ed.

?Hodgkin?s Disease.? Marshall Cavendish Encyclopedia of Family Health, 1993 ed.

?Lymphoma.? Marshall Cavendish Encyclopedia of Family Health, 1993 ed.

?Hodgkin?s Disease.? The New Good Housekeeping Health and Medical Guide, 1989 ed.

?Lymphoma.? The New Good Housekeeping Health and Medical Guide, 1989 ed.


Похожие страницы:

  1. The Death Of King Hussein Essay Research

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    The Death Of King Hussein Essay, Research Paper The principal geographical feature of ... , comes in many forms. Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system, which plays ... . Doctors have long arbitrarily divided lymphomas into two types: Hodgkin’s disease ...
  2. Lymphoma Essay Research Paper LymphomaControlling Purpose In

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Lymphoma Controlling Purpose: In this paper you will be informed about ... cancer of the lymphatic system. “Any group of cancers in which the ... basic types of lymphomas, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. There is little ...
  3. Cancer What Is It Essay Research Paper

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... are called adenocarcinomas.Leukemia s and lymphomascancers that involve blood-forming tissue ... cells may migrate into the lymphatic channels and be carried to ... cells into malignant cells. Research indicates that each viral oncogene has a counterpart ...
  4. Tumours Essay Research Paper A tumour is

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Malignant, also known as, cancerous tumours, are additionally defined by ... move through the blood and lymphatic systems, attach themselves, and ... in the treatment of lymphomas have increased the long ... whole new area of cancer research. Rous shared the 1966 Nobel ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0073788166046143