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Краткая грамматика английского языка

Е. А. Долгина


1.1. Definition

The noun as a part of speech has the general mean­ing of substance in the widest sense of the term. This is the main nominative class of words for they are used to name living beings (a man, a woman, a girl-friend, a bird, a dog), objects (a pen, a flower) and abstract no­tions, such as qualities (kindness, strength), states (fear, fight, sleep), processes (discussion, reading) viewed as substances.

The most characteristic formal feature of this class of words is the use of the article a specific word of 3 ty­pes — definite (the), indefinite (a(n)) and zero or the meaningful absence of the article, which determines or specifies nouns in the most general way: Anyone who knows a language knows what sounds are in the language. Experts disagree about the origins of language. (For details see Chapter II)

1.2. Morphological structure of nouns

According to their morphological structure nouns may be classified as 1) simple, 2) derivative, 3) compound.

Simple nouns are structurally simple in the sense that they are devoid of affixes — prefixes and suffixes and have only a root-stem. In other words they cannot be further

segmented: book, pen, bird, shirt, 'lamp, house, system, work, etc.

Derivative nouns derive from the root-stem of words which may belong to various parts of speech — nouns, adjectives, verbs. They are formed mainly with the help of numerous suffixes: writer, warmth, linguist, systematization. kingdom, childhood and so on. A great number of derivative nouns may contain prefixes which are traceable to verbs or adjectives and thus are typically verbal or adjectival prefixes, disagreement < disagree < agree, misunderstanding < misunderstand < understand, irres­ponsibility < irresponsible < responsible, impatience < impatient < patient.

The suffixes used in the noun-formation may be productive, i.e. most widely and regularly recurrent, and non-productive one that are characteristic of a limited number of words.

The most productive nounal suffix is -er (with its -or variant) which may theoretically be added to any verbal stem: doer, cleaner, gardener, singer, worker, conductor, inventor, distributor, etc.

Other productive suffixes of nouns are:

-ness: blackness, dullness, uselessness;

-ist: linguist, economist, typist;

-ism: nationalism, capitalism, dualism;

-ion/-ation/-ition: collection, creation, dictation, per­suasion, division/aspiration, consideration, recommenda-tion/acqisition. repetition, disposition.

The non-productive noun-forming suffixes are:

-ess: actress, heiress, waitress, lioness, tigress: -ian: mathematician, historian, librarian; -ure: picture, literature, nature, temperature;

-ant: assistant, attendant;

-ful: handful, spoonful;

-ie/-y: birdie, daddy, Jimmy;

-dom: boredom, freedom, kingdom:

-hood: childhood, brotherhood, motherhood:

-ship: friendship, relationship;

-ance/-ence: resistance, importance/decadence, de­pendence, difference;

-ment: agreement, announcement, statement;

-y/-ry: biology, geography, anatomy/chemistry, psy­chiatry;

-s: economics, linguistics, physics;

-ty/-ity: cruelty, difficulty/generosity, majority, visi­bility;

-th: length, strength, warmth.

Some prefixes rather typical of verbs or, more fre­quently of adjectives, especially negative ones, can still be found in nouns. They are as follows:

anti-: anticlimax, antimatter:

со-: coauthor; copilot, coeducation;

dis-: disagreement, disjuncture, disarmament:

ex-: ex-wife, ex-minister, ex-president;

il-: illegality, illiberality, illiteracy;

in-: indecency, incompatibility, indecorousness;

im-: impracticality, impregnability, impropriety;

ir-: irresponsibility, irresolution, irritability;

mis-: misunderstanding, misfortune, miscalculation, misuse;

поп-: non-smoker, non-event, non-story, non-cha­racter;

un-: unpleasantness, unreality, unruliness.

Compound nouns may be of 2 types. Nouns of the first type are made up of two or more stems — nounal, adjectival, verbal, adverbial, prepositional — which are brought together in an arbitrary way and spelt either as one word or with a hyphen. Here are the subtypes of them:

a) nounal stem + nounal stem: manservant, bath­room, roommate;

b) nounal stem + prepositional stem + nounal stem: brother-in-law, grant-in-aid, man-of-war, commander-in-chief;

c) nounal stem + adverbial stem: looker-on, passer­by, hanger-on;

d) pronounal stem + nounal stem: he-goat, she-goat, he-bear, she-bear;

e) adjectival stem + nounal stem: blackbird, small­pox, tenderloin;

f) adjectival stem + adverbial stem: close-up, grown­up, low-down;

g) adjectival stem + verbal stem + adverbial stem: merry-go -round;

h) adverbial stem + nounal stem: by-stander, by­product, overcoat, overspill;

i) adverbial stem + adjectival stem: bygone, overall, overpowering;

j) adverbial stem + verbal stem: outlook, offshoot, overlap;

k) verbal stem + pronounal stem + adverbial stem: forget-me-not,

I) verbal stem + adverbial stem: sit-in, take-off, feedback, look-out;

m) participial stem + nounal stem: swimming-pool, dining-room, reading-hall.

Nouns of the second type called unstable compound (нестойкое сложное слово) consist of the two separate nouns and function in speech as a complex equivalent of one word: stone wall, life span, college courses, surface differences, etc. The first element of the unstable com­pound describes the second one and therefore is pro-sodically brought out by stress. Not infrequently unstable compounds are equivalent to and used on a par with the corresponding attributive word-combinations: language change — linguistic change, grammar rules — rules of grammar, grammatical rules, speech sounds — sounds of speech, language origin — origin of language.

Sometimes the first element of unstable compounds may be complex itself: phrase-structure rules, second-lan­guage learning and so on.

1.3. Classes of nouns

As far as their lexical meaning is concerned nouns -are traditionally divided into a number of lexical categories or classes each of which is formed by the op-positional pair: 1) proper vs common nouns (собствен­ныенарицательные), 2) concrete vs abstract nouns (конкретныеабстрактные}, 3) countable vs uncoun­table nouns (исчисляемыенеисчисляемые}, 4) ani­mate vs inanimate nouns (одушевленные неодушевлен­ные}, 5) human (person) vs non-human (non-person) nouns (обозначающие человека не обозначающие человека).

1.3.1. Proper vs common nouns

The division of nouns into proper and common is based on the type of nomination.

Proper nouns are special names given to human beings or things to single out and individualize them by means of capitalization. In accordance with the object of nomination proper nouns may be personal names (Mary, John, Dickens), geographical names (Moscow, the Thames, the Alps), the names of the months and of the days of the week (January, Sunday), names of hotels, ships, etc. (the Ritz, the Titanic).

Common nouns are the names which may refer to any person or thing (man, woman, doctor, bird, dog), a group of similar individuals or things (family, government, machinery, foliage), materials (cotton, iron, rubber), abst­ract notions (kindness, strenght, friendship, love).

Proper nouns may turn into common nouns. For example, such words as champagne (a sort of white wine), ulster, mackintosh (special types of a coat), Wellington (boots) trace back to and correlate with the existing proper names denoting either the places of origin (Cham­pagne, Ulster) or the inventor (Wellington, Mackintosh).

At the same time most of surnames like Mason, Smith, Bush originated from common nouns as well as some place names like the City (an area in central London which is the British centre for money matters) or the Globe (the theatre in London where Shakespeare's plays were first performed).

1.3.2. Concrete vs abstract nouns

Within the category of common nouns lies the second nounal opposition, namely between concrete and abstract nouns.

Concrete nouns are further subdivided into a) class nouns which denote individuals — persons or things as belonging to a class: a man, a woman, a bird, a dog, a pen, a flower, b) collective nouns, i.e. names of a group of living beings or things considered as a unit: family, crowd, police, poultry, cattle, foliage, machinery; c) names of materials indicating a mass of air, water, iron, gold, sugar, etc.

Abstract nouns are conventionally grouped though less explicitly and rigorously into a) the names of qualities (kindness, strength, courage, sadness), b) states (fear, fight, sleep), c) processes (conversation, discussion, read­ing), d) fields of knowledge or activities (linguistics, ma­thematics, economics, physics, gymnastics), e) phenomena (weather, rain, thunder, storm, lightning, earthquake, ra­diation), f) periods of time (minute, hour, week, day, night, summer), g) generalized notions (direction, tenden­cy, accommodation, time, space).

Abstract nouns may convert into concrete nouns if they refer to concrete objects. Compare: beauty (красо­та) a beauty (красавица), youth (юность) a youth (юноша), glass (стекло) — a glass (стакан), crime (пре­ступность) a crime (преступление).

1.3.3. Countable vs uncountable nouns

The third nounal opposition differentiates between the names of individuals (living beings and objects) which can be counted and those that cannot. Countables as compared with uncountables are able to be used with the indefinite article in the singular and have a plural form.

Common concrete class nouns are always countable: a man men, bird — birds, a pen pens. Proper nouns are usually uncountable with the exception of very few cases like two Marys. There were two Marys in our group. Concrete nouns denoting materials such as air, snow, gold, sugar are always uncountable though in cases like wine, water, sand plural forms are also recurrent: a wide choice of French wines, across the burning sands of the desert, fishing in Icelandic waters. Collective nouns con­stitute a special group of words which may be either co­untable or uncountable. Countables are as follows: family, crowd, committee, team, government, club, school, union, choir, orchestra, staff, jury, firm, the B.B.C., the Bank of England, etc. When used as subject of a sentence they can be associated with both singular and plural verb: Our family has/have lived in this house for over a century. The government wants/want to reduce taxes. Uncountable col­lective nouns fall into 2 groups. The first one comprises nouns which denote a number of things collected together and regarded as a single object: foliage, furniture, luggage, baggage, machinery, money, scenery. They take a singular verb: New machinery is being installed in the factory. Where is the money? It is on the table. The second group consists of nouns expressing multitude: police, gentry, cattle, poultry. In a sentence they are used with a

plural verb: The police have caught the criminal. The cattle are in the shed.

Sometimes a word may be both countable and uncountable with a difference in meaning. The collective noun people is the case in point. It is countable in the sense of «a race or a nation» and uncountable in the meaning of «persons, human beings». Compare: Were there many people at the meeting? — The Chinese is a hard-working people. More examples of the kind: I bought a paper, (a newspaper) — I bought some paper, (material for writing); We had many interesting experiences during our day. (things that happened to us) — You need expe­rience for this job. (knowledge or skill which comes from practice).

Abstract nouns are most multifarious and irregular that makes them particularly difficult to classify as coun-tables or uncountables. This applies to any group they fall into. Those which indicate qualities (kindness, sadness, courage) are usually uncountable though some of them -may be both countable and uncountable. Compare: to succeed by strength of will the strengths and weaknesses of the argument. As the example shows the uncountable noun may become countable if it is supposed to express an instance or instances of a certain quality. The same double nature can be observed in a number of abstract names referred to states, processes, generalized notions and periods of time: to have a fear of something to fight without fear, to have a (telephone) conversation to be in conversation with somebody, to move in the direction of London to have a sense of direction, to be on holiday in summera hot summer.

At the same time certain abstract nouns denoting states, processes and generalized notions, such as beha­viour, chaos (states), progress, traffic, travel, business, work (states or processes), accommodation, advice, infor­mation, news, permission (generalized notions) are un­countable.

Yet quite a bit of nouns used to name periods of time are always countable: a minute, an hour, a week, a year, a century and so on.

Abstract names for phenomena may be either coun­table (storm, earthquake) or uncountable (weather, light­ning) or both: The crops need rain. A heavy rain began to fall.

Abstract nouns denoting fields of knowledge or acti­vities like linguistics, gymnastics are usually uncountable and take a singular verb: Linguistics is the study of lan­guage in general and of particular languages, their struc­ture, grammar and history.

1.3.4. Animate vs inanimate

The fourth nounal opposition distinguishes between living beings — people and animals, on the one hand, and things, on the other, and thus is relevant within the classes of proper, common, concrete countables.

1.3.5. Human (person) vs non-human (non-person)

This pair is the result of the division of animate nouns into those which are intended to name human beings or people and those that represent names of animals at large.

1.3.6. Gender

The opposition of human (person) and non-human (non-person) nouns is related to the further lexical divi­sion of human (person) nouns into those denoting male persons and those which name female persons. Both op­positions together constitute the lexical category of Gender which is realized by means of the three categorial forms: the neuter (i.e. non-human or non-person) gender, the masculine (i.e. masculine person) gender, the feminine (i.e. feminine person) gender.

Each opposition has its strong and weak members. The strong member of the first opposition is the class of human nouns with its semantic mark «person»: son, daughter, man, woman, bride, bridegroom, lord, lady, master, mistress, doctor, teacher, pupil, etc. The weak member is the class of non-human nouns which includes both animate nouns, i.e. collective nouns, names of animals and inanimate nouns, i.e. names of things, facts, abstract notions: crowd, government, organization, bear, wolf, hen, cock, cow, bull, book, love, fear, reading, and so on.

The strong member of the second opposition is traditionally considered to be the feminine gender while its weak member is the masculine gender. This may be accounted for by the fact that in English there exist a few pairs of person nouns like actor — actress, author — authoress, host hostess, master mistress, mayor — mayoress, peer — peeress, steward — stewardess, waiter — waitress in which the gender opposition is indicated grammatically: the feminine counterpart is marked by the suffix -ess, thus being its strong member. This type of

gender which is assigned to nouns as a constant may be called intrinsic. It may also be applied to such pairs as man woman, lady — lord, bride — bridegroom, girl — boy, mother — father, brother — sister, son — daughter

and so on.

Yet on the whole, the category of Gender is semantic or lexical and expressed by the obligatory correlation of nouns with the personal pronouns of the third person: she — the feminine gender, he — the masculine gender, it — the neuter gender. Using another terminology this type of gender may be called referential for human beings are normally referred to as she or he, while animals and things as it. The only exceptions are the person nouns child and baby which are sometimes referred to as it.

