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WEST AS A LAND OF CONQUEST. ?

Citing the Sioux as the example, explain the conquest of the Natives. When did the conflicts occur and where did they occur? What were the Anglo American objectives and what were the Means? What was the outcome?

? As you stated that most all of the Plains Indians were tough?s fighters, but the tribes that became the most powerful were the Comanche?s in the South the Sioux in the North.

? 1860 Indian sovereignty had been responsible for the government?s efforts to erect t permanent barrier or buffers between the tribes and the Anglo culture. West of the bend of the northern bend Missouri River would constitute a permanent Indian country. Treaties never withstood other pressure of white interest in the lands occupied by the Indians and that pattern was true in this case as well.

? 1850 each tribe was granted a large area of land under a policy called concentration.

? 1851 each tribe revived its own defined reservation, confirmed by separate treaties duly ratified by US Senate. (Which did not survive for very long because it favored whites who wanted access to land, and it divided the Indians and kept them for negotiation in their common interest.)

? New policy. Recommended two large reservations would be established. South, Indian Territory (Oklahoma) was established and in the north, the Dakotas all the way to the Powder River in Montana was established, which failed.

? Corruption and incompetence in the Bureau of Indian Affairs was a major problem.

? 1850s until the late 1890 there was nearly incessant warfare on the plains. (A small band of Indians would attack whites that had encroached into Indian Territory). Little Crow, the Santee killed more than 700 white before they were subdue by the Army in retaliation after the US Army encroachment by the whites in 1860.

? 1864 fighting between whites and Indians broke out in eastern Colorado and led to one the most despicable event s in the annals of Anglo-Indian conflict.

? Gold was discovered in Cherry Creek in what is now Denver.

? Natives were assigned to lands in eastern Colorado between the Platte and Arkansas Rivers.

? Retaliate again in rejecting this treatment to recover their lost territory. Which lead to John Chivington attack this camp without warning when all the Indians who did not want to fight went the army camps where they would be protected. November 28,1864.

? Black Kettle managed to escape to the south. Four years later he and his people ware attacked by the US Army at the Wa*censored*a Rive on the Texas-Oklahoma border.

? Ogallala Sioux led by Red Cloud from 1865-1867, Red Cloud?s warriors harassed soldier and construction crews sent to build three forts along the proposed road.

? Head of the fighting occurred in December 1866 when a wood train was assaulted near Ft. Kearney. Apt. W.J. Feterman and 100 troopers was Killed Tues. 29 of Feb. by Crazy Horse in a decoyed. Whites vigilante a groups made killing Indian a sport.

? 1867 Meducube Lodge Treaty of 1867 provided for individual reservations for the southern tribes.

? Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne agreed to reservations in the Western Indian Territory.

o Laramie Treaty of 1868 gave the Sioux and northern tribes a reservation west o the Missouri River.

o 1874 Red River War of 1874 after this treaty was rejected 3,000 troops sent to area.

o June 1875 Southern Plains with the Natives forced onto the detested reservations.

o A major fight occurred at the Big hole Rive but the Indians were able to Bitterroot Valley were able to keep going. Later they turned east into Yellowstone National park (which was established five years earlier) to try to meet up with the rows.

o Reject by the Crows, the Nez perce turned north and headed for Canada where they hoped to meet up with Sitting Bull?s Sioux.

o They never made it twenty miles south of the Canadian border. They surrendered on October 5.

o 1860?s until 1872 when great Cochise agreed a treaty.

o Geronimo became the chief two years later, he rejected the treaty.

o 1871 the Apache war had been the most violent of all Indian conflict. Both sides committed atrocities on an unprecedented scale.

o Final 19th century fight took place in South Dakota. 1880s dispirited and sometimes starving Sioux had learned of a religious movement in Nevada started by Novoka, Ute medicine man.

o Ghost Dance which visions. Fears of the white that a violence

o Sitting Bull police attempted to an arrest him, a fight broke out and he was killed in December 1890.

o Big Foot, attempted to take his people from their reservation on the Cheyenne River to the Pine Ridge Reservation.

o December 29 army surrounded 7th Calvary, Custer old unit. 40 soldiers died in the shooting, but more than 300 Indians, including men and women, were slaughtered. This was the last fight of the century, and the final defeat of the Native American

o

. 2 Explain the conquest of the mountains. How did the pursuit of mineral wealth represent an assault on nature? When did it occur? What was the pattern?

It is call the ages of GREED!

? Gold and Silver Rushes with in the mountain states of the contiguous forty eight states talk place in a relatively brief time, from 1859 until the 1870s

? 1859 the first gold rust into the Rockies took place in Colorado.

? A year later, gold was discovered in the Clearwater River area of Idaho and thousands of prospector s invaded the area pushing aside both Nez Perce who occupied this area.

? Short time later, gold drew thousands to the Boise Basin of the Snake River.

1862, gold was discovered in southern Montana at Banner and Alder Gulch, shortly followed by strikes in last Chance Gulch (Helena) and Butte

Assault on Natives, railroad construction, mining, cattle herding, and farming all took place. Each of these economic activities would cause major changes in the region.

By 1870s New Mexico and Arizona experienced what the other areas had undergone. The Black Hills, although not part of the Rock Mountains, per se, underwent gold rush in the mid 1870 the Hills become a series of boomtowns, most notably Deadwood.

? Montana?s history, Butte became the largest and most influential city in the state for most of its history. The mining frontier was an urban oriented frontier because the individual miner either placer or corporate?was not self sufficient.

? ASSAULT ON NATURE

? From 2960,890, miners produced $ 1,241,827,032 of gold and $901,160,660 of silver. Which does not included the value of copper and other semi-precious metals that were added to the economy. Mining had one of the most destructive impacts on nature of any human activity. . The environmental costs of mining have been extraordinarily expensive.

? Individuals or partner working a st5reamordigging into a hill with had tools in order to extract the mineral wealth that had been reported.

? Hydraulic mining ort he use of high pressure watedr canon.

? Basin of the Snake River.

? 1862, gold was discovered in southern Montana at Banner and Alder Gulch, shortly followed by strikes in last Chance Gulch (Helena) and Butte.

?


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