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Chinese Immigration Into America Essay, Research Paper

Chinese Immigration into America

Surprisingly, Asian Americans have been in America for over 150 years.

They are as diverse as the immigrants from Europe, ranging from China, Japan,

Korea, Cambodia, Korea, Philippines, India, Vietnam, and Laos. (Takaki, page 8)

When many people think of American Immigrants, Asians are on the last of their

lists. In The Uprooted, Harvard historian, Oscar Handlin, prize winning book

with the subtitle “the Epic Story of the Great Migrations that Made the American

People,” completely left out the “uprooted” from the lands across the Pacific

Ocean. (Takaki, page 10) This paper will give some information pertaining to

the Chinese immigration into America.

China is one of the world’s oldest civilizations. It influence have

reverberated throughout Asia. It’s presence is felt in many of the surrounding

cultures. The Chinese people have tried to keep their society pure from

outside sources. When foreigners entered their homeland and poisoned the

population with drugs, the culture could not stop the imminent alteration of

their ways. China was weakened severely and was taken advantage of by many

countries.

Chinese came to America for a myriad of reasons. The main reason was

because of the myth of the Gam Saan (”Golden Mountain.”) Other reasons were

due to overpopulation, poverty, hunger, flooding, high taxes, bad economy,

collapsing government, and crop failure. (Takaki, page 38) James Marshall

discovery of gold in California in 1848 prompted many Chinese to take a sojourn

into America to get rich quick. A young man in Canton wrote to his brother in

Boston saying, “good many Americans speak of California, Oh! Very rich

country! O hear good many Americans and Europeans go there very much. I think

I shall go to California next summer.” Stories like these built up this dream

of the “Golden Mountain.” The plan for most Chinese was to make their

fortune, and return home to their family. The dream of getting rich quick has

been around for ages. Due to this, a trickle of immigrants turned into a deluge.

The whole thing began in 1835. William Hooper, a young man from Boston,

visited a sugar mill in Hawaii. He became determined to start the first sugar

plantation in Hawaii. Without a large supply of laborers, Hooper hired

“Chinamen” to aid in the success of the plantation. From this humble beginning,

sugar grew into a large industry that would need a steady supply of laborers.

(Takaki, page 22) In 1848, after a war with Mexico, the United States obtained

a region known as California. Finding Californina to be a commercial and

agricultural center, it became America’s gateway to Asia. (Takaki, page 20)

With the large fertile lands of California, workers were needed to help reap the

profits that would flow in. Aaron H. Palmer, a government official, stated, “No

people in all the East are so well adapted for the clearing wild lands and

raising every species of agricultural product as the Chinese.” (Takaki, page

21)

In 1833, the British Empire abolished the practice of slavery.

Plantation owners desperate for field labor made use of coolies. Coolies were

basically Chinese that signed labor contracts and were held in virtual slavery.

They were ensnared by brokers into this system by debts, clan war prisoners, or

kidnapping. (Melendy, page 13) Like the African slave trade, this method

flourished over Asia and had high mortality rates due to cramped quarters and

malnourishment. It was referred to as the “buying and selling of pigs.”

(Melendy, page 13) Hawaii made use of this practice in order to fulfill the

great demand of the booming sugar industry. In 1962, the United States congress

prohibited American citizens in American vessels from engaging in such

activities. However, the laws were easily evaded, and not strictly enforced.

American Business man knew they needed a labor force. This gave way to

the “unnumbered millions” of workers in Asia. (Takaki, page 28) In an 1869

magazine article called “Our Manufacturing Era,” a writer named Henry Robinson

described California’s enormous economic potential. He stated that, “If Chinese

labor could be used to develop the industries of California, it would be the

height of folly to forbid its entrance to the Golden Gate.” (Takaki, page 28)

There was a constant demand for Asian labor all across the Pacific Coast,

because they were cheaper, and generally harder working. Robinson claims that,

“?even a lowly job in America would be a step up for an Asian, who would do work

that whites had “out grown.” Factories owners, bankers, investors, and other

leaders of American industry used the Chinese workers to keep wages down.

