Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
problem- focused coping
Table 3. Stepwise Regression Summary Statistics for Drinking to Cope
Table 4. Stepwise Regression Summary Statistics for Problem-Focused Drinking
self perception expectancy valence
Figure 2. Estimated Model of Weekly Drinking
Risk & Aggression Expectancy
Perceived Stress Drink to Cope Weekly Drinking
Tension Reduction Expectancy
Self Perception Expectancy Valence
The primary purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend the results of Cooper et al. (1992).
Specifically, the Cooper et al. (1992) stressor vulnerability model was modified to include family history of
alcoholism as an additional moderating variable, and expectancies were conceptualized as a mediating rather
than a moderating variable. The model was then tested in a college population sample. Overall, the results
of this study fail to support the proposed model, suggesting that expectancies play a distal rather than
proximal role in stress-related drinking. Furthermore, contrary to previous findings (i.e., Cotton, 1979;
Goodwin, 1988; Hill et al., 1992; & Ohannessian & Hesselbrock, 1993), family history of alcoholism did not
play a significant role, either directly or indirectly, in predicting drinking.
In contrast, the present results indicate that gender and coping are the most powerful explanatory
variables in the model. With respect to coping, only drinking to cope and problem-focused coping directly
predicted weekly drinking. Expectancies also emerged as an important explanatory variable, however, their
influence was exerted via indirect pathways (i.e., via drinking to cope and problem-focused drinking).
Likewise, perceived stress and emotion-focused coping also emerged as peripheral predictors (via similar
pathways) of weekly drinking.
Although the present results fail to support the proposed model, they are nevertheless fairly consistent
with the stressor vulnerability model proposed by Cooper et al. (1992). Specifically, in keeping with Cooper
et al.’s (1992) results, the present findings indicate that stress does not directly induce drinking, and that
another vulnerability factor must coexist with stress for drinking to occur. However, there is some apparent
discrepancy with respect to the specifics of these additional vulnerability factors, particularly concerning the
subtypes of coping mechanisms which affect stress-related drinking. Whereas Cooper et al. (1992) found
that individuals who were high in avoidance coping tended to drink more in response to stress, the present
study found that drinking to cope was the primary coping mechanism which moderated stress-related
drinking. In addition, the present study also found that the moderating influence of expectancies was not
limited to positive expectancies, as suggested by Cooper et al. (1992). Instead, the negative expectancy for
risk and aggression appears to act in concert with the positive expectancy of tension reduction to moderate
It is important to note that many of the discrepancies between the present findings and the findings of
Cooper et al. (1992) are possibly due to significant differences in the measurement instruments employed.
First, with regards to the dependent measure, alcohol consumption, the criterion used to define one standard
drink in the Cooper et al. (1992) study required significantly smaller amounts of alcohol than did the present
study (i.e., 1 oz. versus 1.5 oz. of hard liquor, or 4 oz. versus 5 oz. of wine). Therefore, it is possible that by
utilizing stricter alcohol consumption criteria in the present study, certain findings that were found to be
significant in the Cooper et al. (1992) study were not significant here. Second, with regards to the
measurement of expectancies, the Cooper et al. (1992) study measured only positive expectancies. By
contrast, the present study measured both positive and negative expectancies, and it was found that both
are important in stress-related drinking. Third, with respect to coping, the present study elaborated on the
three coping styles used in Cooper et al. (1992) by adding a fourth category, drinking to cope. This
coping style proved to be a superior predictor of stress-related drinking than any of the other coping
dispositions. Finally, with respect to the measurement of stress, the Cooper et al. (1992) study used a
life events scale to measure stress. This measure of stress is inferior to the perceived stress scale, because
it only measures the objective occurrence of events, and not the subjective interpretation of whether the
individual perceives these events to be stressful (Cohen et al., 1983). As such, the discrepancy between the
overall results obtained in the present study and that reported by Cooper et al. (1992) may be due, in part, to
the fact that differing constructs were investigated.
