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Иностранный язык->Реферат
Истор. грам-ка (ИГ) изучает внутр. законы развития РЯ, закономерности его развития с древнейшего периода, т.е. с момента его выделения из праслав. яз....полностью>>
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Political power can simply be defined as the power to influence. The power to influence is essentially the power to control. When pertaining to politi...полностью>>
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A brand can be a name, a term or a symbol. It is used todifferentiate a product from competitors' products. The brands guarantee a certain quality lev...полностью>>

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Brands

In general brand is a part of our everyday life. It can take many forms, including a name, sign, symbol, colour combination or slogan.

Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer of automobiles founded on 18 January 1919 by Walter Owen Bentley (known as W.O. Bentley or just "W"). Bentley had been previously known for his range of rotary aero-engines in World War I. Perhaps the most iconic model of the period is the 4½-litre "Blower Bentley". It became famous in popular media as the vehicle of James Bond in the original novels, but not in film.

In 2002, Bentley presented Queen Elizabeth II with an official State Limousine to celebrate the Golden Jubilee

Bentley produces racing cars as well which always participate in Le Mans, the world's oldest sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. So you can see the evolution of sport cars.

Durex brand.

Durex stands for DUrability, Reliability and EXcellence

Despite some opposition to the product in question, the company was greatly helped by the Church of England ruling in 1930 that birth control could be used by married couples.

DUREX now manufactures around one billion condoms per year in 17 different factories worldwide. DUREX condoms are sold in over 150

Hovis, a UK Brand of flour and bread, owened by Premier Foods.

Hovis pays great attention for the promotion of the brand.

The commercial Go on, Lad! (2008) follows the journey of a young boy through 122 years of British history, from the establishment of the Hovis brand in 1886 to the current day.

Green & Black's: Easter means chocolate, and for ever-growing numbers of consumers, chocolate means Green & Black's. a UK-based chocolate company, owned by Kraft Foods. The company produces a range of chocolate bars, ice cream, biscuits and hot chocolate with its principal manufacturing sites in Poland and Italy. Its products are organic[1] and premium-priced. Green & Black’s sources its cacao from all over the world

Lipton was created at the end of the 19th century by a grocer, Sir Thomas Lipton, in Scotland. Lipton teas are a blend selected from many different plantations around the world, from well-known producing countries like India, Kenya, and China.

Apart from black leaf teas (with the long-standing Lipton Yellow Label brand), the company also markets a large range of other varieties, both in leaf tea as well as ready-to-drink format. These include green teas, black flavoured teas, herbal. Lipton's main pillar brands are Lipton Yellow Label and Lipton Iced Tea. Other product lines exist as well, like the Lipton pyramid range in Europe and North America, and Lipton Milk Tea in East Asia. In 2008 the brand launched Lipton Linea in Western Europe.

Me to You a teddy bear with short grey fur, small black eyes, an off-white snout and a blue nose with a white reflective spot on the left hand side. The words ‘Me to You’ are embroidered on the left rear paw.

The bears come in many different sizes, ranging from 5 cm to in excess of 80 cm, and often come with accessories such as hearts, roses, T-shirts, wooley hats and scarves. Some have personalised messages from a simple "I Love You" to longer messages. Many of the limited and special edition releases are designed to tie in with events such as Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day and Christmas.

British Cuisine

British food has traditionally been based on beef, lamb, pork, chicken and fish and generally served with potatoes and one other vegetable. Other meals, such as fish and chips, which were once urban street food eaten from newspaper with salt and malt vinegar, and pies and sausages with mashed potatoes, onions, and gravy.

The normal ingredients of a traditional full English breakfast are bacon, eggs, fried or grilled tomatoes, fried mushrooms, fried bread or toast and sausages, usually served with tea.

The traditional English breakfast is called the 'Full English' and sometimes referred to as 'The Full English Fry-up'.

English Breakfast tea is usually black tea served with milk (never cream) and sometimes with sugar

If someone asks you if you 'would like a cuppa', they are asking if you would like a cup of tea.

If someone says 'let me be mother' or 'shall I be mother', they are offering to pour out the tea from the teapot.

Continental breakfast is a light meal meant to satisfy one until lunch. A typical continental breakfast consists of coffee and milk (often mixed as cappuccino or latte) or hot chocolate with a variety of sweet cakes such as waffles/pancakes, croissants, often with a sweet jam, cream, or chocolate filling. It is often served with juice. The continental breakfast may also include sliced cold meats, such as salami or ham, yogurt or cereal.