(Takaki, page 30) Chinese workers would work for cheaper wages, and would

prevent strikes for higher wages from white workers. This naturally led to a

build up of animosity among the groups which then led to Racial antagonism.

Toward the end of the 19th century, many whites felt that there were too

many Chinese in the United States. Congress acted by passing the Chinese

Exclusion Act in 1882 which banned the immigration of Chinese into America. As

the number of Chinese immigrants increased, the anti-Chinese forces began to

arise. The Chinese provided a cheap form of labor. Frank M. Pixley, editor of

the San Fransisco Argonaut, said that “? the Chinese are so successful as

workers that they were driving away white labor.” (Melendy, page 18) Racism

built up due to cultural and economic fears. The Chinese did not try to

amalgamate with the dominant culture. Frank Pixley sums up the Pacific Coast

prejudice, a view still held in the mid twentieth century: “The burden of our

accusation against them is that they come in conflict with our labor interests;

that they can never assimilate with usl that they are a perpetual, unchanging,

and unchangeable alien element that can never be homogeneous; that their

civilization is demoralizing and degrading to out people; that they degrade and

dishonor labor class, without the desire of citizenship, without education, and

without intereset in the country it inhabits, is an element both demoralizing

and dangerous to the community within which it exists.” (Melendy, page 28)

The Chinese were discriminated in many ways, from forming laws that

specifically targeted them, to disallowing citizenship of the Chinese. In late

1860’s, violence started to arise from the hate. Whites rioted and killed many

Chinese in towns all over California. In May, 1876 some whites burned a Chinese

house in Truckee and then shot the Chinese as they tried to escape. Although

the town claimed to be outraged, those arrested were acquitted at the trial.

(Melendy, page 38) Examples like this show the inequalities of the legal system

at that time period. Dennis Kearney, leader of the Workingman’s Party in

California, said in a speech, “We will drive out the Chinese if we have to

destroy the whole state of California.” Anti-Chinese riots broke out all across

the West, driving out the Chinese by all means. In the 1885-86 riots, the

Chinese had suffered a loss of more than 50 lives, and $250,000,000. (Melendy,

page 40)

What has all this accomplished? Well, Asian Americans belong to the

fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. Kept out by immigration laws

in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Asians have recently been coming again.

In the early 1990’s, half of all immigrants entering annually are Asian. In

1960, Asians compromised a mere 0.5% of the population. By the year 2000, Asian

Americans will make up 4% of the total population of the United States. In

California already, Asian Americans represent 10% of the states total

population. (Takaki, page 9)

Through the backbreaking labor of the Asian ancestors, the success of

America was goaded. The Asians have made many cultural contributions to America.

Chinese food is common place throughout the nation, it can even be purchased

at any local supermarket. Chinese art, such as chinaware or “china”, is revered

by many Americans. Even the name of the represents Americas debt. In addition,

many Chinese trinkets and artwork are prized possessions among the American

society.

The immigration of the Chinese into the United States has greatly

supplemented the cultural heritage of the nation. (Melendy, page i) “Asians

with their capacity for hard work in the face of economic and social adversity

and to advance economically, have created cultural microcosms form which their

children venture to become Americans.” (Melendy, page i) Unlike most European

immigrants, Asians tend to disprove the original Melting Pot theory of America.

The Asians, “? did not wish to amalgamate with the dominant society and most

certainly white Americans of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries made it

abundantly clear that they were opposed to Asian immigration and settlement.”

(Melendy, page i) The United States is a nation of immigrants. “All groups

have left their mark upon the country’s fabric. Their physical stamina and

intellectual abilities have enabled them to make their mark and to add

measurably to the American heritage.” (Melendy, page 182)

347


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