The referential gender is typical of a great number of English person nouns which may be applied to both male and female persons: friend, neighbour, stranger, cousin, parent, teacher, student, doctor, writer, servant, taxpayer, clerk, etc. So their gender is specified either contextually or by means of compounds such as boy-friend, girlfriend, lady friend, lady doctor, lady writer, man-servant, maid­servant, girl-student, woman-clerk.

Alongside of the gender distinctions described above there are some specific cases in English which need a par­ticular consideration. First, sometimes in spoken language or literature there may be observed a tendency to asso­ciate the names of animals with the feminine or masculine gender. Nouns denoting them are characterized by the intrinsic feminine or masculine gender. On the one hand, there are some pairs of nouns like cow bull, dog — bitch, mare stallion, hen — cock. On the other hand,

the gender may be defined either with the help of the grammatical suffix -ess or by means of compounds: lion — lioness, tiger tigress, he-wolf, she-wolf, he-bear, she-bear, male-elephant, female-elephant, cock-sparrow, hen-sparrow, tom-cat, jenny-ass.

In fiction any animal may act as a person. In this respect smaller and weaker animals like hare, cat, parrot are normally associated with the feminine gender while bigger and stronger ones such as elephant, horse with the masculine gender. Conversely, birds and sometimes insects irrespective their small size are usually viewed as male: canary, nightingale, swallow, fly.

Second, sometimes in spoken language and fiction inanimate things and abstract notions are personified, i.e. viewed as human beings, and thus nouns denoting them are referred to as either feminine or masculine. Thus, the names of vessels and vehicles or mechanisms are traditio­nally alluded to as belonging to the feminine gender: ship, boat, steamer, car, coach, carriage, engine, etc. For example: The Titanic is a British passenger ship, thought of as impossible to sink, which on her first trip in 1912 hit an iceberg and sank, causing over 1500 deaths.

Moon and earth are referred to as feminine, while sun as masculine: It is pleasant to watch the sun in his chariot of gold, and the moon in her chariot of pearl. (O. Wilde)

The names of countries are conventionally viewed as feminine. For example: France is famous for her grapes, she can also grow peaches, pears and plums.

When abstract notions are personified the masculine gender is often ascribed to nouns with the general idea of strength (anger, death, fear war, hail) whereas the femi-

nine gender is normally related to the nouns expressing the idea of gentleness, charm (peace, kindness, beauty, spring, autumn, dawn).

To conclude: gender in English is a specific lexical (though with some elements of grammatical expression) category of nouns which can be expressed either intrin­sically or referentially.

1.3.7. Classes of nouns and grammatical categories of nouns

Lexical stratification of nouns is inseparably connec­ted with their grammatical or morphological characteris­tics. This means that certain lexical classes of nouns ap­pear to express particular grammatical properties such as number (число), case (падеж) and even impose restric­tions on their functioning. Thus number may only be expressed by countable nouns: a boy boys, a bird — birds, a book books. Case indicating relations of a noun to other words in a sentence is basically realized by the opposition of animate nouns which may be proper, common, inanimate or inanimate nouns: John s coat, my sisters house, the dog's tail, the idea of the book, the question under discussion.

Case and number are considered to be the gramma­tical categories of nouns since they are the most general properties of words of this class which have acquired grammatical expression.

1.4. The category of Number

This category is constituted by the opposition of the plural form of the noun and its singular form. The plural categorial form is the strong or marked member of the . opposition for it bears the formal mark of the category — the suffix -(e)s. It correlates with the categorial form of the singular regarded as weak because of the absence of the number suffix. This way of the plural number forma­tion is conventionally called productive since it is typical of the majority of English nouns.

1.4.1. The productive way of the number formation

In accordance with the general rale the plural suffix -(e)s is pronounced [z] after vowels and voiced consonants: cars, factories, pens, tables, [s] after voiceless consonants: books, cats, roofs, healths, tips, [iz] after sibilants: glasses, boxes, sizes, bridges, matches, bushes.

At the same time there is a number of exceptions to the rule in which the final voiceless consonant of the root-stem is changed into its voiced correlate [z] when the suffix -e(s) is added. This refers mainly to some nouns ending in a) -/ and b) -th.

a) calfcalves halfhalves knife knives leaf — leaves life lives loafloaves sheaf — sheaves

b) bath — baths lath — laths oath — oaths path — paths

shelfshelves thief— thieves wife wives wolf— wolves.

However, in a small number of cases nouns with fi­nal -/or -th may have double plural forms : hoofhoofs, hooves, scarfscarfs, scarves, wharfwharfs, wharves. In some words the double pronunciation is not revealed by spelling: cloth — cloths , truth truths , youth youths.

The group of exceptions includes also the noun househouses.

Derivative nouns form their plural in the same way: dictation dictations, handful handfuls, weakness weaknesses.

The plural of the compound nouns may be formed differently. Compounds spelt as one word form their plu­ral by adding -s to their final components: a bathroom bathrooms, a roommate — roommates, a manservant — menservants (plural in both first and last elements), an overcoat — overcoats, a bygone bygones, an overall overalls, a blackbird blackbirds, an outlook outlooks, an overlap — overlaps.

As a rule a compound hyphenated noun consisting of one or more nounal stems takes the form of the plural number by adding -s to the first nounal component: a commander-in-chief commanders-in-chief, a mother-in-law — mothers-in-law, a passer-by passers-by, a hanger-on — hangers-on.

If there is no nounal stem in a compound the plural is formed by adding -s to its last component: a close-up —

close-ups, a grown-up — grown-ups, forget-me-not forget-me-nots, merry-go-round merry-go-rounds, a sit-in sit-ins, a take-off — take-offs.

The same way of the plural number formation is typical of most unstable compounds: language change — linguage changes, grammar rule grammar rules, speech sound speech sounds, language origin language origins.

However, in the cases like gentleman farmer, woman doctor, etc. the plural form is taken by both the first and last elements: gentlemen farmers, women doctors.

Very rarely unstable compounds may be plural in their first element: notary public notaries public, attor­ney general attorneys general (attorney generals is also possible).

1.4.2. The non-productive ways of the number formation

On a par with the productive suffix -e(s) there exist some non-productive means of expressing the number op­position. They comprise a) vowel interchange: man men, woman — women, goose geese, foot feet, mou­se mice in simple nouns and in compounds ending in -man without any change in pronunciation: postman — postmen, rifleman riflemen, note that words like Norman, German are simple and form their plural in the productive way; b) the archaic suffix -en, in some words together with vowel change: ox oxen, child children, c) homonymy of singular and plural forms: sheep, deer, fish, trout, cod, salmon, pike, swine, means, aircraft,

series, species, etc. d) special nounal suffixes inherent to Latin, Greek and French borrowings which in turn may be classified as follows:

1) singular nouns ending in -us in the plural have -i radius — radii, cactus — cacti, nucleus — nuclei, terminus — termini;

2) some singular nouns ending in -us in the plural have -era/ora : genus genera, corpus corpora,

3) singular nouns ending in -a in plural have -ae amoeba — amoebae, antenna — antennae, formula — formulae,

4) singular nouns ending in -on or -um take in the plural the ending -a : phenomenon — phenomena, curriculum — curricula, datum — data, me­dium media, stratum — strata,

5) singular nouns ending in -is in the plural have -es axis — axes, basis — bases, crisis — crises, hypothesis — hypotheses, oasis — oases;

6) singular nouns ending -ex or -ix in the plural acquire -ices : index indices, ap­pendix — appendices, matrix — matrices;

7) singular nouns ending in -eau in the plural take -eaux : plateau — plateaux, bureau — bureaux.

A limited number of nouns may have both productive and non-productive plural forms: formula — formulas formulae, brother — brothers brethren, penny — pennies — pence, genius — geniuses — genii, index — indexes — indices, staff staffs — staves. Sometimes plurals of the kind differ in meaning: — brothers — «male relatives with the same parents»,

brethren «male members of a religious group»; pen­nies — «coins», pence «amount of money»; geniuses — «men of genius», genii «spirits»; indexes «alpha­betical lists at the back o'f books», indices (and indexes) — «the system of numbers by which prices, costs and so on can be compared to a former level, usually fixed at 100», staffs — «military staffs or staffs of an institution», sta­ves — «sticks».

1.4.3. To conclude: as it has already been shown, the category of Number is manifested in countables, i.e. ba­sically common concrete class nouns as well as in some proper and abstract nouns which form their plurals by either productive or non-productive means. Yet in quite a number of cases the category of Number turns out to be unexpressed. This group of nouns consists of a) uncoun-tables (See 1.2.3.) and b) nouns used only in plural: clothes, trousers, scissors, spectacles, eyeglasses.

1.5. The category of Case

The category of Case shows the relations of living beings, things or notions denoted by nouns to other living beings, things and notions. In English this category is characterized by the opposition of the categorial forms of the Common Case (общий падеж) and the Possessive or Genitive Case (притяжательный падеж). The strong member of the opposition is the Possessive Case with the formal mark — '(s) while its weak or unmarked member is the Common Case. Compare: the man's wife — the wife of the man I know well; a week's holiday days of the week.

Since the category of Case relates nouns to other parts of a sentence it appears to be syntactically bound. In other words the realization of the category in the forms of the Common and Possessive Case is indissolubly con­nected with the syntactic functions of the noun.

1.5.1. Common Case: the syntactic functions of nouns

The Common Case has a very wide and general meaning and manifests itself in a number of various syntactic functions of nouns which are defined by the word order and prepositions.

The first and most typical syntactic function per­formed by nouns in the Common Case is the subject the primary part of the sentence which precedes the predicate: Man changes in a changing world. The world is changing.

The second syntactic function of the noun in the Common Case is part of the compound nominal predicate or predicative when it follows a link-verb: / am a teacher. It was bad weather yesterday. They have breakfast at eight о 'clock.

The third syntactic function of nouns in the Com­mon Case is the object — the secondary part of the sen­tence which follows the predicate. The object may be either direct (прямое дополнение), i.e. used immediately after transitive verbs (переходные глаголы} or indirect (косвенное дополнение) when placed between a transitive verb and its direct object. For example: I gave my friend the book. Did you send Susan a birthday card? In these sentences book and birthday card are the direct objects while friend and Susan — the indirect objects. With verbs

like give, hand, direct, send and so on direct and indirect objects may change their places in the sentence: I gave the book to my friend. Did you send a birthday card to Susan? As the examples show the indirect objects friend and Susan are used with the preposition and therefore called prepositional indirect objects.

Not infrequently nouns turn out to be syntactically associated either with the infinitive or present participle as parts of the pattern called Complex Object. For example: I saw my friend cross/crossing the street. I heard the key turn/turning in the keyhole.

Besides, when used with a preposition, nouns in the Common case may fulfil the function of adverbial modi­fier, i.e. a word or group of words that gives additional information about the time, place or circumstances in which the action is going on: Mary had a holiday in sum­mer. She went to the seaside by train. She lived in a little cottage by the sea. She stayed at the cottage for two weeks.

The noun in the Common Case can be used as attribute when a) it is used with the preposition of. a cup of coffee, a member of the club, head of the department. sounds of speech: b) it precedes and describes another noun and forms with it the unstable compound: a coffee pot, a club bar, a head boy, department stores, speech sounds.

1.5.2. Possessive case

The Possessive case expresses possession in the broadest sense of the word: a man's coat, a man's hand, a man's life, a dog's bowl, a dog's tail, etc.

Grammatically the Possessive case is indicated either by a) adding to nouns 's (apostrophy and 's) or by b) ad­ding -' (apostrophy only). The apostrophy followed by 's is added to 1) nouns in the singular: a man's coat, the act­ress's voice, a dog's bowl, 2) nouns in the plural which form their plural number by the non-productive means, i.e. without the suffix — (e)s: women's dresses, children's toys, 3) nouns in the plural which in singular have the final -5: actresses' voices, The apostrophy without -s is added to nouns in the plural: teachers' advice, the stu­dents ' books, dogs' bowls.

Some proper names ending in -s admit of both - 's and -': Burns's poems Burns'poems, Dickens's no­vels Dickens' novels.

Irrespective of the given types of spelling both 's and ' are pronounced in the same way as the mark of the plural number, i.e. a) [z] after vowels and voiced conso­nants: teacher's, dog's, b) Is] after voiceless consonants: student's, c) [iz] after sibilants: actress's, actresses', fox's, foxes', Burns', Dickens's.

However, the Possessive case form of plural nouns tends to be pronounced [iz] to differentiate it from that of singular nouns. Compare: the politician's wife [z] — the politicians' wives [iz].

As it follows from the examples illustrating the use of the Possessive case in English, the grammatical form in question is chiefly expressed by animate nouns — human or more rarely by non-human both common and proper nouns. Besides, a few groups of inanimate nouns which are able to take the form of the Possessive case may be singled out. They are: a) inanimate abstract nouns deno­ting a certain period of time such as moment, minute,

hour, day, night, morning, evening, week, year, month

(names of months including), season (names of seasons including), century and so on; b) personified nouns used in spoken language or in fiction, mainly in poetry: 1) sun, moon, earth, river, water, ocean, world, wind, 2) ship, boat, vessel, etc.; 3) country, city, town (names of towns and countries including); 4) abstract nouns like duty, music, death. For example: a week's holiday, year's ab­sence, a winter's day, night's rest, wind's rustle, river's brink, ship's crew, town's busy streets, duty's call, music's voice.

The possessive 's can be used with no following noun: Whose is that? — Mary's.

The 's possessive is also used without a following noun in several other cases. Shops are usually referred to in this way: a baker's, a butcher's, the barber's, the hairdress's, i.e. л baker's, a butcher's, etc. shop.

People's places of living can be referred to in this way when the host-guest relationship is meant: at my brother's (i.e. at my brother's place).


1. Write down the plurals of the following nouns and check their pronunciation in a dictionary where necessary:

Ray, street, bacillus, bell, corpus, lily of the valley, diagnosis, warf, antenna, tomato, field-mouse, radius, ad-ress, nerve, criterion, opinion, series, nebula, bacterium, doing, growth, Roman, Frenchman, appendix, bridge, compass, story, storey, formula, looker-on, bureau, bro-

ther-in-law, ox, fish, symposium, thesis, passer-by, da­tum, sheep, fountain pen, breakdown, woman-hater, trousseau, assistant director.

