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FASCISM

Fascism was a reaction against social and political changes broght about by World War I and the spread of socialism and communism. It developed in Italy and spread to other European countrys after 1919.

Italian fascism was founded on March 23, 1919 by Benito Mussolini. The early fascist program, which consisted of mostly war veterans who wore black shirts as part of their uniforms, was a mixture of left and right-winged ideas that emphasized intence nationalism, productivism, antisocialism, elitism, and the need for a strong leader. The number of people in the fascist party grew to over 300,000 members by 1921 due to the aid of Mussolinis speaking skills, the postwar economic crisis, a lack of cofidence in the political system, and the growing fear of socialism.

Fascism had a major impact on Italy as of post World War I. There was deep social and political crisis due to the war. Veterans, unemployed workers, a desperate lower class, and a frightend middle class all demanded changes. Mussolini and his crew of “Blackshirts” used shrewd political manuvering and widespread violence to gain an ever increasing number of supporters and followers. Violent attacks would be made on any who was opposed to Fascism.

In October of 1922 Mussolini and the “Blackshirts” made their “March on Rome” after 3 years of bloody violence throughout Italy and Mussolini was named Prime Minister of Italy by Victor Emmanuel III .

In the four years following this Mussolini had become a dictator. He destroyed civil liberties, outlawed all other political parties, and imposed a totalitarism regime on the country by means of terror and constitutional subversion. Public works projects, propaganda, militarism, and the appearance of order gave Mussolini considerable prestige.

Later on Italian fascism (which was closely realated to German Nazism) led Italy to join forces with Germany in World War II. After the war fascism was completely wiped out and a republic was built.


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