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The History Of Women In Law Enforcement Essay, Research Paper

THESIS: Since first being implemented, policewomen have proven themselves to be

extremely effective and essential elements of law enforcement, facing many inequalities

along the way. While recent advances in equality have been made, law enforcement is

still seen as a male-dominated field. If we are to see further progress in the equivalence

of the field, it is important to continue to work for gender equality within our nation?s

policing institutions.

I.Fore-runners of woman police movement

A.Movement began after civil war with female philanthropic groups, both in

the United States and in Great Britain

1.Chicago Women?s Club

2.Female Protective League

B.The original premise of the female presence in police work was to protect

female inmates from abuse by male members of the field

C.An additional aspect of this was preventing the moral corrosion of women

and children

D.First policewomen

1.Lola Baldwin

a.Organizes group in 1905 in Portland, Oregon which dealth

with social conditions threatening young girls and women

b.Agents of this organization are known as ?operatives? as

they resist the idea of being called ?officers?

2.Alice Stebbins Wells

a.First offically commissioned policewoman in the United

States in Los Angeles in 1910

b.Theology student and social worker

c.Patrolled dance halls, skating rinks, arcades, theatres, etc.

E.Annual Conference of Charities and Corrections

1.1915 Baltimore, MD

2.Creation of first association for female police work

II.Presence of policewomen around world

A.Great Britain

1.1907- first ?police aide? appointed to take statements and

interrogate female rape victims for London Criminal Intelligence


2.During WWI

a.Women fill in for men who are fighting

b.Execute erveillance, have no arrest powers

3.1918- Metro Police of London?s Division of Women Police Patrols

a.wayward girls

b.sex ofenders


d.white slave traffic

e.female prisoners

f.juvenile cases

4.Duties during WWII

a.law enforcment

b.escorting enemy aliens

c.detention centers on Isle of Man, 1946

d.special missions in British-occupied Germany to establish

German policewomen sections

5.Full integration with close of Metropolitan Women?s force in 1963

A.West Germany

1.World?s first city to employ officially titled policewoman

a.Stuttgart, Germany, 1903

2.Employed since then, but not in Hitler?s era

3.Reinsituted after WWII for democratization and to fill personnall


4.Not in formal uniforms

5.Preventive work with women and juveniles


1.1925- Women police force started

a.Implemented after Poland becomes free for first time since


2.Combat prostitution

3.Help women and children cooperate with social organizations

4.During WWII

a.fought and died alongside males for their country


1.1925-response to questionnaires regarding female element of


a.Women are not on French police forces because women

should be homemakers and mothers and should not be

employed where there is physical danger

2.1969- 59 policewomen with baccaulaureate degrees

a.hold title of ?social assistant?

b.virtually no everday police work


1.1946-1963 Female officers appointed in Tokyo?s Metropolitan

Police Department

2.1947- Mandate that women should be fully integrated by 1953

a.1200 policewomen working at the time

3.Same status and credentials as men today

III.History of Policewomen in the U.S.

A.Responsible for preventive policework instead of investigative

B.1915-International Association of Policewomen organized


1.Keep prostitutes away from military camps

2.Return runaway women to homes

3.Supervise commercial amusements near military camps

D.1922- Internationsal Association of Chiefs of Police

1.Pass resolution that women are essential to modern departments


1.Supplemented manpower needs

2.Women Auxiliary Police

a.Substitute for men

b.Fulfill same duties as male officers

c.Use terminated after war

F.1970?s- emergence in federal agencies

G.State police presence

1.Wear civillian clothes

2.No general patrol

3.Mostly sex offense cases

IV.Obstacles which have been overcome

A.Attitudes about law enforcement as ?suppressive? v. ?preventive?

B.Stereotypes of poicewomen as ?bull dykes?

C.Unequal requirements

1.Higher educational requirements

2.Smaller physical requirements

3.Different entrance exams

4.Separate training precedures

a.No firearms or self-defense training

5.Different salaries

6.Few promotional opportunities

D.Administrative issues

1.femininity/attractiveness of uniform v. function

2.?cute? stewardess hats and bowties issued at first

a. resented by women

b.departments this they?re helping retain femininity

3.Absenteeism and turnover concerns

a.marriage bar lifted after WWII

b.average loss of work equal between men and women

4.Injury rate is equal as well

5.1979- Employer must offer health benefits to cover pregnancy

a.usually patrol up to 7th or 8th month, then given light duty

assignment in station

6.Many issues have been remedied, some are still problem areas


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