2. Define the morphological structure of the italicized nouns in the texts given below:

a) All language-teaching methods are necessarily based on some sort of analysis, for the very process of making a method involves the breaking down of the lan­guage into the elements which are to be taught. Langua­ge-teaching analysis depends ultimately on the recognition of these elements. The more we know about what a par­ticular language contains, the more we can analyse the teaching of it.

b) The education systems exert a conservative inf­luence on the national standards, the mass media promo­te understanding of differences and influence adoptions from other national varieties, particularly Americanisms. On the other hand, maintenance of English as a second language is in doubt in the long term. Some countries are likely to abandon English as an official language in favour of local languages when political circumstances permit the substitutions. Some are beginning to turn away from the mother tongue standards to recognize their own varieties as acceptable models.

c) Mother Goose rhymes have an appeal that lasts from one generation to another. How may we account for their longevity? What is there in these simple rhymes that appeal so strongly to each generation of children and even to adults fortunate enough to have retained some of the refreshing naivety of their early years?

3. Make up unstable compounds out of the following word-combinations:

A frame for a picture, a bag made of leather, a sa­lesman of cars, a street in a city, a graduate of a univer­sity, a player of records, a programme on television, a teacher of history, a society showing films, a bag for shopping, a basket for waste paper, a book for reference, a stool for feet, a brush for teeth, a can for petrol, a shar­pener for pencils, a stop for buses, a ring for keys, a shirt made of cotton.

4. Use the possessive case of the noun instead of the following word-combinations:

a) An outfitter for men, clothers for children, a hair­dresser for women, a club for wives;

b) the news of yesterday, the programme of the Ins­titute, the name of the street, the appearance of the garden, the publication of the book, the arrival of the plane, the work of an hour, a stay of a week, a thought lasting a moment, a journey lasting a day, the papers pub­lished today, the rays of the sun, the wool of the sheep, the events of the day.

5. Analyse the italicized nouns in terms of classes and categories in the following extracts:

a) Many of the early theories on the origin of language resulted from man's interest in his own origins and his own nature. Because man and language are so closely related, it was believed that if one knew how,

when and where language arose, perhaps one would know how, when and where man arose.

b) About the time Columbus was exploring the coast of the "New World", William Caxton was producing the first books ever printed in the English language. Of course, English had been spoken and written for many centuries before this — in England. But in the time of Columbus and Caxton hardly anyone outside England used the English language.

c) In Tolstoy's masterpieces all is probable and typi­cal of human life. These are the sort of things that might happen to anyone. Things like them have probably hap­pened to thousands. These are such people as we might meet any day. We can say without reservation, «This is what life is like».

6. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Я спросил у доктора совета. 2. Каковы послед­ние новости о ходе выборов? 3. Его фирма разори­лась, и он потерял все свои деньги. 4. Наконец, после многолетних странствий он вернулся домой. 5. Его поведение оставляет желать лучшего. 6. Эта книга со­держит полезную информацию для пользователей персональных компьютеров. 7. Мы получили сообще­ние о том, что переговоры успешно продолжаются. 8. Компания обратилась в суд, чтобы получить разреше­ние на пересмотр условий контракта. 9. Во время пожара в здании царил настоящий хаос. 10. Для вы­полнения этой работы необходим опыт. 11. Все гово­рят, что у меня красивые волосы. 12. Твоя одежда грязная. Чем ты занимался?


2.1. Definition

The article is a specific class of words that determine or specify nouns in the most general way. Therefore, the article is the main formal feature characteristic of the noun. Note that in the British tradition, alongside with pronouns and numerals used attributively, articles are regarded as determiners. (See also 4.1. and 5./.)

There are 3 types of articles: 1) the indefinite artic­le — a(n); 2) the definite article — the; 3) the zero article or the meaningful absence of the article.

2.2. Functions of article

The indefinite article a(n) has 2 forms: a and an. A is

used before a consonant sound: a car, a book, a pain, a

youth. It has 2 pronunciations: 1) weak [a] and 2) strong [ei]. In normal everyday speech the weak form of the indefinite article is used while its strong form is intended to emphasize the noun it determines.

An is used before a vowel sound: an object, an idea, an hour.

The indefinite article is to refer a person or a thing denoted by the noun to a certain class of similar persons or objects. It shows that the noun is taken in a relatively general sense. Otherwise stated, the indefinite article per­forms a classifying function. For example: This is a man.

(Not a woman) / have just seen a young woman waiting for you. (Not an old woman) She is a doctor. (Not a tea­cher) London is a big city. (Not a village) There is an apple for you. (Not an orange) / have a car. (Not a bicycle)

The indefinite article is always used to point to a single person, thing, or notion and thus determines only countable nouns in the singular.

The definite article the has 2 pronunciations: 1) weak , before vowels and 2) strong . Its strong form is normally used before vowels and for emphatic purposes.

The definite article is to identify and individualize a person or a thing denoted by a noun. It demonstrates that the noun is taken in its concrete, individual sense. Thus the definite article performs an individualizing function. For example: This is the man I spoke to yesterday. I saw the young woman you had told me about. London is one of the biggest cities in the world. The apple is for you.

The definite article may determine nouns of any class both in the singular and plural.

The zero article or the meaningful absence of the article is to signify that the noun is taken in an abstract sense, expressing the most generalized idea of the person, thing, or notion denoted. Thus the zero article performs a generalizing function and basically may refer to nouns of any class.

2.3. Article and pronoun

Although both articles and pronouns, mainly de­monstrative and indefinite ones, determine nouns, they do

so in a different way. First, the article determination of nouns is obligatory for the article is indispensable to signal the lexical meaning of a noun in terms of the main lexical oppositions: proper/common, abstract/concrete, coun­table/uncountable, animate/inanimate, human/non-hu­man. (See 1.3.) Second, whereas the function of the article is to specify nouns in the most general way, the demonstrative pronouns this/these, that/those and the in­definite pronouns some, any are used to define persons, things or notions denoted by nouns in relation to other persons, things or notions, their function being to present a noun in a more detailed way, with a higher degree of certainty. Compare: A man called in while you were out. (Not a woman) — Some man/some men called in while you were out. (A man/men strange to me.) Have an apple. (Not an orange) — Have any apple you like. (Every apple, no matter which one) Will you give me the pen ? (Which is mentioned and understood by both speakers) — Will you give me this pen? (The one I am pointing to).

Note that the use of the demonstrative pronouns is arbitrary though in most cases the definite article is more idiomatic. The use of the indefinite pronouns is arbitrary in the case they are to define countables both in the singular and plural. (See the above examples.) Their use may be obligatory if they are referred to uncountable nouns and countables in the plural. For example: There is some butter in the fridge. There isn't any jam in the cupboard. Have you got any money? (uncountables) There are some books on the shelf. There aren 't any nails in the box.

2.4. Indefinite article: usage

The indefinite article whose function is that of classification is used to determine only countable nouns in the singular. They include: 1) proper and common nouns, 2) concrete and abstract nouns, 3) animate and inanimate nouns, 4) human and non-human nouns. Common nouns can be either concrete or abstract. Proper nouns are ba­sically concrete.

The individual discussion of animate/inanimate and human/nonhuman nouns in terms of article determina­tion is irrelevant for all of them are common and concrete.

2.4.1. Indefinite article before common concrete nouns

Common concrete nouns include: 1) class nouns, 2) collective nouns, 3) nouns denoting materials. Note that common collective nouns like poultry, police, machinery, etc. and common concrete nouns denoting materials such as air, water, iron and so on are not used with the indefinite article for they are uncountable. (See 2.5. and 2.6.) Indefinite article before common concrete class nouns

The indefinite article is used in the following cases.

a) Before a common concrete class noun denoting a person or a thing which is not already mentioned or known about, either with or without a descriptive attri-

bute, usually after the verbs be and have. He is a writer. He is a famous writer. Have you got a car? I have got a new car. I have a pain in my leg. There is a book on the


b) In the meaning «any, every» before a noun denoting the called person or thing: A gentleman would never act like this. A parcel is bigger than a packet.

c) Before nouns denoting periods of time: three times a day, twice a week, once a month, etc.

d) In the meaning «one» before nouns of quantity and substantivized numerals: a dozen eggs, a thousand pounds, a hundred times.

e) Before the first noun of a pair that seems a single whole: a cup and saucer, a bucket and spade.

f) Before uncountable nouns that in the context turn into countables meaning «a container or unit of»: I'd like a coffee, please, (a cup/a mug of coffee). Indefinite article before common abstract nouns.

The indefinite article is used in the following cases.

a) In the meaning «a certain amount of or a certain action of» before names of qualities or states, either with or without a descriptive attribute: Have a look at this. He went for a swim. Have a good ride. You need a wash. It is a kindness to tell him the bad news straight away. I have a weakness for chocolate.

Note that words like kindness, weakness and so on may as well render their most generalized meanings — «the qualities of being kind» or «weak» respectively and therefore they may be determined by the zero article. For example: He has always shown kindness to animals. The

President was accused of weakness when dealing with the crisis. (See 2.6.)

Note that some abstract nouns denoting a certain amount of quality or state may be determined by the indefinite article in the case they are given a descriptive attribute: / have a great fear of fire. She fell into a deep sleep. He has a good knowledge of history. Our team put up a good fight.

b) Before nouns denoting processes: He drove off with a crashing of gears and a screeching of tyres. A lot of people have gathered to listen to a poetry reading. He has just had a conversation with his friends. It is necessary to hold a discussion about our future plans.

c) Before nouns denoting phenomena usually with a descriptive attribute — an adjective or ordinal numeral: A heavy rain began to fall. Suddenly we heard a shot, then a second (shot), and a third (shot).

Note that most of abstract nouns denoting pheno­mena, such as weather, rain, thunder, storm, etc. are un­countable. (See 2.6.)

d) Before nouns denoting periods of time as part of an adverbial phrase: We shall start in a minute. We met an hour ago. Wait a second. This subject was raised a century ago.

e) Before some nouns denoting generalized notions: / have an idea. He has always had a tendency to missing classes.

Note that most of nouns of the group such as time in the meaning «passing of days, months, and years, con­sidered as a whole», space in the meaning «something measurable in length, width, or depth», direction, acco-modation, etc., as well as nouns denoting fields of

knowledge (linguistics, mathematics, history) are uncoun­table and therefore cannot be determined by the indefinite article. Indefinite article before proper concrete nouns. The indefinite article may be used before names of

people in the meaning «some», showing that someone is unknown to the speaker: A Mrs Brown wishes to speak to you.

In most cases the indefinite article determines a proper noun provided it has acquired a common meaning. Thus it can be used in the following cases:

a) Before a name of a painter to denote his picture: This is a Rembrandt. He never saw a Modigliani.

b) In the meaning «one like or having the qualities of» before names of famous people or literary characters: They say that the young actress is a new Sophie Lor en. Her husband is so jealous. He is a real Othello.

c) Before a proper inanimate noun to specify its kind: This is a good Champagne, (a good sort of Cham­pagne)

d) In the meaning «a particular one» before names of times and places: / can't remember a Christmas when it snowed so much. In 1989 there was a late Easter. Indefinite article in collocations and set expressions.

The indefinite article may be used before a des­criptive attribute either preceding or following the noun of any class. For example: He was a tall, good-looking man. This happened on a cold, rainy September day. The novel is a funny, intelligent social comedy. It is a novel of immense intelligence, disturbing and diverting.

Any countable noun must be used with the indefinite article after the words half, rather, such, quite, most in the meaning 'very', what and formally or literally — many: I have rather a headache. He is quite a young man. This is a most interesting film. What a nice day it is today. I've never met such a beautiful girl. Many a small business has failed. (=Many small businesses have failed.)

The indefinite article is used before few and little to denote «not many» or «much»: I'd like to say a few words on the subject. If I have a little time today I'll come to see you.

The indefinite article may be used before a substan­tivized ordinal number: At first he offered me a book, then a second (book), and a third (book).

Besides, the indefinite article is entered into nume­rous preposition + noun set phrases which function as adverbial modifier and verb + noun set phrases func­tioning as one verb.

a) Preposition + noun set phrases: as a result, at a glance, at a stroke, at a loss, in a hurry, in a low/loud voice, in a whisper, in a minute/second, in an hour, in a sense in a word, on a par with, to an extent.

b) Verb + noun set phrases: break a fall, cast/throw a glance, catch a train, catch a cold, do a favour, get in a fury, give a start, have a good time, have a meal, have a swim, have a ride, have a look, have a mind, make a will, make a living, take a fancy.

2.5. Definite article: usage

The definite article whose function is that of iden­tification or individualization of living beings, things, or notions, may refer to any noun of any class both in the singular and plural. The individual description of co­untable/uncountable, animate/inanimate and human/ non-human nouns with reference to the definite article is unnecessary because they are either common or proper, and either concrete or abstract.

2.5.7. Definite article before common nouns

The definite article is used in the following cases:

a) Before concrete nouns either in the singular or plural that mention a particular person or thing, because it is already known, or talked about: / have a daughter and a son, the daughter is ten, the son is three years younger. This is a book; the book is on the table. Please take the letters to the post office. (It is understood that you know which letters and which post office. Compare: You can pay your phone bills at a post office. (=any post office))

b) Before concrete nouns denoting objects unique in a given situation or at large: The sun is shining. The sky is blue.

c) In the generic sense before concrete nouns in the singular: My favourite flower is the lilac. The ostrich is the largest living bird. The computer has totally changed office work.

d) In the meaning «one's» before concrete nouns: How is the leg today? (your leg) The car broke down again today, (my car)

e) Before concrete nouns denoting materials in a certain amount or a particular context: The water is cold today. Where is the salt? Pass me the pepper, please.

f) Before nouns denoting human activities, especially musical, but not including sports: She is studying the law. He plays the violin. (Compare: She plays tennis.}

g) Before nouns denoting directions, such as north, south, west, east: A strange light appeared in the south. They moved to the north of the country.

h) Before adjectives as part of their substantivized forms: The rich must help the poor. The library offers a special service for the blind. The following is the summary of the article.

i) Before nouns or the substitutional one, attributed by adjectives in the superlative degree: This is the most interesting film I ever saw. The Louvre is the most famous French museum of art.

j) Before abstract nouns denoting particular notions: The life of a writer is difficult. We study the history of the English language.