Two limitations of the present study should be noted. The first and possibly most significant limitation is
the relatively small sample size of the study. This limitation precluded more in-depth statistical analysis,
particularly with respect to analyzing interactions. For instance, even though Figure 2 provides the
impression that drinking to cope plays a mediating role in stress-related drinking, this conclusion remains
invalid without the possibility of analyzing how drinking to cope interacts with gender and problem-focused
coping. Second, the present study examined a homogeneous college sample with respect to age, social
class, education, and race. This limits the generalizability of the findings.
Several issues are raised by the present findings that could be addressed in future research. Perhaps most
importantly, there is a need to determine which instruments provide the most accurate measurement of the
constructs in question. This would create a standard set of instruments that could be universally applied in
future investigations. Further investigation of negative expectancies would also be useful given the
import of the expectancy for risk and aggression in the present data. Similarly, the linkages among the
determinants in this model could be further clarified by examining the potential mediating role of drinking to
cope. Ultimately, to elucidate the nature of stress-related drinking, other potential moderators (i.e., income,
race, religion ) must also be investigated to provide a more stringent test of the stressor vulnerability model.
In conclusion, these results indicate that the stressor vulnerability model of stress-related drinking as
suggested by Cooper et al. (1992) is somewhat imprecise. A more refined model must pay closer attention
to the influence of drinking to cope and negative expectancies.
Abrams, D. B., & Niaura, R. S. (1987). Social learning theory. In H. T. Blane, & K. E. Leonard (Eds.). Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism (pp. 131-178). New York: Guilford Press.
Abrams, D. B., & Wilson, G. T. (1979). Effects of alcohol on social anxiety in women: Cognitive versus physiological arousal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 161-173.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Brown, S. A. (1985a). Context of drinking and reinforcement from alcohol: Alcoholic patterns. Addictive Behaviors, 10, 191-196.
Brown, S. A. (1993). Drug effect expectancies and addictive behavior change. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1, 55-67.
Brown, S. A., Goldman, M. S., Inn, A., & Anderson, L. R. (1980). Expectations of reinforcement from alcohol: Their domain and relations to drinking patterns. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 419-426.
Cahalan, D., Cisin, I. H., & Crossley, H. M. (1969). American drinking practices: A national study of drinking behaviors and attitudes. New Brunswick, NJ: College and University Press and New Haven, CT: Publications Division, Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies.
Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267-283.
Christiansen, B. A., Goldman, M. S., & Inn, A. (1982). Development of alcohol-related expectancies in adolescents: Separating pharmacological from social-learning influences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 336-344.
Christiansen, B. A., & Goldman, M. S. (1983). Alcohol related expectancies versus demographic/ background variables in the prediction of adolescent drinking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 249-257.
Christiansen, B. A., Goldman, M. S., & Brown, S. A. (1985). The differential development of adolescent alcohol expectancies may predict adult alcoholism. Addictive Behaviors, 10, 299-306.
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396.
Conger, J. J. (1956). Alcoholism: Theory, problem and challenge. II. Reinforcement theory and the dynamics of alcoholism. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 13, 296-305.
Conway, T. L., Vickers, R. R., Ward, H. W., & Rahe, R. H. (1981). Occupational stress and variation in cigarette, coffee, and alcohol consumption. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 155-165.
Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., & George, W. H. (1988). Coping, expectancies and alcohol abuse: A test of social learning formulations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 218-230.
Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., Skinner, J. B., Frone, M. R., & Mudar, P. (1992). Stress and alcohol use: Moderating effects of gender, coping, and alcohol expectancies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 139-152.
Cotton, N. S. (1979). The familial incidence of alcoholism: A review. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 40, 89-116.
Dawson, D. A., & Archer, L. (1992). Gender differences in alcohol consumption: Effects of measurement. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 119-123.
Fromme, K., Stroot, E., Kaplan, D. (1993). Comprehensive effects of alcohol: Developmental and psychometric assessment of a new expectancy questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 5, 19-26.
Dohrenwend, B. P., & Dohrenwend, B. S. (1976). Sex differences in psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Sociology, 81, 1447-1454.
Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behaviors, 21, 219-239.
Goldman, M. S., Brown, S. A., & Christiansen, B. A. (1987). Expectancy theory: Thinking about drinking. In H. T. Blane, & K. E. Leonard (Eds.). Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism (pp. 181-226). New York: Guilford Press.
