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Various Important Parts Of History Essay, Research Paper

Baron de Montesquieu- A Frenchnoble author who published and wrote The Spirit of the Laws. He was the man who led most of the beliefs that were later transformed into the Constitution. He helped start checks and balances. 1689-1755

Francois Voltaire- The French author known for such works as Candide and many other novels. He is the only philisoph to succesfully make the enlightenment popular among the masses. He was imprisoned twice and expelled from France multiple times for his antimonarchist views. 1694- 1778

Denis Diderot- Like Voltaire, a French author who helped lead the enlightenment. He wrote many plays, books, and poetry. He is most well known for having written the first encyclopedia. 1713-1784

Adam Smith- The author of The Wealth of Nations, Smith was a pioneer of capitalism and encouraged free market and trade. He also heavily supported mercantillism. He helped spark economic growth in England and acrossed Europe. 1723-1790

Wolfgang Mozart- An Austrian composer who wrote music for the monarchs of the time.Although deaf, he is known as one of the greatest composers of all time. However, he died as a poor man leaving no money to his name. 1756- 1791

King George III- An English monarch who helped lead the way to American revolution in the new land. He gave the colonists few rights and imposed many taxes and tariffs. When he died he left the heir to one to carry on his ways. 1738- 1820

Ben Franklin- An American writer, politician, inventer, and scientist. He helped prove that there is electricity in lightening. He also helped draft the declaration of independence. He also served as an ambassador to France. 1706-1790

The Declaration of Independence- The document created by Thomas Jefferson and signed by delegates from the 13 colonies. It delared the Americas seperation from Great Britain sparking the revolutionary war. 1776

The Constitution of The United States of America- The document created after the Revolutionary war that allowed all americans to have many rights that apply today. It set the laws for the country that would be are still followed. The Bill of Rights was later added to give states and people more rights. 1789

The Ancient regime- The ruling monarchy of France before the revolution of 1789. The three regents and five generations casted a new light on the old society. Its’ end showed great change to come in the future. 1600-1789

Abbe de Sieyes- A French clergyman who helped with the French Revolution. He was on the court and helped elect Napolean and led to the killing of the king. He was later elected to the estates-general. He also helped write the rights of man and the constitution of 1791. He lived through the reign of terror after taking refuge in Brussels. 1748-1836

The Tennis Court Oath- An oath taken by the third estate and some of the first estate saying that they would reamin on the tennis courts at Versailles until they were guaranteed a constitution of France. Their wish was finally granted. 1791

July 14, 1789- The day when the storming of bastille occured. many falsely imprisoned men and women rose up and broke out of the bastille prison in France. They helped spark the Revolution of 1789. Many of the guards took the prisoners side. July 14, 1789

The women’s march- The women of the third estate marched to Versailles to drive Louis XVI, the current King of France back to Pa.ris so that he could be kept in check by the Paris mob. It also showed the king the horros of monarchy and led to his death and the revolution. XVI. 1789

Louis XVI- Married to Marie Antoinette, he was the king of France during the French Revolution. He imposed absolute monarchy and was killed by the Paris mob. He angered many French citizens and helped increase the numbers of people who wished for the monarchy to fall and a constitution to be put in its’ place. 1774-1792

Marie Antoinette- The wife of Louis XVI she contributed to theanger instilled in the French citizens about the monarchy, she was later guillotined with her husband at her side. The French Revolution came as a result of her reign along with her husbands’. 1755-1793

Maximillian Robspiere- The leader and founder of the Jocobin club. He was a rich man who wanted the death of the king and of the monarchy. It was unique of the time for one of such high esteem and rank in society to wish for change but he broke the rule and swayed many others. 1758- 1794

Napolean Bonaparte- The French leader who took over after the French Revolution. Napolean was unique because he led a nation that hated everything having to do with a monarchy and yet he in some ways ran one, but the people loved him. He conquered much of Europe and claimed it for France until his defeats in Russia and finally hi final undoing at Waterloo. 1808-1873

The Congress of Vienna- A group of European countries met in Vienna after the French revolution with the goal of stopping all revolutions later, and to qiuickly extinguish the French Revolution, its leaders, and followers. The wished to restore a monarchy in France and throughout Europe because they were afraid of losing their own reign if a revolution developed in their own country. 1814-1815

Prince Clemons von Metternich- He was an Austrian statesmen. He became foreign minister in1809 and secured a temporary alliance with France. Later he developed a policy of substituting Austrian and French monarchy and Austria joined the quadruple alliance. 1773-1859

The New agricultural revolution- The agricultural revolution in Britain helped spark economic revolutions around the world later on. In this revolution machines took the place of humans and food was mass produced. The corn laws also contributed to this.It helped cause the mass movement of people to major cities. 1700- 1916

The Industrial Revolution- The factories acrossed Europe began to mass produce goods using new, faster and cheaper methods of production. It used new inventions and the use of children whom were payed very low wages for very large amounts of work. 1750- 1916

The Steam Engine- James Watt invented the steam engine which allowed travel in the middle of Africa as well as the qucik trancportation of people and goods very quickly and very inexpensively. 1769

Urbanization- The movement of people from rural towns to large cities in order to find work which was taken as a result of the industrial revolution.1700-present.