2.5.2. Definite article before proper nouns

The definite article is used to determine proper nouns in the following cases:

a) Before persons' surnames in the plural to refer to the whole family: The Browns were sitting at the table and having tea.

b) Before a person's name or surname with the limiting attribute: She was again the Marv he had met years ago.

c) As part of substantivized adjectives and before ordinals in the names of kings: Peter I (pronounced «the first»), Louise XIY (pronounced «the fourteenth»}, Alexander the Great.

d) As part of substantivized adjectives denoting na­tionalities: The British are famous for their conservatism.

e) Before names of countries and states including words like republic, union, commonwealth, kingdom, sta­tes: the German Federal Republic, the Soviet Union, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America.

f) Before names denoting groups of islands: the Bri­tish Isles, the Bahamas, the Canary Islands.

g) Before names of mountain ranges in the plural: the Rocky Mountains/the Rockies, the Alps/the Swiss Alps.

h) Before names of rivers, channels, canals, seas, oceans: the Nile, the Thames, the English Channel, the Suez Canal, the Baltic Sea, the Pacific (Ocean).

i) Before names of regions: the Far East, the Middle East.

j) Before a limited number of names of cities and streets: the Hague (a city in the Netherlands), the Strand, the Mall (streets in London).

k) Before names of cities, countries, etc., with the limited attribute: the London of the 1980s., the England of the 19'' century.

1) Before names of hotels, restaurants or pubs, theat­res, cinemas, museums or art galleries: the Hilton (Hotel),

the Peking (Restaurant), the National Theatre, the Covent Garden, the British Museum, the Tate Gallery.

m) Before names of places or buildings, especially with the limiting of- attribute: The Empire State Building, The Bank of Scotland, the Houses of Parliament, the Museum of Fine Arts.

n) Before names of newspapers, magazines, journals, etc.: «The Times», «The Economist», «The Observer».

2.5.3. Definite article in collocations and set expressions

a) The definite article may be used before nouns of any class defined by the limiting attribute or a subordinate clause: He kicked the snow from his shoes and then came up to the armchair opposite mine. She walked along the street that led to his house. She is the lady who lives next door to me.

b) The definite article is used before nouns attributed by ordinals, by the adjectives same, very in the meaning «actual», following, next in the meaning «closest in space, order, or degree; immediately following in time», last in the meaning «after the others; final; the least suitable»: He was the first person to arrive. My father sits in the same chair every evening. She died at the very height of her fame. This was the very thing he looked for. He felt sick hut on the following day he seemed quite well again. The next house to ours is a mile away. Where will you be during the next few weeks?

c) The definite article is used after the words one of, some of, many of, each of: Can I have one of the books?

Some of the articles are easy to translate. Each of the boys got excellent marks.

Besides, the definite article is part of numerous a) preposition + noun set phrases used in a sentence as , adverbial modifiers or predicatives and b) verb + noun set phrases functioning as one verb.

a) Preposition + noun/substentivized adjective set phrases: at the top, at the bottom, in the beginning, in the middle, in the centre, in the end, in the rain, in the cold, in the heat, in the main, in the market, in the original, in the slightest, on the whole, on the one handEon the other hand, on the alert, on the look-out, on the market; out of the question, to the life.

b) Verb +noun set phrases: be on the safe side, break the heart, break the ice, break the news, keep the bed, play the game, take the trouble to do, tell the truth.

2.6. Zero article: usage

The zero article (no article) whose function is that of generalization may be used to determine nouns of any lexical class both in the singular and plural.

2.6.1. Zero article before common nouns

No article is used in the following cases: a) Before concrete class nouns (countables) in the plural denoting persons or things which are not already mentioned or known about, either with or without a descriptive attribute: Charles Dickens and William Thac­keray are writers. They are famous writers. I have slight stomach pains. A bookcase contains shelves to hold books. (See}

Note that plural nouns of the category are often determined by the indefinite pronouns some, any: Have you got any books on English art? Yes, I have some (books).

b) After the words such, quite, most, what before co-untables in the plural: I've never met such beautiful girls. They are quite young men. These are most interesting films. What nice days we have spent there.

c) Before concrete nouns of materials the amounts of which are not defined: Life is impossible without water. The vegetables need more salt. Pepper and nutmeg are spices.

d) Before abstract uncountable nouns, etc.: No news is good news. Jealousy is worse than envy.

e) Before nouns denoting fields of knowledge: I don't like mathematics. He is fond of history. She studies linguistics.

f) Before nouns denoting periods of time, attributed by the words next and last, as well as before nouns attributed by cardinals in postposition: Last winter we traveled in the Swiss Alps. Next summer we are going to Italy. Next week we 11 have 3 English classes.

g) Before singular or plural nouns denoting persons addressed by someone: Come quickly, doctor.

h) After kind of and sort of before either singular or plural nouns: What sort of music do you like best? I don't like that sort of book. That kind/sort of question is very difficult. There were all sorts of colour.

i) Before nouns used in newspaper titles, announ­cements, advertisements, etc.: «Former Judge Sentenced Over Driving Offences», «Night Intruder», «Driver».

2.6.2. Zero article before proper nouns

No article is usually used in the following cases.

a) Before names of cities, towns, villages, streets, etc.: London is the capital of Great Britain. (For excep­tions see 2.5.2.)

b) Before names of shops, restaurants, banks, etc., ending in -5 or -'s, which are named after people who started them: Selfridges, Harrods (shops), Maxim's, Macdonalds (restaurants), Barclay Bank, Lloyd Bank.

c) Before words like Mother, Father, Uncle, Aunt, etc. used by members of a family: Has Father come back yet? Mother wants to speak to you.

d) Before nouns denoting persons' ranks and attri­buting proper names: The monograph is written by Professor White. Doctor Smith is to take the flow.

2.6.3. Zero article in collocations and set expressions

No article is used before nouns determined by pos­sessive, demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite and nega­tive pronouns. (See Chapter IY)

A great number of set expressions contain nouns without article:

a) preposition + noun/substentivized adjective set phrases: at present, at first sight, at dawn, at sunrise, at sunset, at night, at peace, at sea, at work, at last, at least, at once, at hand, at best, at worst; by day, by chance, by mistake, by land, by air, by sea, by train, by metro, by post, by air mail, by name, by moonlight; for hours, for ages, for miles; from day to day, from morning till night, from head to foot, from beginning to end, from birth to grave, from spring to autumn, from east to west, from

grief, from joy, from fear, from shame, from memory; in bed, in debt, in revenge, in question, in silk, in red, in time for; on duty, on fire, on foot, on holiday, on horseback, on leave, on principle, on sale, on time; under consideration.

b) verb + noun set phrases: bear/have in mind, break cover, break ground, cast doubt on, catch cold, catch fire, come to grief, come/bring to life, come to light, come to pass, give/ask (for) permission, give birth, give rise, give way, have breakfast/lunch, dinner, go to bed, keep house, keep in mind, lose heart, make haste, make sense, make use of, set to work, take advantage of, take into account, take to heart, take offence, take part, take place, take revenge.

2.7. Article determination of certain noun groups

Some English nouns present special difficulties in the use of articles. Here are 5 groups of them.

a) Morning, day, afternoon, evening, night. With regard to meaning and syntactic position the nouns can be determined by the zero (no article), definite and indefinite article.

No article is used before the above nouns when the idea of day, afternoon, night, morning, evening is meant. Day, afternoon and morning are used in the meaning «light» while evening and night — in the meaning «dark­ness». Hence the set expressions by day, at night, from morning till night, etc. The nouns may be attributed by the adjectives early, late. For example: It was early mor­ning. Day broke and we set out for work. The sun set and night came. It was late evening. Day is for work, night for sleep.

The indefinite article is used when the nouns are modified by the descriptive attribute, and thus performs its classifying function: It was a foggy, frosty afternoon. (Not a clear, warm afternoon.) / spent a sleepless night. (Not a night full of sweet dreams.)

The definite article is used to denote a concrete morning, day, afternoon, evening and night. The nouns may be modified by the limiting attribute. For example: We spent the night in the mountains. (A particular night.) / will never forget the day I met her.

The definite article is always used with the nouns as part of adverbial phrases with the preposition in to denote a concrete, usually tomorrow, morning, day, afternoon, . etc.: / haven't got what you want now, but I can get it for you in the morning. I'll work in the evening. I'll have a sleep in the late afternoon. (Today)

b) Spring, summer, autumn, winter. These nouns can be determined by the 3 types of the article.

No article is used when the nouns denote the idea of the season. They may be attributed by the adjectives early and late. For example: It was spring. Winter is the season between autumn and spring. It was late autumn. I like summer.

No article is used before the nouns attributed by next and last, last autumn, next winter.

The indefinite article is used with the nouns modified by a descriptive attribute: It was a wet spring. It was a hot summer. It was a rainy autumn. It was a snowy winter.

The definite article is used to point to a concrete season of a year. The nouns may be modified by the limiting attribute. For example: It was the spring of 1987.

The summer was cold and rainy. It happened in the sum­mer of 1990.

c) Breakfast, lunch, dinner, tea, supper. These nouns can have various article determination.

No article is used before the nouns when they arc not described by any attribute: We usually have breakfast at eight in the morning. What time do you have dinner? Mother is cooking dinner. It happened during lunch. She made a cake for tea. We had fish for supper.

The indefinite article is used with the nouns attri­buted by adjectives: We had a substantial breakfast. They had a nice dinner at a restaurant.

The definite article is used with the nouns when a concrete meal is meant. They may as well be modified by the limiting attribute. For example: The breakfast we had today was substantial. The dinner was a success.

d) School, college, university, hospital, church, pri­son. These nouns can also be determined by various articles.

No article is used before the above nouns when they denote the idea of those places. Most often they collocate with the verbs be and go: For example: She went to school at the age of six. (As a pupil) She started college last year. Did you go to university? (As a student) He had to go to hospital. He is still in hospital. (As a patient) They go to church every Sunday. I saw them at church. (As parishio­ners) The thief was sent to prison for a year. (For punish­ment)

The indefinite article is used when these nouns refer to a building, with or without an attribute. For example:

There is a school near my house. (Not a college, a church, or prison) A new hospital is being built in this street. While travelling in the country we passed through a small village with an old church.

The definite article is used with the nouns to denote a particular school, college, university, church, etc.: The parents went to the school to meet their daughter's tea­cher. (To a concrete school, not as pupils) Where is the university? (A concrete university) The workmen went to the church to repair the roof. (Not as parishioners) She went to the hospital to visit her brother. (To a concrete hospital, as a visitor)

e) Bed, town. These nouns differ in terms of article determination and therefore should be described one after another.

Bed can be determined by the 3 types of the article.

The indefinite article before bed is used to denote a piece of furniture to sleep on, usually after there is, with or without an attribute: There is a comfortable bed in his room. There is a bed, a table, and a cupboard in the room.

The definite article before the noun is used to denote a concrete bed: The bed has never been slept in. The bed is not comfortable.

No article before the noun usually renders the idea of sleep or illness: It's time to go to bed. Is she still in bed? She likes reading in bed. (Before falling asleep) You look ill, you 'd better stay in bed.

Town can be specified by the 3 types of the article.

The indefinite article before town is used to refer to something which is larger than a village but smaller than a city: Stratford-upon-Avon is a small town on the Thames.

The definite article before town is used to denote a concrete town, or life in towns and cities: / want to go to the town where I was born. The town is small but beautiful. I prefer the town to the country.

No article before town is used to denote the nearest town or the chief city of an area in England, usually London: We cannot go shopping to town tomorrow. I was in town on business last week.


1. Comment on the use of the italicized articles and nouns they determine in the extracts below:

a) The origin of the name «Mother Goose» and how it came to be attached to collections of traditional children's rhymes has been a subject of scholarly research and discussion. It is claimed by some that she was really Mistress Elizabeth Goose, who is said to have lived in Boston about a hundred years ago, and who crooned non­sense jingles to a large and happy family of grandchildren.

b) The good teacher will be aware of what each of his pupils knows in terms of vocabulary and mastery of structures and grammar points. He will know what ground in the syllabus he has covered, where more practice is needed and who needs the practice.

c) The various branches of the Germanic family of language derive from the migrations of the Germanic tribes who lived in northern Europe during the Г' millenium BC.

d) If you do not speak in the «right way», it could affect the impression you make at an interview or on the telephone, your credibility as a defendant in court, even the way your doctor treats you. There remains a con­spiracy of silence about all this, but in Britain, perhaps more than in any other country, people are still often assigned to a social and educational category, and even to a level of intelligence, partly because of their accent.

2. Compare and explain the use of the italicized articles and nouns they specify in the following groups of sentences:

a) 1. Cultural life in England takes so many forms that a brief summary can only attempt to suggest its variety. 2. A vigorous cultural life in Scotland has as its highlight the annual Edinburgh International Festival, one of the world's leading cultural events. 3. He was the life and soul of the party.

b) 1. A large part of the house was destroyed by the fire. 2. She has been offered a marvellous part in the new film. 3. The best part of my job is all the travel it involves. 4. She lived there for the better part of her life. 5. In the play he plays the part of the policeman. 6. Working irregular hours is part and parcel of being a journalist.

c) 1. It will take you a long time to learn French properly. 2. What's the time! 3. The universe exists in

time and space. 4. Time does fly, and we are not getting any younger.

d) 1. I couldn't find a parking space. 2. Please save a space for me in the queue. 3. He satellite has been in space for a year. 4. In the space of ten miles the road rises 1000 feet.

e) 1. There is a fish market near here. 2. He can't find a market for his skills. 3. They sell mainly to the home market. 4. They have put their house on the market.

f) 1. Silence in court! 2. The defendant told the court that he had never seen the woman before. 3. He is well-known at court. 4. Are the players on court yet?

g) 1. He has sailed round the world. 2. She is a well-known character in the business world. 3. There is a world of difference between thinking about it and doing it.

h) 1. The injured man was lying on the ground. 2. Moles seldom come above ground. 3. The soldiers marched on a parade ground. 4. The curtains have white flowers on a blue ground.

i) 1. They have a charming home in London. 2. She came from a poor home. 3. India is the home of elephants and tigers. 4. Is he home from work yet?

j) 1. He became king on the death of his father.

