Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
только в названии
только в тексте
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
But a certain difference is found among ends (99). An example of this reflection would be the final product created by an architect....полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Chapter 7 was another important chapter in this book, it started off with Gatsby deciding to call off his parties, which he had held primarily to lure...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
The purpose of the RCNL is to assist law enforcement officials in apprehending sex offenders and enable communities to protect themselves from such of...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Adolph Hitler was born in the city of Austria and had one sister and two brothers. Hitler’s relationship to his father was not at all good his father ...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Candide: Optimism Essay, Research Paper

Candide is a humorous, far-fetched tale by Voltaire satirizing the optimism promoted by the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment. It is the story of a young man?s adventures throughout the world, where he witnesses evil and disaster. Throughout his travels, he adheres to the teachings of his tutor, Pangloss, believing that “all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds,” (Voltaire 4). Candide is Voltaire?s answer to what he saw as an absurd belief proposed by the Optimists. ?Candide?is a profound attack on philosophical Optimism and, through it, all philosophical systems that claim falsely to justify the presence of evil in the world,? (Mason 1). ?Candide anatomizes the world’s potential for disaster and examines the corresponding human capacity for optimism,? (Bell 1). Though he was by no means a pessimist, Voltaire refused to believe that what happens is always for the best.

The Age of Enlightenment is a term applied to a wide variety of ideas and advances in the fields of philosophy, science, and medicine. The main feature of Enlightenment philosophy is the belief that people can actively work to create a better world. ?It is customary to present Candide as the result of Voltaire’s reaction to Leibniz and Pope,?(Wade 1) two of the main philosophers of the enlightenment era. While Voltaire?s Candide is heavily characterized by the primary concerns of the Enlightenment, it also criticizes certain aspects of the movement. It attacks the idea of optimism, which states that rational thought can inhibit the evils perpetrated by human beings. Voltaire did not believe in the power of reason to overcome contemporary social conditions.

The attack on the claim that this is “the best of all possible worlds” is apparent throughout the entire novel. Throughout the story, satirical references to this theme contrast with natural disaster and human wrongdoing. When reunited with the diseased and dying Pangloss, who had contracted syphilis, Candide asks if the Devil is at fault. Pangloss simply responds that ?the disease was a necessity in this ?the best of all possible worlds?, for it was brought to Europe by Columbus? men, who also brought chocolate and cochineal, two greater goods that well offset any negative effects of the disease,?? (Voltaire 17). The multitudes of disasters, which Candide undergoes, leads to the abandonment of his belief in optimism. When asked “What?s optimism?” by Cacambo, Candide replies, “Alas?it is a mania for saying things are well when one is in hell,” (Voltaire 130).

Candide finally begins to be aware of the hopelessness of Pangloss? philosophy. Voltaire concludes Candide by having Candide discover the Turk?s truth to life – “?the work keeps us from three great evils, boredom, vice and need,” (Voltaire 148). Candide and his band of followers consider these words and decide that they “must cultivate their garden.” Even when the entire group has accepted the pastoral lifestyle, finding contentment, Pangloss the Optimist attempts to prove how all their prior misfortunes were parts of the necessary chain of events for them to reach happiness. Voltaire paints Pangloss as the true dolt of optimism, never realizing the errors of his own logic.

Candide eventually learns how to achieve happiness in the face of misadventure. He learns that in order to attain a state of contentment, one must be part of society where there is collective effort and work. Labor, Candide learns, eliminates the three curses of mankind: want, boredom, and vice. In order to create such a society, man must do the following: love his fellow man, be just, be vigilant, know how to make the best of a bad situation and keep from theorizing. Voltaire expresses this last requirement for such a society briefly when he says, “Let’s work without speculating; it’s the only way of rendering life bearable,” (Voltaire 77).

Even though a philosopher of the Enlightenment himself, Voltaire uses Candide as a platform to criticize the utter optimism of his fellows. His use of satire throughout the story has a serious purpose. Voltaire uses satire as a means of pointing out injustice, cruelty, and bigotry, and makes it seem intolerable to the reader. Voltaire always has a serious intention behind the laughter in Candide.

Works Cited Bell, Ian A. ?Candide: Overview.? Reference Guide to World Literature 2nd ed. (1995). 5 Nov. 2001 .

GaleNet. Literature Resource Center. 5 Nov. 2001 .

Mason, Hayden. ?Voltaire: Overview.? Reference Guide to World Literature 2nd ed. (1995). 5 Nov. 2001 .

Voltaire. Candide. 1759. Ed. Stanley Appelbaum. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1991.

Wade, Ira O. ?Voltaire?s Quarrel with Science.? Bucknell Review VIII.4 (1959): 287﷓298. 5 Nov. 2001 .

Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. Voltaire Essay Research Paper Candide is a

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Essay, Research Paper Candide is a reflection of the philosophical values of the Enlightenment. Voltaire?s novel is ... hint of optimism in Voltaire?s novel is when Cacambo and Candide stumble upon ...
  2. Candide 2 Essay Research Paper Voltaire s

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Candide 2 Essay, Research Paper Voltaire s Candide Optimism vs. Reality Thesis: The story of Candide deals with irrational ideas ... his story. Voltaire s Candide Optimism vs. Reality Voltaire’s Candide is a novel which contains many ...
  3. Candide Essay Research Paper Candide by Voltaire (1)

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Candide Essay, Research Paper Candide, by Voltaire Voltaire’s Candide is a novel which contains conceptual ideas ... main theme which is presented throughout the novel is optimism. Out of every ... the good in it. Candide learns that optimism is “The passion for ...
  4. Candide Philosophical Optimism Essay Research Paper Philosophical

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Candide Philosophical Optimism Essay, Research Paper Philosophical Optimism Life, death, and existence; ... understatement. The name Candide is synonymous with optimism. Pure and unbelievably na ... the entire novel. When Candide is reunited with the diseased and ...
  5. Candide 3 Essay Research Paper I am

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Candide 3 Essay, Research Paper I am not too familiar with ... that is to make fun of the philosophy of optimism. In Candide ... the book is to show you how unrealistic optimism is. There is much ... . My personal view of optimism is that it is very unrealistic. I see ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0012600421905518