Afternoon tea It is a widespread stereotype that the English "drop everything" for a teatime meal in the mid-afternoon. A formal teatime meal is now often an accompaniment to tourism, particularly in Devon and neighbouring counties. Generally, however, the teatime meal has been replaced by snacking.

Tea itself, usually served with milk, is consumed throughout the day and is sometimes also drunk with meals. In recent years herbal teas and speciality teas have also become popular. White sugar is often added to individual cups of tea, or brown sugar to coffee, but never to the pot.

The popularity of tea dates back to the 19th century when India was part of the British Empire, and British interests controlled tea production in the subcontinent.

Toad in the hole is a traditional English dish consisting of sausages, batter, usually served with vegetables and onion gravy.

Bubble and squeak is a traditional English dish made with the shallow-fried leftover vegetables from a roast dinner. The chief ingredients are potato and cabbage, but carrots, peas, brussels sprouts, and other vegetables can be added. The name comes from the bubble and squeak sounds made as it cooks. Bubble and squeak was a popular dish during World War II, as it was an easy way of using leftovers during a period when most foods were subject to rationing.

Fish and Chips

Fish and chips is the classic English take-away food and is the traditional national food of England. The fish (cod, haddock, huss, plaice) is deep fried in flour batter and is eaten with chips.

Puddings and Cakes in England

There are hundreds of variations of sweet puddings in England, but each pudding begins with the same basic ingredients of milk, sugar, eggs, flour and butter and many involve fresh fruit such as raspberries or strawberries, custard, cream, and cakes.

Spotted Dick Pudding

  Spotted dick is a steamed suet pudding containing dried fruit (usually currants), commonly served with either custard or butter and brown sugar.

 

Black pudding or blood pudding (slide 10) is a type of sausage made by cooking blood or dried blood with a filler until it is thick enough.

Yorkshire pudding. It is made from batter and usually served with roast beef and gravy.

English muffin is a small, round, flat type of yeast-leavened bread almost always dusted with cornmeal, which is commonly served split horizontally, toasted, and buttered. Muffins are eaten either as a snack in their own right or as part of a meal, especially breakfast or, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, early-evening tea.

Muffins are a quick-baking bread and have become a tea-table staple. They are usually split, toasted, buttered and then eaten with a savoury or sweet topping such as honey.

A crumpet is a sweet and savoury bread snack made from flour and yeast.

Crumpets are generally eaten hot with butter with or without a second (sweet or savoury) topping. Popular second toppings are cheese (melted on top), honey, poached egg, jam, Marmite, salt, marmalade, peanut butter, cheese spread, golden syrup, hummus, lemon curd, maple syrup and Vegemite.

The word pub is short for public house. There are over 60,000 pubs in the UK. Pubs are an important part of British life. People talk, eat, drink, meet their friends and relax there.

Pubs often have two bars, one usually quieter than the other, many have a garden where people can sit in the summer. Children can go in pub gardens with their parents.

Groups of friends normally buy 'rounds' of drinks, where the person whose turn it is will buy drinks for all the members of the group. It is sometimes difficult to get served when pubs are busy: people do not queue, but the bar staff will usually try and serve those who have been waiting the longest at the bar first. If you spill a stranger's drink by accident, it is good manners (and prudent) to offer to buy another drink.

Pubs sell soft drinks as well as alcohol

Although most people think pubs are places where people drink alcohol, pubs in fact sell soft drinks (non alcoholic) drinks too.

British pubs are required to have a licence, which is difficult to obtain, and allows the pub to operate for up to 24 hours. Most pubs are open from 11 to 11.

Some typical names are The Chequers, The White Swan, The Crown, The King's Arms, The Red Lion and The White Horse. People often refer to the pub by its name when giving directions:Turn left at the Rose and Crown. There is usually a sign outside the pub showing the pub's name with a picture.

Whisky has been produced in Scotland for centuries. The Gaelic "usquebaugh", meaning "Water of Life", phonetically became "usky" and then "whisky" in English

According to the Scotch Whisky Association, no one knows exactly when the art of distilling was first practised in Scotland; it is known that the Ancient Celts practised distilling, and that the liquid they produced — known in ancient Gaelic as uisge beatha ("water of life") — evolved into Scotch Whisky. By the 11th century distillation first occurred in Scotland in the early Christian monastic sites.

