Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
Japanese media overview
Physically, the mass media in Japan are quite similar to those in any developed nation, although perhaps somewhat more advanced. In organizational structure, however, Japanese media are unique. Individual elements of the Japanese media mix may resemble counterparts in other nations, but the combination is purely Japanese.
The primary characteristics of Japanese mass media are the influence of the national daily newspapers and the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (Nihon Hoso Kyokai, or NHK) and the relative lack of localism.
The importance of newspapers
Japanese media are dominated by five national daily newspapers. The Asahi, Mainichi, Nihon Keizai, Sankei and Yomiuri Shimbun (newspaper) all publish both a morning and an evening edition, with total circulation of more than 40 million copies per day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 53). Of the world s ten highest daily circulation newspapers, the top three are Japanese, with the fourth highest having a circulation of just over one-third of the circulation of the Yomiuri Shimbun (The United States is not represented in this list) (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 54). It is not surprising that Japan has the highest ratio of newspapers to people in the world, with 578 copies per day for every 1000 people (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 52).
Local newspapers are smaller than the nationals, and many are published only once or twice a week, even in cities with populations above 100,000. However, the national newspapers all have regional sections.
The national daily newspapers are also involved in other media. All of the commercial television networks are either affiliated with or owned by a national newspaper (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 115). They are also heavily involved in radio broadcasting, although their presence is less influential.
Japanese book and magazine readership are also quite impressive. In addition, Japan has a thriving comic book, or manga, industry. Japanese comic books are for all ages and all types of people. One can see people reading manga in restaurants, coffee shops, trains, buses, even schools and offices. Sales of manga for 1984 totaled 297 billion yen (US$ 1.2 billion), although this figure does not include any of the income from manga-related products (Schodt, 1986, p. 138).
Nature of television broadcasting
There are five major commercial and two public television networks in Japan. The public networks, Nippon Hoso Kyokai (NHK) general and education, are funded by annual license fees paid for every television set in the country. Although NHK is an independent entity, it enjoys a close and favored relationship with the government. NHK is modeled after the British Broadcasting Corporation in many ways. NHK also oversees radio networks, including shortwave broadcasts. In addition, NHK runs a publishing arm that prints workbooks that accompany its educational programs and guidebooks that provide additional insight into its historical dramas.
On average, Japanese citizens watch over three hours of television per day. The average Japanese television set is turned on for eight hours and eight minutes per day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 105). 54.9 percent of Japanese citizens surveyed by NHK (1995) watch at least three hours of television per day on average. Generally speaking, Japan is a heavy television viewing nation.
Local broadcasting is relatively uncommon in Japan. With a population approaching 200 million, there are barely more than 100 local affiliates of national television networks, with these local affiliates carrying the network schedule for 70 to 90 percent of the broadcast day (Cooper-Chen, 1997, p. 113). Large cities, such as Tokyo and Osaka, certainly get a great amount of local broadcasting, whereas a city of more than 250,000 (Mito…
The rest of the
paper is available free of charge to our registered users. The
registration process just couldn’t be easier.
Log in or register now. It is all free!
- Gun Control: Overview Essay, Research Paper Gun Control: Overview The issue of gun ... defenseless. The NRA has made sure that this will never ... the S 1815 a bill that made the government pay people for ... . Ideally I would become the Japanese as far as gun control ...
- Ecojagg Essay, Research Paper Japan Postwar Expansion – This paper briefly describes ... War II. IntroductionI. Economic Overview A. Postwar GNP Levels B. ... famous press conference with japanese reporters and later ... industrial complexes that made the most of ...
- Kobe Earthquake Essay, Research Paper The January 17, ... reports from the Japanese Earthquake Research Institute indicate that the ... bu28b-60.jpg Left: Overview of the Ashiyama Seaside ... Kobe Earthquake. A common Japanese method of constructing steel moment-frame ...
- ... Plan Essay, Research Paper Table of Contents Mission Statement Company Objectives Company Overview 1. ... Vacuum CleanersGerman, Korean, Japanese; DryersU.S., Japanese, Korean. . Japanese, Korean and German ... into the Japanese lifestyle and also to meet the ...
- International Financial Markets Essay, Research Paper Contents Introduction ... Markets provides a general overview of the International Financial ... another, for example, Japanese warrants issued in Yen ... . In order to meet these objectives, institutions ...