2. Once upon a time there was a rich king in Baghdad.

3. The Queen Elizabeth II is the head of the British Commonwealth. 4. Elizabeth became queen in 1952. 5. He was sitting on a Queen Anne chair.

3. Insert proper articles where necessary into the texts below:

a) It was raining heavily as I was walking towards ... Metro station. There were very few people in ... street. ... road was slippery. Just as I was crossing ... road near ... Metro station, ... car came round ... corner. It was travelling very fast, at ... speed of 80-90 miles. It was clear ... driver was having difficulty in controlling it. Suddenly it hit ... lamp-post and turned over. At once I ran to ... car. I tried to help ... driver. But I could do very little. ... man's eyes were closed, there's ... lot of ... blood on his face.

b) ... Pygmalion was ... king of ... Cyprus and ... famous sculptor. One day he took ... piece of ... marble and began to sculpt ... statue of ... young woman. When ... statue was finished, it was more beautiful than any woman in ... world. ... marble girl seemed to be almost alive. ... Pygmalion looked at ... beautiful statue ... day after ... day, and soon he fell in ... love with it. He brought ... flowers to ... statue and often kissed it. Sometimes it seemed to him that ... statue moved and became warm. But he understood that it was only ... marble statue.

c) When in 1483 Edward died, his eldest son was to become ... king. But before it happened ... prince was taken with his younger brother to ... prison and they were never seen again. Richard became ... king of ... England. ... people said that he had murdered his younger nephews. Shakespeare's play «Richard III» and many history books show Richard as ... cruel king, but he lived in ... cruel times, and many king who are not known as cruel did ...

same things. It is ... murder of ... prince and his brother that make ... people angry. But was it Richard who murdered them? Nobody knows.

d) At ... dinner ... beautiful girl looks at ... young man sitting at another table. They smile at each other. It is ... end of... dinner. ... People get from their tables. Will ... young man come up to ... girl? Yes, he is walking to her. Then suddenly when he is near ... girl turns round and walks quickly away. This is ... beginning of anti-smoking advertisement in ... British cinemas. As she walks from ... dining room alone ... girl turns to us and says, «He smells like ... old ash-tray». ... British govern­ment has ... campaign against smoking. In ... film they say, «Smoking makes you unattractive».

e) Once upon ... time there lived ... noble lord and his lady. They had ... little son. He was seven years old and his name was Philip. ... boy had no brothers and sisters and so felt lonely. He often ran after ... butterflies in ... beautiful gardens. ... butterflies and ... flowers were his only friends. One afternoon Philip was missing, and nobody knew where he was. ... servants were sent along all ... roads, but they came ... home without hearing anything of Philip.

4. Translate the following texts into English using proper articles:

а) Около трехсот лет назад в Англии жил один храбрый моряк. Его звали Генри Хадсон. Много раз на большом корабле он уплывал далеко от англий­ских берегов. Он мечтал пересечь Северный Ледови­тый океан. Он трижды пытался сделать это, но

безуспешно. Каждый раз, возвращаясь домой, он [рассказывал друзьям о многих трудностях, с кото­рыми ему пришлось столкнуться.

b) Один молодой человек был влюблен в пре­красную девушку. Однажды она сказала ему, что на следующий день она будет отмечать свой день рождения. Молодой человек очень обрадовался и сказал ей, что пошлет столько роз, сколько ей испол­нится лет. Вечером он отправился в цветочный ма­газин. Зная, что девушке исполняется 22 года, моло­дой человек заплатил за 22 розы и попросил цве­точника отнести их девушке на следующее утро. Когда юноша вышел из магазина, цветочник поду­мал, что назвал слишком высокую цену человеку, который является его постоянным покупателем, и потому решил прибавить к букету еще 10 роз. Так и ' поступил. А на следующий день молодой человек никак не мог понять, почему именинница так на него рассердилась.

c) У одного богатого фермера был друг, у ко­торого росли вкусные яблоки. Однажды друг принес фермеру отличную молодую яблоньку, велел отнести ее домой и посадить. Фермер был очень рад подарку. Но придя домой, он не мог решить, куда ее посадить. «Если я посажу яблоню у дороги, яблоки сорвут прохожие, а если посадить у дома, то ночью яблоки могут украсть соседи,» — подумал фермер. Наконец, он посадил яблоню в лесу, где ее никто не мог увидеть. , х



3.1. Definition

The adjective is a part of speech which denotes the property of substance. This is the nominative class of words though functionally limited as compared with nouns. This means that adjectives are not supposed to name objects: they can only describe them in terms of the material they are made of, their colour, size, quality, etc: red, white, big, high, long, good, kind, happy. Therefore they find themselves semantically and syntactically bound with nouns or pronouns: We bought white paint. We painted the door white. She is a happy woman. She is happy. He made her happy.

The exceptions are substantivized adjectives, i.e. those that in the course of time have been converted to nouns and therefore have acquired the ability to name substances or objects: The bride was dressed in white. You mix blue and yellow to make green.

The substantivation of adjectives may be either com­plete or incomplete. In the case of complete substantiva­tion, words like a native, a relative, a conservative, an al­ternative, a cooperative, a derivative, a savage, a stupid, a criminal, a black, a white, a liberal, a radical, a general, a corporal, a Russian, an American, a Greek, a Hunga­rian, a weekly, a monthly and so on share all the nounal grammatical characteristics: number, case, the ability to be used with the definite and indefinite articles: a native,

two natives, the native's hut; an American, two Americans, the American's accent.

The incomplete substantivation presupposes only some of nounal grammatical characteristics. For example, some of substantivized adjectives have only the plural form: valuables, eatables, ancients, sweets.

Most of substantivized adjectives of the kind are similar to collective nouns since they denote a whole class. They are used with the definite article: the rich, the poor, the unemployed, the black, the white, the deaf and dumb, the English, the French, the Chinese. In a sentence they are normally associated with a plural verb: The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.

The substantivized adjectives denoting abstract no­tions are used with the definite article but are associated with the singular verb: the good, the evil, the beautiful, the future, the present, the past: The evil that men do lives after them/The good is oft interred with their bones. (W. Shakespeare)

3.2. Morphological structure of adjectives

As well as nouns adjectives are structurally classified into simple, derivative and compound.

Simple adjectives have no affixes and thus cannot be further segmented: red, white, big, kind.

Derivative adjectives derive from either nouns, verbs or even adjectives themselves by means of suffixes and prefixes: beautiful < beauty, friendless < friend, illogical < logic, unreliable < rely, independent < depend, repentant < repent, reddish < red, greyish < grey, childish < child.

The productive adjective-forming suffixes arc:

-able/-ible: usable, readable, intelligible, responsible;

-ful: colourful, useful, deceitful;

-less: colourless, useless;

-like: businesslike, childlike.

The less productive suffixes are:

-ish after the nounal root-stem: British, Turkish. Spanish; selfish, foolish, childish;

-ish after the adjectival root-stem: greyish, yellowish, youngish, tall ish:

-ish after the numeral root-stem: eightish, fortyish;

-ant/-ent: confidant, expectant; consequent, current;

-ous: curious, obvious, industrious, infectious;

-some: troublesome, quarrelsome;

-en: woolen, wooden, silken;

-an: American, Italian, Austrian;

-y: watery_, snowy, rainy, easy;

-al: principal, accidental, parental;

-ic/-ical: photographic; grammatical, hysterical, mu­sical; historic historical, economic — economical:

-ive/-ative: active, explosive; communicative, deri­vative;

-ate/-ite: delicate,, animate, accurate; definite, com­posite;

-or/ory/ary: inferior, superior; compulsory, conso­latory, preparatory; customary, stationary, sanitary:

-ing: surprising, perplexing:

-ed: barbed, beaded;

-ly: friendly, womanly, monthly.

Note that -ed, -ing and -ly can be regarded as adjectival suffixes only with some reservation for adjectives like surprising, perplexing and barbed, beaded

are in fact adjectivized present and past participles correspondingly while the -ly suffix is more typical of adverbs. (See 7.2.)

The adjective-forming prefixes are:

pre-: prearranged, prewar;

pro-: pro-American;

un-: unusual, unpredictable, unhappy;

in-: insensitive, inanimate;

im-: impossible, immoral;

il-: illiterate, illogical;

dis-: dishonest, disinterested; \

a-: aloof, agog, ajar, ablaze, aglow, afire.

Note that words with the a- prefix are traditionally discussed within the class of adjectives though actually their morphological status is rather ambiguous: they are in between adjectives and adverbs.

Compound adjectives are made up of two or more stems. Here are the main types of compound adjectives:

a) noun-stem + adjective-stem: point-blank, raven-haired,

b) adjective-stem + noun-stem: small-scale, small­time, blue-collar,

c) adjective-stem + adjective-stem: deaf-mute, good-looking, small-minded.

3.3. Classes of adjectives

According to the meaning and grammatical charac­teristics adjectives fall into two classes: 1) qualitative adjectives, and 2) relative adjectives.

Qualitative adjectives denote such properties as size, colour, physical or mental qualities, etc. which a living being or an object, etc. may possess in various degrees and thus their amount or quantity can be measured: a clever boy, a very clever boy, rather a clever boy, such a clever boy; a big house — a very big house, rather a big house, such a big house.

Their most typical suffixes are -ful, -less, -ous, -ant/ -ent, -able/ible, -ing, -like, -some, -y: colourful, colour­less, industrious, confidant, current, usable, intelligible, surprising, businesslike, troublesome, easy.

Most qualitative adjectives can be further transfor­med into adverbs by means of the suffix -ly: colourfully, colourlessly, industriously, confidantly, currently, surpri­singly, easily.

Relative adjectives denote properties of a substance in relation to other substances such as materials: silken > silk, woolen > wool, watery > water; places American > America, European > Europa, Austrian > Austria; periods of time — daily > day, weekly > week, monthly > month, yearly > year; shape rectanglular > rectangle, triang-lular > triangle; to actions compulsory > compulsion, preparatory > preparation, consolatory > consolation.

Their most typical suffixes are: -en, -an, -ic/-ical, -al: wooden, Italian, photographic, grammatical, historic historical.

Relative adjectives do not usually form adverbs with the suffix -ly with the exception of adjectives in -ic/-ical: grammatically, geographically, historically.

3.3.1. Qualitative adjectives: the category of com­parison

The ability of qualitative adjectives to express mea­sured properties accounts for their specific grammatical feature, namely the category of comparison, which is regarded as the formal sign of this class of adjectives.

The category of comparison suggests the idea of gradience of a property and is constituted by the oppo­sition of three categorial forms: 1) the positive degree of comparison, 2) the comparative degree, 3) the superlative degree.

The form of the positive degree, the unmarked mem­ber of the opposition, is a simple form of a qualitative adjective which expresses no comparison: big, clever, interesting, important.

The other two are the marked members of the opposition because they are expressed grammatically.

The form of the comparative degree shows some increase or decrease in property while the superlative form expresses the highest or least degree of property denoted by qualitative adjectives. Both comparative and superlative forms may be realized synthetically and analytically.

The synthetic way of the degree formation is charac­terized by adding grammatical suffixes to 1) one-syllable adjectives: big, large, high, low, etc; 2) two-syllable adjectives ending in -y, -er, -ow: easy, happy, clever, narrow, etc. 3) two-syllable adjectives with the last syllable stressed: complete, concise, etc.

The analytical way presupposes the use of special words in preposition to adjectives consisting of more than one syllable: difficult, careful, interesting, enthusiastic, etc.

Thus, synthetically the comparative degree of adjec­tives is formed by adding the suffix -er while the super­lative degree — by means of the suffix -esf. bigger — biggest, larger largest, higher — highest; easier easiest, cleverer cleverest, narrower narrowest; com-pleter — completest, conciser concisest.

Analytically the comparative degree of adjectives is expressed with the help of the words more — to show increase of property and less to to show its decrease whe­reas the superlative degree is formed by means of words most and least correspondingly, more/less, most/least, being the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives much/many and little: more difficult, less dif­ficult the most difficult (task), the least difficult (task); more interesting book, less interesting book the most interesting book, the least interesting book.

Note that most as part of the analytical superlative degree of adjectives must not be confused with the homonymous adverb in the meaning very. Compare: This is the most interesting book I have ever read. This is a most interesting book. This book is most interesting.

Apart from the great number of adjectives which form their degrees of comparison in accordance with the rules given above there may be found some adjectives with the irregular comparative and superlative degrees, on the one hand, and those that have missing forms of the comparative degree, on the other. They are as follows: much/many more — most little — less least good — better best bad/evil/ill worse — worst eastern more eastern easternmost

northern — more northern northern most

southern more southern southern most

inner innermost

outer outermost/utmost

utter uttermost/utmost

hind — — hindmost

rear rearmost

top top most

upper upper most/upmost

old older oldest

elder eldest

far — farther/further farthest/furthermost/furthest

Elder/eldest (with no comparative) are used only before a noun to denote members of a family. Compare the way elder/eldest and older/oldest occur in speech: My elder sister is a teacher. My sister is older than me. She looks older than she really is. My eldest son is 10 years old. This is the oldest building in the town.