Goodwin, D. W. (1988). Is Alcoholism Hereditary (Second edition). New York: Balantine Books.
Higgins, R. L., & Marlatt, G. A. (1975). Fear of interpersonal evaluation as a determinant of alcohol consumption in male social drinkers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 644-651.
Hill, E. M., Nord, J. L., & Blow, F. C. (1992). Young-adult children of alcoholic parents: Protective effects of positive family functioning. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 1677-1690.
Hilton, M. E. (1988). Trends in US drinking patterns: Further evidence from the past 20 years. British Journal of Addiction, 83, 269-278.
Horwitz, A. V., & White, H. R. (1987). Gender role orientations and styles of pathology among adolescents. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 158-170.
Hull, J. G., & Young, R. D. (1983). Self-consciousness, self-esteem, and success-failure as determinants of alcohol consumption in male social drinkers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1097-1109.
Marlatt, G. A., & Gordon, J. R. (1979). Determinants of relapse: Implications for the maintenance of behavior change. In P. Davidson (Ed.). Behavioral medicine: Changing health lifestyles. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Marlatt, G. A., Kosturn, C. F., & Lang, A. R. (1975). Provocation to anger and opportunity for retaliation as determinants of alcohol consumption in social drinkers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 652-659.
Marlatt, G. A, & Rohsenow, D. J. (1980). Cognitive processes in alcohol use: Expectancy and the balanced placebo design. In N. K. Mello (Ed.). Advances in Substance Abuse: Behavioral and biological research, Vol. 1. Greenwich: JAI Press.
Mayfield, D. J. (1968). Psychopharmacology of alcohol: Affective change with intoxication, drinking behavior and affective state. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 146, 314-320.
McKirnan, D. J., & Peterson, P. L. (1988). Stress, expectancies, and vulnerability to substance abuse: A test of a model among homosexual men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 461-466.
Miller, P. Smith, G., & Goldman, M. (1990). Emergence of alcohol expectancies in childhood: A possible critical period. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 51, 343-349.
Moos, R. H., Finney, J. W., & Chan, D. A. (1981). The process of recovery from alcoholism. I. Comparing alcoholic patients and matched community controls. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 42, 383-402.
Moos, R. H., Finney, J. W., & Gamble, W. (1982). The process of recovery from alcoholism. II. Comparing spouses of alcoholic patients and matched community controls. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 888-909.
Mendelson, J. H., Ladou, J., & Soloman, P. (1964). Experimentally induced chronic intoxication and withdrawal in alcoholics. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Supplement No. 2, 40-53.
Mullford, H. A., & Miller, D. E. (1963). Preoccupation with alcohol and definitions of alcohol: A replication study of two cumulative scales. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 24, 682-696.
Ohannessian, C. M., & Hesselbrock, V. M. (1993). The influence of perceived social support on the relationship between family history of alcoholism and drinking behaviors. Addiction, 88, 1651-1658.
Polich, J. M., & Orvis, B. R. (1979). Alcohol Problems: Patterns and Prevalence in the U.S. Air Force (Rep. No. R-2308-AF). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
Rohsenow, D. J. (1983). Drinking habits and expectancies about alcohol’s effects for self versus others. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 752-756.
Sher, K. J., & Descutner, C. (1986). Reports of paternal alcoholism: Reliability across siblings. Journal of Addictive Behaviors, 11, 25-30.
Sutker, P. B., Allain, A. N., Brantly, P., & Randall, C. (1982). Acute alcohol intoxication, negative affect, and autonomic arousal in women and men. Addictive Behaviors, 7, 17-25.
Welte, J. W. (1985). Alcohol use and trait anxiety in the general population. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 15, 105-109.
Wilson, G. T., & Abrams, D. (1977). Effects of alcohol on social anxiety and physiological arousal: Cognitive versus pharmacological processes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 195-210.
1 Note that a moderating variable affects “the direction and/or strength of the relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable”. Whereas a mediating variable “accounts for the relation
between the independent and dependent variable”. Thus while “moderator variables specify when certain effects will hold, mediators speak to how or why such effects occur” (Baron & Kenny, 1986; P. 1174 & P. 1176).