The middle class- The group of people who do not have an abundance of wealth but are not considered poor.During the time of the french revolution, the middle class was the group that dominated the forces against the King and his powers. 1789

Thomas Malthus- An English economist who wrote the essay on principles of population. He stated that the population would grow faster than the food supply and unless new methods of food production were devised many people would die of starvation and thirst do to lack of nutritional foods.1766-1831

Utilitarianism- The idea that the goal of a society should be to create as much happiness for everyone in that society as can be done. It is and idea demonstrated in the novel Utopia. All time

Socialism- The idea that all the wealth property, and businesses should belong to the people as a whole not to certain people controling and monopolising all the wealth and business in a country. This is demonstrated in communism, an ideal socialistic society is impossible however because people no longer have a reason to work.

Karl Marx- A german social philosopher and revolutonary. He is known for having written comunist manifsto which describes the nature of communism and a communistic government. 1818- 1883

Universal Manhood Sufferage- The idea that all men are equal and should be able to vote and have a fair input. This right has been debated, granted and revoked for much of recorded time.

The Revolutions of 1848- The result of the entroduction of deduction to the people of england, they realized what kind of a world they were living in and demanded change, it was eventually granted preventing further revolutions.

Simon Bolivar- A wealthy latin american creol who later traveled to Europe and helpedshowed the struggles of the land owneers of spain, france, and latin americs, he helped start new philosophies in France after the reign of Napolean. 1809-1858

Womens sufferage- The right for women to vote. Women who make up over fifty percent of the US pooulation were granted the right to vote and drasticaly changed politics in many ways.

Charles Lyell- The author of Principles of Geology, Lyell assisted Jsmes Hutton and Charles Darwin in successfully showing their theories of science and species.

Charles Darwin- Author of Theory on the origin of species, Darwin tried to proove his theory of evolution in that animal evolve into other animals or die out rather thanspecies staying the same through time. He also proved theories of natural selection and his worked was later used to create the theory of survival of the fittest.

Romanticism- Te theory of style and art that appealed to emotion and feeling rather than reason and techniques. It allowed many of the most famous peices of artwork to be created by artists of the time.

Impressionism- The theory of of style of art in which an artist tries to capture visual images on canvas. It along with romanticism created some of the greatest aretists and artwork ever.

Otto Van Bismark- A Prussian leaderimpossed the idea of Prussian rule over all of Germany. He was loved in his country and despised in GErmany for these views. He was an imprtant leader in 1848 whenthe liberals met at the Frankfurt assemply and discussed German unity.

The Franco- Prussian War- The result of a PRussian victory over the French army.Napolean feared invasion by Prussia after his armies defaeat so he declard war in order to ensure Frances safety.

Guiseppe Garibaldi- An Italian patriot who led rebelions against many governments around the world that he did not agreee with. He had thousands of followers, ready to kill for him.

Alexander I, II, and III- Three consecutive czrs of Russia, They expanded the Russian empire to around the size it is today. They were able to fight off many peoples who tried to invade Russia inclduing the Mongols.

The Reform Bill of 1832- A bill which provided some of the demands of revolutionists in England and put England in a state of supremness over other European countries which would later fall to further revolutions due to inadequate laws/.

Captain Alfraid Dreyfus- French leader of the French navy for many years. He played a pivitol role in all wars in which navy was needed.

Imperialism- The domination of one country over one or a group of others. One group would dominat in every aspect of life including, culture, politics, econonomy, and even more.

The Partition of Africa- After the steam engine was invented, travel into Africa was a possibility, there was a rush to Africa by many powerful European nations to claim land. The way this land was claimed and divided up by, France, Britain, The Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal was called the partition of AFrica.

The Mejji restoration- The reinstatement of the powerful Mejj dynasty.

Sun Yixan-ounder and early leader of China’s Nationalist Party, born in Xiang-shan, Guangdong, China. He was educated in Hawaii and in Hong Kong, where he trained as a doctor. Alarmed by the weakness and decay of his country, he founded the Society for the Revival of China, and sprang to fame when, on a visit to London, he was kidnapped by the Chinese legation and released through the intervention of the Foreign Office.

The Spanish American War- A war between the United States, Spain, and Mexico. It made Texas a free US state after the battle of the alamo.


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