In the case of far, when speaking of real places and distances either farther/farthest or further/furthermost/ furthest can be used while further/furthest are used in the meaning «more», «extra», «additional»: I'm tired. I can't walk much farther/further. What's the farthest/furthest place have you ever been to ? In the furthermost corner of the hall sat a tall thin man. — For further information write to the above address.

Among adjectives with irregular comparative and superlative forms listed above there is also the adjective little which deserves special attention. It is used to describe uncountable nouns while countables are modified by the adjective few: I have very little money to live on. — I have very few chocolates left. There was little food left. — / have few friends.

Both little and few may be used with the indefinite article: a few — in the meaning «a small number, but at least some» whereas a little — in the meaning «a small amount, but at least some». Compare: There are a few eggs and a little milk in the fridge. I have a few friends. We ate a little food.

Note that little/a little may also be used as pronouns and adverbs: There's little I can do for you.If there's any milk, I'll have a little, (pronouns) / see very little of him. — I'm a little hungry, (adverbs)

Many/much can function both as adjectives whereas many may occur as a pronoun and much — as an adverb: I've got many books on the subject. I've got much work to do. (adjectives) — Not many of the children will pass the exam, (pronoun) — It was much worse than I thought. I don't much like the idea, (adverb)

The comparison of adjectives may be expressed by some other grammatical means, namely double conjunctions. They are: a) not as...as/not so...as used in the negative sentences — My salary is not as high as yours. / My salary is not so high as yours. (=Your salary is higher.) b) as...as (but not so...as), the same, twice as...as, three times as...as, as in positive sentences: Your salary is as high as mine. Your salary is the same as mine. His salary is twice as high as mine.

As it has already been pointed out the morphological category of comparison is generally relevant to the class of qualitative adjectives which are supposed to evaluate the property of a substance in terms of its amount or quantity. The exceptions are adjectives with negative meanings formed by negative suffixes such, as unimportant, disrepu­table, immoral, irresponsible, etc., and adjectives denoting

colour, size like greenish (to some degree green), darkish (to some degree dark), tallish (to some degree tall).

Note that relative adjectives, which are unable to form the degrees of comparison by definition, may so­metimes become evaluative, i.e. qualitative. Consider the following examples, wooden bed, wooden spoon — wooden face, wooden performance (of an actor). In the first two word-combinations wooden is used in its literal, relative meaning — «made of wood» while in the second — it has the qualitative meaning «awkwardly stiff, not lifelike». Consequently, the quality may be measured: The actress gave a rather wooden performance.

3.4. Syntactic functions of adjectives

Syntactically adjectives may function both as 1) at­tributes and 2) predicatives, i.e. parts of the predicate. Here are the examples of the attributive use: She returned in the early morning. After careful consideration we accepted the offer. Trying to conceal her embarrassment she turned away her red face.

Sometimes adjectives used attributively may occur in postposition, i.e. after the noun they describe: This is the only possible answer. — This is the only answer possible. In some cases the postpositional use of adjectives is obligatory: I'll do everything possible to help you.

When used predicatively, adjectives are combined with link-verbs: be, feel, get, grow, look, seem, smell, taste, turn. For instance: / was early for work today. When driving he is always careful. They feel nervous. He looked happy. Honey tastes sweet. She turned red with embar­rassment.

Such adjectives as long, high, wide, deep, etc. find themselves in predicative position together with nouns denoting periods of time and units for measuring height, length and so on. For example: The garden is 20 metres long and 15 metres wide. The well is 25 metres deep.

The most frequently recurrent link-verb is the verb to be which enters a considerable number of set expres­sions of adjective + preposition type: be ready for/with, be fond of, be late for, be jealous of, be happy about, be afraid of, be frightened of, be dependent on, be persistent in, be grateful to/for, be angry with, be certain about/of, be suspicious of, etc. The predicative function of the adjectival collocations is often supported by their syno­nymous verbal counterparts: be fond of— love, be grateful to/for — thank, be suspicious of— suspect of.

The predicative function may be performed by do­uble comparative forms of adjectives in the elliptical (or predicatively incomplete sentences with missing verbal elements): The more expensive the hotel, the better the service. (=The more expensive the hotel is...) The warmer the weather the better I feel.

Note that qualitative adjectives perform their attribu­tive and predicative functions on equal terms while rela­tive adjectives tend to occur in the function of attribute more frequently than in that of predicative: In her silken garment she looked grand. The historic meeting between the two leaders marked the beginning of a new era.

Adjectives with the a- prefix like afire, afloat, agape, ajar, akin, etc. usually function predicatively: The house was aflame. The company somehow managed to keep afloat. The problem facing him is akin to that of ours.

However in some rare cases they may be used attri-butively: He got down to work afire with enthusiasm.


/. Comment upon the morphological structure of the following adjectives:

Universal, satisfactory, dishonorable, absent-minded, affectionate, agrochemical, conversational, cool, coordi­nate, double, intoxicated, hard-boiled, mindless, rest­rained, sheepish, stately, sympathetic, three-piece.

2. Give the opposites of the following adjectives by using the correct negative prefix:

Acceptable, adequate, agreeable, attentive, available, compatible, complete, considerable, constant, constitu­tional, credible, direct, discreet, distinct, excusable, fre-

quent, grammatical, hospitable, logical, loyal, mistakable, mobile, mortal, natural, polite, probable, religious, repu-

table, resistible, resolute, responsible, selfish.

3. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives:

Large, heavy, free, sly, near, able, complete, rude, polite, respectable, far, distant, slim, slender, shy, coarse, wide, narrow, high, low, sly, brave.

4. Define the class of the italicized adjectives and their syntactic function in the text given below:

Words are the raw material of the writer's craft, and in his choice of them lies very much of his skill. English

offers him an immense vocabulary, enriched from many sources. French and Latin have added most to the original Saxon stock, but words have been borrowed from almost every country under the sun. French came over with the Norman conquerors; Renaissance scholars borrowed di­rect from Latin and Greek; fine gentlemen in Elizabeth's day garnished their speech with French, Italian and Spanish phrases; merchants and sailors and adventurers brought home new words from East and West. The pro­cess has been continuous, and continues still today. By these means the English vocabulary has increased not only in size, but in richness and variety. There seems at times a bewildering number of words which might express one plain meaning. How, then, shall we select the right one?

5. Insert little or a little and define which part speech they belong to:

a) 1. Have ... patience. 2. She had ... opportunity to use it. 3. I'll go ... way with you. 4. There's ... doubt he was responsible. 5. So much to do, so ... time. 6. Won't you have ... brandy? 7. We have ... hope of success. 8. I saw ... chance of doing it. 9. Wait ... longer.

b) 1. There's ... we can do about it. 2. There's ... that I can add to what he said. 3. Have some coffee: the­re's ... left. 4. I've got ... ; he's got a lot. 5. Is there any brandy, I'll have ... . 6. He said ..., but I knew what he meant. 7. I can't help you, I know ... about it. 8. It means ... to me. 9. Try ... of this cake.

c) 1. I used to play a lot, but now I play ... . 2. He's ... interested in anyone but himself. 3. She's ... sen-

timental. 4. It was ... difficult, not very. 5. You must excuse me. I'm ... tired. 6. Can we just move it ...? 7. He says ..., but he thinks a lot. 8. We thought it would be popular but it's ... used. 9. I'm just ... worried.

6. Insert few or a few:

1. It's so difficult that ... people can do that. 2. It was so cold that ... people came. 3. There are ... places hotter. 4. He has ... friends so he almost never goes out. 5. Can you give me ... examples? 6. ...flowers would look nice, but we don't need many. 7. I've been there ... times, but not often. 8. ... men have served their country so well. 9. He's had quite ... accidents.

7. Insert little, a little, few, a few:

1. I don't need a lot of money, just ... . 2. Not many people came, just ... . 3. He did ... to help us, which was not very friendly. 4. She was tired and had ... to say. 5. Have some coffee: there's still ... left. 6. As we feared, there was ... to interest us. 7. We hoped to sell a lot, but ... have been sold. 8. He found ..., but not many. 9. These are ... of my favourite things.

8. Complete the sentences below with the adjectives tall, wide, old, deep, thick, long, high:

1. The cathedral is 600 year .... 2. The mine is half a mile ....3. This cloth is a metre .... 4. That river is 80 miles .... 5. His son is 6 feet .... 6. The building is 60 feet .... 7. I need a piece of wood half an inch ....

9. Complete the following with one of the forms good/better/best, bad/worse/worst, much/more/most:

1. It was the ... accident in the history of the company. 2. The most expensive is not necessarily the ....

3. She was very ill yesterday, but she's ... today. 4. You surely don't expect me to sell it far ... than I paid for it! 5. Last year's results were bad, but unfortunately this year's are .... 6. Managers earn ... than secretaries. 7. They all ate a lot but he ate (the) .... 8. Nobody gave very much, she gave (the) .... 9. He is not satisfied with -any­thing but the .... 10. He is a good player, but his brother is ....

10. Complete the following with far/farther/farthest, further/furthest:

1. They live on the ... side of the town. 2. I have nothing ... to say. 3. Can you give some ... examples?

4. Our products are sold in the ... corners of the world.

5. I'll race you to the ... of those two trees.

11. Put the words in brackets into the comparative forms:

1. The (near) the bone, the (sweet) the meat. 2. The (much), the (merry). 3. The (high) the temperature, the (great) the pressure. 4. The (much) I learn, the (little) I know. 5. The (great) the opportunity, the (great) the responsibility.


4.1. Definition

The pronoun is a part of speech which points out objects and their quality without naming them as nouns and adjectives do. Thus pronouns function as substitutes of nouns or adjectives and have a very general relative meaning. For example: / have a daughter. She is five years old. Her eyes are blue. She has a boyfriend. He is six. Both have a lot of toys. They meet every day. They have some secrets.

Note that according to the British tradition pronouns are viewed as noun-substitutes only. For example: He asked for money and I gave him some. Some of his friends didn't give him any. Do you like fish or meat? — Both. Both of them were happy to meet each other.

The same words used attributively, i.e. instead of adjectives, are regarded as determiners in British grammar and as adjectives in American grammar: I gave him some money. Some friends of mine didn 't lend me any money. Both articles are quite informative.

4.2. Classes of pronouns

Pronouns are divided into the following groups:

1) personal pronouns: /, we, you, he, she, it, they,

2) possessive pronouns: my, our, your, his, her, its, their, mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs,

3) reflexive pronouns: myself, ourselves, yourself yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves, oneself,

4) reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another,

5) demonstrative pronouns: this, these, that, those. such, (the) same,

6) interrogative pronouns: who, whose, which, what,

7) connective pronouns: who, whose, which, what, that,

8) indefinite pronouns: some, any, somebody, anybo­dy, something, anything, someone, anyone, one;

9) defining pronouns: all, each, both, either, every, everybody, everyone, everything, other, another;

10) negative pronouns: no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing.

4.3. Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are used instead of nouns. The principal grammatical category of the class is the category of Person, which is constituted by the words or lexemes, not by a set of grammatical forms: /, we, you, he, she, it, they.

Once personal pronouns are noun-substitutes they share nounal grammatical characteristics, namely they have the categories of Number, Case and in the third person singular — the category of Gender.

The category of Number is formed by the opposition of singular and plural pronouns of the first and third persons: / we, he/she/it they. The second person is represented by the only plural form you. In a sentence you always takes a plural verb: You are my only friend. You have to be careful with people you don't know.

The category of Case is manifested by the opposition of the Nominative Case (именительный падеж) and the Objective Case (объектный падеж). I me, we us, he him, she — her, they — them. For example: Last month I visited my sister. She had invited me to stay for the weekend. We were happy to see each other and her family left us to give a chance to talk. They went to the theatre. We were grateful to them for their tact.

Therefore in a sentence the personal pronouns of the first and third person singular and plural in the Nominative Case can perform the function of subject while in the Objective Case they are either indirect objects or predicatives. More examples to illustrate the point: She gave me a book to read. I thanked her for the book. They have made great progress in English studies. We are proud of them. (She, I, they, we are the subjects, me, her, them are the objects.) That's me on the left of the photograph. Is that her/him ? You can know all these things if you have lived them and if you are them. (Me, her/him, them are

used predicatively.)

In the case of the pronoun of the second person —

you and that of the third person — it, the category of

Case is left unexpressed for these words are unchangeable:

You were talking to a young man when I saw you in the

park yesterday. Where is the money? — It is on the table.

You may take it.

So syntactically you and it may be both subject and object. Note that when you functions as object it may be either direct or indirect while it is generally the direct object except for the cases when it is referred to the word baby. For example: / saw you yesterday, (direct) / gave you a book, (indirect) / looked for the book but couldn't

see it. When I find it I'll give it to you. (direct) How is the baby? I gave it the medicine, (indirect)

The category of Gender of personal pronouns is expressed by the opposition of the pronouns of the third person singular he (masculine gender), she (feminine gender) and it (neuter gender). These pronouns help to distinguish the gender of nouns: male beings (man, sun, lord, actor) are referred to as he, female beings (woman, daughter, lady, actress) are referred to as she, and inanimate things (pen, book, house, tree) are referred to as it. In the case of nouns denoting human beings of either sex like friend, teacher, doctor, etc. the personal pronouns of the third person are used to specify their gender. (See 1.3.6.}

4.4. Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns have the same grammatical categories as personal pronouns, i.e. Person, Number and Gender. Besides, possessive pronouns have double grammatical forms, namely the conjoint form — my — our (the first person: singular and plural), your (the second person), his, her, its, their (the third person singular: masculine, feminine, neuter gender, plural) and the absolute form — mine, ours (the first person: singular and plural), yours (the second person), his, hers, theirs (the third person singular: masculine, feminine, plural). The difference between the two is determined by the syntactic functions they perform. The conjoint forms are always used attributively while the absolute forms may occur as both subject or part of predicate. Compare: Your

room is at the end of the passage, (attribute) This is our room, and yours is at the end of the passage, (subject) This room is yours, (predicative) His coat is very expensive. (attribute) Which coat is John's? Is this one his? (predicative) His is hanging on the hook, (subject)

The conjoint forms of possessive pronouns may be used in postposition to nouns and perform an attributive function. For example: a friend of mine/yours/his/hers/ ours/theirs, a(n) suggestion/idea of yours/his/hers/theirs.

