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Untitled Essay, Research Paper

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………….1

Chapter

I. General

Principles………………………………………………………………………2

I. Systems of

Force………………………………………………………………………..4

II.

Stress………………………………………………………………………………………6

III. Properties of

Material…………………………………………………………….7

IV. Bolted and Welded

Joints………………………………………………………..10

V. Beams — A Practical

Application……………………………………………..13

VI. Beam

Design………………………………………………………………………..17

VII. Torsional Loading: Shafts, Couplings, and

Keys…………………..19

VIII.

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….20

BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………21

INTRODUCTION Mechanics is the physical science concerned with the dynamic behavior

of bodies that are acted on by mechanical disturbances. Since such behavior is involved in

virtually all the situations that confront an engineer, mechanics lie at the core of much

engineering analysis. In fact, no physical science plays a greater role in engineering

than does mechanics, and it is the oldest of all physical sciences. The writings of

Archimedes covering bouyancy and the lever were recorded before 200 B.C. Our modern

knowledge of gravity and motion was established by Isaac Newton (1642-1727).

Mechanics can be divided into two parts: (1) Statics, which relate to

bodies at rest, and (2) dynamics, which deal with bodies in motion. In this paper we will

explore the static dimension of mechanics and discuss the various types of force on an

object and the different strength of materials.

The term strength of materials refers to the ability of the individual

parts of a machine or structure to resist loads. It also permits the selection of

materials and the determination of dimensions to ensure the sufficient strength of the

various parts.

General Principles Before we can venture to explain statics, one must have a firm grasp on

classical mechanics. This is the study of Newton’s laws and their extensions.

Newton’s three laws were originally stated as follows:

1. Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a

straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by

forces impressed on it.

2. The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed

and is made in the direction in which that

force is impressed.

3. To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction; or the

mutual actions of two bodies on each other

are equal and direct to contrary parts.

Newton’s law of gravitational attraction pertains to celestrial

bodies or any object onto which gravity is a force and states: “Two particles will be

attracted toward each other along their connecting line with a force whose magnitude is

directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the

distance squared between the particles.

When one of the two objects is the earth and the other object is near

the surface of the earth (where r is about 6400 km) / is essentially constant, then the

attraction law becomes f = mg.

Another essential law to consider is the Parallelogram Law. Stevinius

(1548-1620) was the first to demonstrate that forces could be combined by representing

them by arrows to some suitable scale, and then forming a parallelogram in which the

diagonal represents the sum of the two forces. All vectors must combine in this manner.

When solving static problems as represented as a triangle of force,

three common theorems are as follows:

1. Pythagorean theorem. In any right triangle, the square of the

hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the

squares of the two legs:

=

2. Law of sines. In any triangle, the sides are to each other as the

sines of the opposite angle:

3. Law of cosines. In any triangle, the square of any side is equal to

the sum of the squares of the other two

sides minus twice the product of the sides and the

cosine of their included angle: = – 2ab cos C

By possessing an understanding of Newton’s Laws, following these

three laws of graphical solutions, and understanding vector algebra you can solve most

engineering static problems.Systems of Force Systems of force acting on objects in equilibrium can be classified as

either concurrent or nonconcurrent and as either coplanar or noncoplanar. This gives us

four general categories of systems.

The first category, concurrent-coplanar forces occur when the lines of

action of all forces lie in the same plane and pass through a common point. Figure 1

illustrates a concurrent-coplanar force in such that F1, F2, and W all lie in the same

plane (the paper) and all their lines of action have point O in common. To determine the

resultant of concurrent force systems, you can use the Pythagorean theorem, the law of

sines, or the law of cosines as outlined in the previous chapter. Nonconcurrent-coplanar force is when the lines of action of all forces

lie in the same plane but do not pass through a common point as illustrated in figure 2.

The magnitude and direction of the resultant force can be determined by the rectangular

component method using the first two equations in figure 2, and the perpendicular distance

of the line of action of R from the axis of rotation of the body can be found using the

third equation in figure 2.

Concurrent-noncoplanar forces are when Application the lines of action

of all forces pass through a common point and are not in the same plane. To find the

resultant of these forces it is best to resolve each force into components along three

axes that make angles of 90 degrees with each other.

Nonconcurrent-noncoplanar forces are when the lines of action of all

forces do not pass through a common point and the forces do not all lie in the same plane.Stress When a restrained body is subject to external forces, there is a

tendency for the shape of the body that is subject to the external force to be deformed or

changed. Since materials are not perfectly rigid, the applied forces will cause the body

to deform. The internal resistance to deformation of the fibers of a body is called

stress. Stress can be classified as either simple stress, sometimes referred to as direct

stress, or indirect stress.

The various types of direct stress are tension, compression, shear, and

bearing. The various types of indirect stress are bending and torsion. A third variety of

stress is categorized as any combination of direct and indirect stress.

Simple stress is developed under direct loading conditions. That is,

simple tension and simple compression occur when the applied force is in line with the

axis of the member and simple shear occurs when equal, parallel, and opposite forces tend

to cause a surface to slide relative to the adjacent surface. When any type of simple

stress develops we can calculate the magnitude of the stress by the formula , where:

? s = average unit stress;

? F = external force causing stress to develop;

? A = area over which stress develops. Indirect stress, or stress due to bending should be properly classified

under statics of rigid bodies and not under strength of materials. The bending moment in a

beam depends only on the loads on the beam and on its consequent support reactions.

Torsion is when a shaft is acted upon by two equal and opposite twisting moments in

parallel planes. Torsion can be either stationary or rotating uniformly. Indirect stress

will be discussed in detail in later sections.

Properties of Material In order for the engineer to effectively design any item, whether it is

a frame which holds an object or a complicated piece of automated machinery, it is very

important to have a strong knowledge of the mechanical and physical properties of metals,

wood, concrete, plastics and composites, and any other material an engineer is considering

using to construct an object. The rest of this paper will deal with strength of materials

and how to best choose a material and construction technique to effectively accomplish

what was set out without “over-engineering.”

Strength of materials deals with the relationship between the external

forces applied to elastic bodies and the resulting deformations and stresses. In the

design of structures and machines, the application of the principles of strength of

materials is necessary if satisfactory materials are to be utilized and adequate

proportions obtained to resist functional forces.

In today’s global economy is crucial for success to be able to

build the “biggest and best” while spending the least. To do that successfully

it is imperative to have a firm understanding of different materials and their correct

uses. The load per unit area, called stress, and the deformation per unit length, called

strain, must be understood. The formula for stress is:

The formula for strain is:

The amount of stress and strain a material can endure before

deformation occurs is known as the proportional limit. Up to this point, any stress or

strain induced into the material will allow the material to return to its original shape.

When stress and strain exceed the proportional limit of the material and a permanent

deformation, or set, occurs the object is said to have reached its elastic limit. Modulus

of elasticity, also called Young’s modulus, is the ratio of unit stress to unit

strain within the proportional limit of a material in tension or compression. Some

representatives values of Young’s modulus (in 10^6 psi) are as follows:

? Aluminum, cast, pure………………………………………..9

? Aluminum, wrought, 2014-T6……………………….10.6

? Beryllium copper……………………………………………19

? Brass, naval……………………………………………………15

? Titanium, alloy, 5 Al, 2.5 Sn……………………………17

? Steel for buildings and bridges, ASTM A7-61T…29 Once the elastic limit of a material is reached, the material will

elongate rather easily without a significant increase in the load. This is known as the

yield point of the material. Not all materials have a yield point. Some repre

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