Museums

London is a city rich in museums. There're museums full of toys, furniture,wax people, antique furniture, in fact, something for practically every taste. For example All Hallows-by-the-Tower Crypt Museum the museum of church's history, includingRomanand Saxon artefacts. Bank of England Museum with the History of the Bank and its activities, banknotes and coins, books and documents, pictures, furniture, statues, silver. St Bartholomew's Hospital Museum History of the hospital and its work, historic surgical instruments, sculpture, medieval archives, works of art. Sherlock Holmes Museum,where he lived and worked.

Still for most visitors, The British Museum always ranks as one of London's most

popular. The British Museum is amuseum of human history and culture of London. Its collections, which number more than seven million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. the British Museum shared it's location with The British Library, which

houses a copy of every book published in Britain since 1911

Madame Tussauds is awax museum in London with branches in a number of major cities. It was founded bywaxsculptorMarie Tussaud. Madame Tussauds is a majortourist attraction in London, displaying waxworks of historical and royal figures, film stars, sports stars and famous murderers.

Marie Tussaud, born was born inStrasbourg, France. Her mother worked as a housekeeper for Dr.Philippe Curtius  who was skilled in wax modelling. Curtius taught Tussaud the art of wax modelling.

One of the main attractions of her museum was the Chamber of Horrors. This part of the exhibition included victims of the war. Other famous people were added to the exhibition, includingHoratio Nelson, and SirWalter Scott. Some of the sculptures done by Marie Tussaud herself still exist. The gallery originally contained some 400 different figures, but fire damage in 1925, coupled withGerman bombs in 1941, has rendered most of these older models defunct. The oldest figure on display is Robespierre, George III andBenjamin Franklin. In 1842, she made aself portrait which is now on display at the entrance of her museum. She died in her sleep on 15 April 1850. Today's wax figures at Tussauds include historical and royal figures, film stars, sports stars and famous murderers. (сл.7)

The National Gallery in London was founded in 1824 and had a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900.

Its masterpieces include artworks from Botticelli, Titian, Raphael, Michelangelo, Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Cezanne, Hogarth, and Gainsborough.

You can’t miss in Britain

I Blackpool Pleasure Beach

It is the most visited amusement park in the United Kingdom, and one of the top twenty most-visited amusement parks in the world with 6.5 million visitors in 2010

It The major attractions at Pleasure Beach, Blackpool include:

* Pepsi Max Big One: The UK's tallest roller coaster, built by Arrow Dynamics.

* Infusion: A Vekoma Suspended Looping Coaster and the worlds first constructed entirely over water.

* Irn Bru Revolution: Europe's first fully inverting roller coaster.

* Grand National: A twin tracked racing wooden roller coaster, opened in 1935

* Valhalla: The worlds most expensive dark ride

* Wild Mouse: One of only three remaining wooden Wild Mouse roller coasters

The park is owned, directed, managed and produced by the Thompson family. In 2003 the park opened the Big Blue Hotel, a four star hotel, making the park part of an official resort.

II Tate Modern

Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London, England. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art .It is the most-visited modern art gallery in the world, with around 4.7 million visitors per year.

Tate Gallery - Museum of Art in London, the world's largest collection of English art of the XVI-XX centuries. Was founded by industrialist Sir Henry Tate. Opened on 21 July 1897. The basis of collection was a private collection of founder. According to the guide to the gallery in 1897, the beginning of the collection of Sir Henry Tate put three pictures, one of which - "Thursday" WJ Sadler

III St. Paul's Cathedral

St. Paul's Cathedral- Cathedral in London, the residence of the Bishop of London. Located on a hill Ludgate. Stories Famous Five St Paul's Cathedral, which existed at different times, but were in the same place. Under the dome of the Cathedral there are three galleries: the inner whispering gallery and exterior stone and golden gallery. Whispering gallery owes its name because the architectors make some mistakes when they made this gallery: the word even spoken in a whisper, at one end of the gallery, repeatedly reflected its walls, resulting in a whisper that could easily hear the person on the other end of the gallery.

In the belfries of Cathedral there are 17 bells, 13 of them - in the north-west tower, and 4 (including the bell Great Paul) and Great Tom) - in the south-west tower.