From the above examples follows that possessive pronouns may be used in place of both nouns and adjectives.

4.5. Reflexive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns have the categories of Person, Number and in the third person singular the category of Gender. They are: myself— ourselves (the first person — singular and plural), yourself — yourselves, (the second person — singular and plural), himself, herself, itself themselves (the third person — singular: masculine, feminine and neuter gender, plural).

Reflexive pronouns are noun-substitutes and in the sentence usually function as objects. They are used when the subject and the object are the same. For example: He cut himself while he was shaving. The party was great. We enjoyed ourselves, (direct object) / don't want you pay for me. I'll pay for myself. The old lady sat in a corner talking to herself. He is pleased with himself, (indirect object)

The reflexive pronouns are not normally used after the verbs feel, relax, concentrate, meet, shave, wash, dress: I feel fine now. Sit down and relax. I cut myself when I was shaving. Stop talking! I can't concentrate. The child­ren washed and then went to bed.

Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize the doer (or agent) of action and thus function as either subject or object: My husband and myself are both tea­chers. I'll do it myself, if you won't. I myself wrote it. They built the house themselves, (subject) / want to speak to the director himself, (object)

Besides, reflexive pronouns may be predicatives, at­tributes and adverbial modifiers. For example: She was ill yesterday, but she is more herself today, (predicative) She was anxious to keep away from the subject of herself. (attribute) / like living by myself. Did you go on holiday by. yourself? (adverbial modifier)

Oneself is a reflexive form of the pronoun one (see 4.10.). One can't enjoy oneself if one is too tired.

4.6. Reciprocal pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns are the group pronouns each other and one another which are normally interchange­able. They show that each of two or more does something to the other(s) thus expressing mutual action or relation. For example: The students in the class told each other about their own countries. They haven't seen one another for years.

Reciprocal pronouns being noun-substitutes have the category of Case which is constituted by the opposition of

the Common case and Possessive case. The Common case of reciprocal pronouns is used as object while the Possessive case is used attributively. Compare: They looked at each other. They hit one another, (object) They held each other's hands. They often stay at one another's houses, (attribute)

Reciprocal pronouns are never used as subject.

4.7. Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns this (these), that (those), same, such point out the person or thing that is meant and separate it from others.

The demonstrative pronouns this and that have two number forms: this — these, that — those. This/these indi­cate the one or more people or things that is nearer in time, space or thought while that/those refer to the one or more people or things that are further away in time, space, thought, etc. Compare: I'm surprised you like that picture; I prefer this one. You look in this box and I'll look in that one. You check these figures and I'll check

those ones.

This/these and that/those are used instead of adjec­tives and may function as subjects, predicatives, objects and attributes. For example: This has been the best year in the company's history, (subject) Who was that I saw you with last night? (predicative) Who told you that? The cost of the air fare is higher than that of the rail fare, (object) Wait until you've heard this story, (attribute)

The pronoun such is both noun- and adjective-sub­stitute used as subject, predicative, and attribute: We pre-

dieted their victory and such was the result, (subject) The force of the explosion was such that it blew out all the win­dows, (predicative) Such people as him shouldn't be allowed in here, (attribute)

The pronoun same usually performs the attributive function though it may be used as subject, predicative, object and adverbial modifier. It is always used with the definite article. For example: You've made the same mis-take as last time. My father sits in the same chair every evening, (attribute) You are wrong.The same can be said about you. (subject) These programmes are too much the same. They may look the same, but they really quite different, (predicative) They always say the same, (object) They feel the same about this question as I do. These two words are pronounced differently but they are spelt the same, (adverbial modifier)

4.8. Interrogative pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are used to form special questions. They are: who, whose, what, which.

Who is a noun-substitute, whose is always used instead of adjectives, what and which may function as both noun- and adjective-substitutes

The interrogative pronoun who has the category of Case which is constituted by the two categorial forms: the Nominative case — who and the Objective case — whom Who can be used in the function of both subject and object. For example: Who is that woman over there? Who did you stay with? (subject) Whom did you see? (object)

4.9. Connective pronouns

Connective pronouns such as who, whose, which, what, that are used to connect a relative clause to the rest of the sentence thus performing a syncategorematic function. Besides, they have a syntactic function of their own — that of subject, object, attribute, etc. in the clause they introduce. For example: A postman is a man who/ that delivers letters, (subject) This is the man whose house was burned down, (attribute) This is the book that/which I told you about, (object)

Depending on the type of a clause they are linked to connectives are divided into relative who, whose, which and that, and conjunctive pronouns — who, what, which.

4.9.1. Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns introduce attributive clauses: who,

whose, whom, which, that.

Who and whose are used in reference to human beings or animals. Syntactically who is subject, its case form whom is object, and whose is attribute: Do you know the people who live there? Whom did you see? We never discovered whose money it was.

Which is used to refer to both people and things, in a clause it being subject, object, or adverbial modifier. Compare: She said she had been waiting for an hour, which was true, (subject) / can't find the book which you gave me last week, (object) She may have missed her train, in which case she won't arrive for another hour. (adverbial modifier)

That may refer to both persons and things and function as both subject or object: Did you see the letter that came today? He is the greatest man that's ever lived. (subject) Did you get the book that I sent you? (object)

Note if a relative pronoun describes a noun with a preposition, the latter is usually placed at the end of the sentence. For example: This is the book which I told you about.

4.9.2. Conjunctive pronouns

Conjunctive pronouns who, what, which introduce subordinate subject, predicative and object clauses being either subject, predicative or object in the clause. For example. / didn't know who he was. (subject) The twins look so alike that I can't tell which is which, (subject, predicative) What made her cry he could never make out. (subject) We are very grateful for what you did. (object)

4.10. Indefinite pronouns

The indefinite pronouns some, any, somebody, any­body, someone, anyone, something, anything, one point out some person or thing indefinitely.

Somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything and one are noun-substitutes, some and any may function as both noun- and adjective-substitutes.

Somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, and anything are always singular and take a singular verb: There is somebody at the door. Is there anyone at home?

Some and any may denote both singular and plural persons and objects. If they are used to determine or substitute uncountable nouns they take a verb in the singular: There is some milk in the bottle. Is there any butter in the fridge? — Yes, there is some.

If some and any determine or substitute countables they take a verb in the plural. For example: There are some flowers in Mr White's garden. There aren't any flowers in Mr Brown's garden. Are there any trees in his garden ? Yes, there are some.

Some, somebody, someone, something are generally used in positive sentences while any, anybody, anyone, anything in negative and interrogative sentences: There are some apples on the table. There aren't any apples on the table. Are there any apples on the table? There is someone in the house. There isn't anyone in the hou­se. Is there anyone in the house?

However some/someone/something can be used in questions especially when the positive answer is expected ' or when some things are offered or asked for. For example: What's wrong with your eye? Have you got something in it? Will someone help me? Would you like some coffee? Can I have some tea?

Any/anyone/anything can be used in positive senten­ces in i/-clauses: If any letters arrive for me, I'd like them to be sent to this address. If anyone has questions, I'm ready to answer them. If you need anything, just ask.

Any/anyone/anything may be used in positive senten­ces in the meaning «every/any person, all people/any ob­ject, act, event». For example: Any child would know that. Come and see me any time you want. Anyone can cook it's easy. Anything will do to keep the door open.

The pronouns some, any, somebody, anybody, some­one, anyone, something, anything may function as subject, predicative and object. For instance: Some of these books are useful. In his situation anything may happen. Anybody will tell you where the bus stop is. (subject) Was she anybody before her marriage? He is somebody in the Edu­cation Department, (predicative) Scotland has some of the finest scenery in the world. I hear he has broken an arm or something. You can tell him anything you like, (object)

The pronouns some, any may also function as attri­bute in a sentence: All work is not dull, some work is plea­sant. Please give me some milk. We haven't any tea. Have you any sugar?

The pronoun one is used instead of a noun or noun phrase that describes a single thing or person and thus has number distinctions: one ones: I have several books: which one/which ones would you like to borrow?

One can be determined by the definite article and demonstrative pronouns. For example: Which book do you want? The one that's lying on the table. Those ones you gave me yesterday were most interesting.

One can be used with the indefinite article when attributed by an adjective: This dress is a bit small — have you got a slightly bigger one?

In this meaning one may function as subject, predi­cative, and object. For example: Which picture do you like? The one on the right seems attrative. (subject) He buys German cars rather than British ones, (object) The officer is the one who gives orders, (predicative)

One is often used to indicate a contrast extressed or implied with the other, or another, or other(s). The twins

are so much alike that it is difficult for strangers to tell the one from the other.

When one is used in the meaning «any person, you» it has case distinctions. One functions as subject, its possessive form one's is used attributively. For example: One should do one's duty, (compare with the American variant: One has to do his duty.}

One has its reflexive form oneself which is used as an object: One can't enjoy oneself if one is too tired, (compa­re with the American variant: One can't enjoy oneself if he is too tired.}

Oneself may function as a strong form of one: To do something oneself is often easier than getting someone else to do it.

One can be used as an adjective-substitute in the meaning «some» and function as an attribute: Come again one day soon.

4.11. Defining pronouns

The defining pronouns are: all, each, both, either, every, everybody, everyone, everything, other, another.

All or all of can be used before nouns with the definite article or the demonstrative pronouns: All (of) the students are coming to the party. All her friends are leaving for London. All, not all of is used before nouns without any article: All students hate exams. All of may be used before personal pronouns: I'd like all of you to come. All can be used after a pronoun: They all like parties. I'd like you all to come.

All is singular with uncountable nouns and is plu­ral with plural nouns. Compare: All (of) the money is spent. All (of) the people have gone.

All may function as subject, predicative, object, and attribute. For example: We invited many people but not all of them came, (subject) That is all. (predicative) I brought all of them. He gave all he had. (object) All children like toys, (attribute)

Each is used to denote every single one of two or more things or people considered separately: She had a cut on each foot/each of her feet. Each is used either sepa­rately, as a noun-substitute, or with nouns without any article: Each has a lot of friends. Each student has a lot of friends.

Each of is usually used with nouns determined by the definite article or personal pronouns. For example: Each of her children goes to a different school. Each of the children answered the teacher's question.

Each is usually singular and takes a singular verb, except after a plural subject or when each of is followed by a plural noun. Compare: Each has his own room. They each have their own room. Each of the young philo­logists of the department is/are specializing in a different subject.

Each can be used after the pronoun: They each want to do something different.

In the sentence each/each of functions as subject, object, and attribute. For example: Each has his own opi­nion. Each of the students came to the party, (subject) He paid a dollar each, (object) He was sitting with a child on each side of him. (attribute).

As distinct from each/each of, both/both of arc used for two things taken together. For example: Both children go to the same school.

Both/both of can be used with the definite article and demonstrative pronouns: / like both (of) the paintings. Both (of) their children are grown up.

Both, not both of, can be used before nouns without any article or pronoun: I like both paintings.

Both may be used after a noun or pronoun it is attributed to: She and her husband both like dancing.

Both/both of may function as subject, object, and at­tribute. For example: Both seemed to be interested in the subject. Both of them were interested in the subject, (sub­ject) / like them both. He continued talking to both, (ob­ject) Both sides are keen to reach an agreement. (attribute)

Either is used to denote one or the other of the two objects or living beings. It is often synonymous to each and both. Compare: He sat in the car with a policeman on either side of him. He sat in the car with a policeman on each side of him. — He sat in the car with policemen on both sides. Either of them will be satisfactory. Each of them will be satisfactory. Both will be satisfactory.

But in the negative either is the only possible way of expression: She's lived in Manchester and Liverpool, but doesn 't like either city very much.

Either is usually used with a singular noun but either of may be followed by a plural noun and then takes a singular verb in formal writing: Is either of the factories in operation yet? But in speech and informal writing a plural verb is usually used: Are either of the teams playing this week?

In the sentence either usually functions as an attri­bute but either of may be subject and object: Take either half. In either event you will benefit. Either of them will be present, (subject) There is coffee or tea you can have either. Take either of these books, (object)

Every points to the whole as compared with each which is directed to the object or individual. Compare: Each pupil was given a different book by the teacher. Every boy ran in the race.

Every is never used with of or after a subject like each.

Every is always used with a singular noun, being an attribute in the sentence: Every boy in the class passed the examination. He enjoyed every minute of his holiday.

Everybody, everyone can only be used of people and are never followed by of. They always take a singular verb and may function as subject and object. For example: If everyone is ready, we'll begin, (subject) They gave a prize to everyone who passed the examination, (object)

Everyone (or everybody) should not be confused with every one that means «each person or thing» and is often followed by of. Compare: Everyone in the class passed the exam. There are 20 students and every one passed:

Everything is used with a singular verb and may function as subject, object, and predicative in the senten­ce. For example: Everything is ready for the party, (sub­ject) This shop sells everything needed for camping, (ob­ject) Money is everything to him. Beauty is not everything. (predicative)

Other denotes the second of two and may substitute both nouns and adjectives. In this meaning other is followed by a singular noun with the definite article and

takes a singular verb. For example: The twins are so much alike that people find it difficult to know (the) one from the other. The post office is on the other side of the street. One of them is mine, the other is my sister's.

Other may be used to point out an additional person or thing. In this meaning as a noun-substitute it has two numbers. As an adjective-substitute it is followed by a plural noun and takes a plural verb. For example: Six of the books are mine, the others are John's. I saw John with some other boys. Where are the other boys?

As a noun-substitute other may function as a subject and object while as an adjective-substitute it is used attri­butively. For example: One of the twins lives in London, the other — is in York, (subject) / know one of them but I've never met with the other, (object) They live on the other bank of the river, (attribute)

Another points to one more person or thing of the kind. It is normally used as an adjective-substitute before a singular noun, thus being an attribute: Will you have another cup of tea? We can do that another time.