St. Paul's Cathedral is the burial place of almost two most famous British citizens. The first honor of being buried in the Cathedral of St. Paul to the architect - Christopher Vren. On his tomb there is not a monument, and only shows an epitaph in Latin, "Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice" ("Reader, if you seek a monument - just look around"). Among the most prominent figures at rest in the Cathedral of St. Paul, it should be noted by Sir Isaac Newton, the Duke of Wellington, Admiral Nelson, Sir Winston Churchill and Sir Alexander Fleming.(In the film Angels and Demons was some information about this)

I think It's very interesting to visit this Cathedral

VI London Eye.

Also there is a top-list, which includes a variety of attractions: from historic monuments to the zoo.

But now I'd like to tell you about one building, which interested me so much. It is London Eye.

What is that? London Eye (born London Eye) - one of the largest Ferris wheel in the world, located in the London, which is situated on Lambeth on the south bank of the Thames.

From a height of 135 meters (about 45 floors) overlooking almost the entire city. Ferris wheel - designed by architects David Marks and Julia Barfield, who won the contest project buildings in honor of the new millennium. Implementation of the project in life has taken six years.

The London Eye has 32 fully enclosed and air-conditioned cabins capsules for passengers, made in the form of eggs. Capsules represent a 32 suburban of London. Each 10-ton capsule may take up to 25 passengers. The wheel rotates at a constant speed of 26 centimeters per second (about 0.9 kilometers per hour) to one revolution takes about 30 minutes.

Gardening

mound - насыпь

knot garden - a very formal design of garden in a square frame and grown with a variety or aromatic plants and culinary herbs

herbaceous border – цветочный бордюр

manor house – помещичий дом

box – самшит

parterre – цветник

trellis - шпалера

The English garden, also called English landscape park is a style of Landscape garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical French Garden of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe. The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. It usually included a lake, sweeps of gently rolling lawns set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape.

Garden styles at a glance:

Roman Britain: formal, low hedges

Medieval: small enclosed, with turf seats and mounds

Tudor: knot gardens, enclosed in hedges or walls

Stuart: formal Italianate and French styles

Georgian: informal, landscaped, open parkland

Victorian: bedding plants, colourful, public gardens

20th C: mixed styles, herbaceous borders

The earliest English gardens that we know of were planted by the Roman conquerors of Britain in the 1st century AD. It is carefully symmetrical formal planting of low box hedges.We know very little about the gardens of Anglo-Saxon England, which is another way of saying that the warlike Anglo-Saxons did not hold gardening to be important.

It was not until the Middle Ages that gardens once more became important in British life. There appeared little gardens in the monasteries.

Castles sometimes made room for small courtyard gardens, with paths through raised flower beds. Other common features of medieval castle gardens include turf seats and high mounds, or mounts, which provided a view over the castle walls. As castles gave way to fortified manor houses in the later medieval period, the garden became a simple green space surrounded by hedges or fences.

The Tudors followed Italian influence in creating gardens which mirrored the alignment of the house, creating a harmony of line and proportion that had been missing in the Medieval period. For the first time since the Romans left, sundials and statues were once more popular garden ornaments.

Stuarts were slaves to the French fashion for formal gardens. The chief feature of this French style are a broad avenue sweeping away from the house, flanked by rectangular parterres made of rigidly formal low hedges. The prime survivors of this style can be seen at Blickling Hall (Norfolk), Melbourne (Derbyshire) and Chatsworth.

The 18th century saw a swing from Renaissance formality to a more "natural" look. Lines were no longer straight, paths curve and wander, and parterres are replaced by grass. Trees were planted in clusters rather than in straight lines, and rounded lakes replaced the rectangular ponds of the earlier style. The garden became open, a park joining the house to the outside world rather than a carefully nurtured refuge from it.

In the Victorian era massed beds of flowers (bedding out plants raised in greenhouses) of exotic colours appeared. Some of the finest Victorian gardens are public parks, like People's Park in Halifax.

Gertrude Jekyll is arguably the most influential gardener of 20th century England. She popularized the herbaceous border and planning a garden based on colour schemes. Jekyll saw the house and garden as part of an integral whole, rather than the garden as an afterthought to the building. Her work survives at Marsh Court (Hampshire) and Hestercombe (Somerset).



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