However, sometimes another may be used as attribute with a plural noun, or without any noun in the function of object: In another two weeks we'll be on holiday. I don't like this dress, show me another (one).

4.12. Negative pronouns

The negative pronouns no, none, nobody, no one, nothing, neither are closely connected with the indefinite and defining pronouns. Most of the indefinite pronouns correlate with the negative pronouns: some no, none,

something nothing, none, somebody, someone, one nobody, no one, none.

Some defining pronouns are the opposites of the negative pronouns: everyhing nothing, all, everybody, every, each no, none, nobody, both, either neither.

No is used only before a noun as an adjective-sub­stitute in the function of attribute: There is no telephone in our house. He is no gentleman.

None is used as a noun-substitute and takes a sin­gular verb: I'm afraid we can't have coffee there's none left. When none is followed by of it may take either a sin­gular or plural verb: There are faults from which none of us is/are free. None of them has/have come back yet. In the sentence none is either subject or object. For example: None of this money is mine, (subject) They chose none but the best, (object)

The negative pronouns nobody and no-one are noun-substitutes and refer to human beings only. They correlate with somebody, someone and all, every, each and every­body. They are mostly used as subjects and objects: Nobody could find their luggage. No-one likes to be cri­ticized, (subject) We saw nobody we knew, (object)

Nothing is a noun-substitute that refers to things. It is opposed to something and everything. In the sentence it is used as subject, predicative and object. For example: Nothing I could say had any influence on her. (subject) He's had nothing to eat yet. (object) She's nothing to me. (predicative)

The negative pronoun neither is the opposite of either and both. It can be used as both a noun- and adjective-substitute. As a noun-substitute it is used with of

before a plural noun and takes a singular verb: Neither of the statements is true.

In the sentence neither of functons as subject and object: Neither of them was happy, (subject) / like neither of them, (object)

As an adjective-substitute neither takes a singular noun, functioning as an attribute: Neither neither state­ment is true. I can agree in neither case.


/. Point out the pronouns in the following extracts and define the class each belongs to:

a) Although we agree by and large about a Standard

English usage in terms of vocabulary and grammar, in

both the written and the spoken forms of the language,

there is no such general agreement about a standard of

pronunciation. We all have our own opinions as to what is

the best pronunciation of English, and many people feel

sufficiently concerned to write letters to the newspapers

on the subject. It has been said that a man's accent has

more significance in this country than anywhere in the

world. However regrettable it may be, there is no denying

that some kinds of English speech carry a certain prestige,

whereas others may prove a positive disadvantage to the


b) Anyone who knows language well will acknow­ledge that there is no such thing as a true synonym. That is, there are words that can be substituted for other words, but they almost never have exactly the same meaning in the same context.

c) Of all accents of English, the one which has been most fully described is English Recieved Pronunciation, known as RP. This, however, is not a regional accent but a social one. It is spoken throughout England by certain educated families, and kept alive in such private insti­tutions as the Public Schools.

d) This makes things much more difficult for any linguist who wishes to describe a particular variety — the more heterogeneous is its language. For many years the linguist's reaction to this complexity was generally to ignore it — in two rather different ways.

e) Such language is hardly informative to those who use it, but it plainly has an important role in fostering a sense of identity — in this case, among those who share the same political views. Many social situations display language which unites rather than informs...

2. In these sentences change the definite article to the pronoun some and observe the difference in meaning:

1.We've found the money. 2. I've bought the tickets. 3. Put the chairs there. 4. The men have come. 5. The cars have been stolen. 6. We'll need the maps. 7. He sent the telegrams. 8. She's cooked the meal. 9. She did the work. 10. I like the others.

3. Translate into English using some, any, someone, anyone, somebody, anybody, something, anything:

1. Никто не возражает, если я закурю? 2. Вы не хотите что-нибудь выпить — чай или кофе? 3. Кто звонит в дверь? 4. Налейте мне молока, пожалуйста. 5. Если кто-нибудь хочет задать вопрос, поднимите руку. 6. Вы оставили дверь открытой. Любой мог войти. 7. Он ушел, никому ничего не сказав. 8. В ее внешности есть что-то необычное. 9. Вы не могли бы дать мне некоторую информацию по использованию этих приборов? 10. Ты можеть выбрать ему в подарок все, что хочешь. Он будет рад всему. 11. Нет ли здесь поблизости почты? 12. Приходите в любое время. 13. Купи телефонный справочник, если тебе попадется.

14. Она споет любую песню, которую пожелаешь.

15. Кто-то разлил молоко и не сознается. 16. Она купила новые туфли, а старые выбросила.

4. Give two English variants of each of the following sentences using the pronouns either and both:

1. Он может писать обеими руками/любой ру­кой. 2. Вы можете сесть на любой из двух автобусов. 3. В той стране вы сможете говорить на обоих язы­ках/на любом из этих двух языков. 4. Я был бы рад посмотреть оба фильма/любой из этих двух фильмов. 5. Можно войти через любую дверь. 6. В этом случае можно употребить оба термина/любой из двух тер­минов.

5. Translate into English using both of/neither of/ either of:

1. Вы оба говорите по-английски? 2. Я пригла­сил обеих сестер в гости, но ни одна не пришла.

3. Они обе так устали за день, что легли спать, не поужинав. 4. Все рестораны, которые мы посещали, были недорогими. 5. Мы могли бы зайти в любой из этих двух магазинов. 6. Никто из детей не хотел ло­житься спать. 7. Мы оба продолжали спорить. 8. Вы можете выбрать любой из этих подарков.

6. Change the following sentences using all to every and translate both variants into Russian:

1. All countries have problems. 2. I've read all the books on that list. 3. We've considered all the possibilities.

4. All the doors must be closed. 5. I've looked in all the drawers. 6. All the windows have been broken. 7. All questions must be answered. 8. Have you done all the exercises? 9. Complete all the sections. 10. All the bottles were empty.

7. Give two English variants of each of the following sentences using the pronouns each and every:

1. У всех студентов есть зачетная книжка (stu­dent's card). 2. Все страницы пронумерованы. 3. В каждом номере есть ванна. 4. У каждого ученика есть письменный стол. 5. Каждый студент должен напи­сать сочинение. 6. На каждой книге должен стоять номер. 7. Раздайте всем анкеты для заполнения.

8. Всем детям вручили подарки. 9. Положите все книги на свои места.

8. Translate into English using all, everything or everyone/everybody:

1. Я знаю всех на своей улице. 2. Она пользуется большим успехом. Ее все любят. 3. Все были очень добры к нам и сделали все, чтобы нам было хорошо. 4. У каждого есть свои недостатки. 5. Почему он постоянно думает о деньгах? Деньги — еще не все. 6. Она ничего не делает дома. Все делает ее муж.

9. Give two English variants of the following sentences using no and any:

1. У меня нет времени. 2. У него нет братьев и сестер. 3. Ты ничего не съел на завтрак. 4. В этом нет ничего хорошего. 5. Они не поймали ни одной рыбы. 6. Нет надежды, что опыт закончится успешно. 7. В кассе нет билетов. 8. Нам не задавали вопросов. 9. Я не желаю никакого вмешательства в мои дела. 10. Он не дал никаких объяснений.

10. Translate into English using no. none, no-one, nobody, nothing:

1. Никто не навестил меня, когда я был в боль­нице. 2. Ни одна из систем государственного управ­ления не является совершенной. 3. Среди этих книг нет ни одной моей. 4. Я не нашел ни одной ошибки в его сочинении. 5. Он никому не рассказывал о

своих планах. 6. Мне никто не звонил? 7. Никто в классе не выполнил домашнего задания. 8. В это время все магазины закрыты. 9. Мне никто ничего не рассказывает. 10. Среди тех, с кем мне пришлось общаться, не было ни одного русского.

11. Translate into English using where necessary that, who or what:

1. Ты слышал, что я сказал? 2. Все, что он ска­зал, было правдой. 3. Скажи мне, что ты хочешь и я постараюсь тебе помочь. 4. Она позволяет детям де­лать все, что они захотят. 5. Почему ты всегда обви­няешь меня во всем плохом, что случается с тобой? 6. Я сделаю все, что смогу. 7. Я не могу одолжить тебе денег. Все, что у меня есть, необходимо мне самому. 8. Я не согласен с тем, что вы сейчас сказали. 9. Это самая отвратительная сцена, которую я когда-либо видел. 10. Я нашел ключи, которые вы потеряли.

12. Translate into English using reflexive pronouns:

1. Он сильно поранился при падении. 2. Пожи­лые люди часто разговаривают сами с собой. 3. Я хочу поговорить с самим директором, а не с его сек­ретарем. 4. Каждый должен уметь защищаться. 5. Она купила себе машину. 6. Она сама рассказала мне эту историю. 7. Она давно живет самостоятельно. 8. Мы увидели себя по телевидению. 9. Они сами построили себе дом. 10. Они отлично провели время в гостях. 11. Дети выполнили эту сложную работу самостоя­тельно. 12. Ты поранишься, если будешь играть с

ножницами. 13. Вы сами так сказали. 14. Я тебя прощаю. Ты был не в себе, когда высказывал все эти обвинения. 15. Она любила смотреться в зеркало.

13. Translate into English using one, oneself, one's:

1. Есть ли в вашей библиотеке книги по сельс­кому хозяйству? Я хотел бы взять одну. 2. У нас есть несколько фильмов на этот сюжет. Который вы хо­тите посмотреть? 3. Какой журнал вам дать? — Тот который лежит на столе. 4. Директор — это человек, управляющий компанией, фирмой или банком. 5. При необходимости можно воспользоваться сло­варем. 6. Не всегда можно получить то, что хочется.

7. Невозможно радоваться жизни, если очень устал.

8. Часто проще сделать что-либо самому, чем заста­вить кого-нибудь. 9. В теннис нельзя играть одному. 10. Нужно знать свои права и не забывать про обя­занности.



5.1. Definition

The numeral is a part of speech which denotes quan­tity or order of persons and things and thus used in coun­ting and measuring. For example: one, ten, hundred, first, tenth, twentieth, etc.

5.2. Classes of numerals

According to their function numerals are divided into cardinals (cardinal numerals) and ordinals (ordinal numerals).

Cardinals form a class of numerals which show quantity rather than order, answering the question how many? : one, two, three, four, etc.

Ordinals are numerals that show order rather than quantity, answering the question which? : first, second, third, fourth, etc.

5.3. Morphological structure of numbers

According to their morphological structure numerals can be classified as 1) simple, 2) derivative, 3) compound.

Simple numerals are cardinals from zero to twelve, hundred, million, thousand, billion, etc. and such ordinals as first, second, third.

Derivative numerals are formed by means of the suffixes -teen and -ty. The suffix -teen is typical of the cardinals from thirteen to nineteen while the suffix -ty is characteristic of tens from twenty to ninety.

Compound numerals include: 1) cardinals from twen­ty-one to twenty-nine, from thirty-one to thirty-nine, etc, 2) their corresponding ordinals: twenty-first, thirty-second, forty-fourth and so on, 3) fractional numerals or fractions in which the numerator is a cardinal and the denominator is an ordinal: two-sixths, three-tenths. This group consists of substantivized numerals. (See 5.4.3.}

5.4. Usage

Words of this class can be used as: 1) numerals pro­per, 2) pronouns or noun-substitutes, and 3) substantivized numerals.

5.4.1. Numerals proper

Numerals proper — cardinals and ordinals are nor­mally used in preposition to nouns and thus in a sentence function as attributes. For example: / have two brothers and one sister. They lent me three thousand dollars. His first name is Peter. My second language is French.

In British grammar they are regarded as. determiners while in American grammar — as adjectives. (See 4.1.}

Cardinals may occur as part of adverbial modifiers while ordinals — as part of predicate. Compare: They live two hundred miles away, (adverbial modifier) Who is the first to answer the question? (predicative)

Cardinals may enter compound nouns such as a two-year absence, a three-week holiday, a three-month course, etc.

5.4.2. Noun-substitutes

Cardinals can be often used on their own as noun-substitutes or pronouns, in a sentence being eithei subject or object. For example: We invited a lot of people but only twelve came/only twelve of them came, (subject) She saw four of them laughing at her. (object)

Besides, as noun-substitutes cardinals can realize all other possible syntactic functions when they are used to show: 1) the process of calculation by numbers: Two by two is four. (Two by two is subject, four — predicative) Fifteen divided by three is five. (Fifteen is subject, three is attribute, five — predicative) 2) dates — He was born in 1749. (in the year of 1749, pronounced seventeen forty ni­ne adverbial modifier); 3) time — We left at 4.25p.m. (pronounced four twenty five adverbial modifier);

4) age — He is thirty seven. (37 years old — predicative);

5) temperature — The temperature rose to plus thirty. (=+30 degrees — adverbial modifier); 6) price — It cost six eighty-five. (=6 pounds 85 pence or 6 dollars 85 cents — predicative); 7) the score in a game — Becker won the first set six-three. (=by six games to three: 6—3 — ad­verbial modifier).

5.4.3. Substantivized numerals

All the cardinal and ordinal numerals are easily sub­stantivized and thus acquire some noimal characteristics.

When cardinals take the nounal form they are usually used in the plural: Three twos make six. The teacher divided us into fours. You can buy cigarettes in tens or twenties. I have been there hundreds of times. There were thousands/millions of people there.

Yet sometimes, especially with reference to card games or sports such as cricket or rowing, substantivized numerals may occur in the singular form with either the indefinite or definite article. For example: The Oxford eight is/are using a new lightweight boat. This shirt is a fourty-two. (=size 42) Will you make up a four for a game of cards? He hit a four. That' easily a six, (in cricket a hit worth four or six runs)

Substantivized ordinal numerals can be used both in singular and plural. The plural usually occurs as the denominator in fractions. For example: Suddenly there was a cry, then a second, and a third. Water takes up three-fourths of our planet's surface.


1. Answer the following questions using cardinals:

1. How many days are there in a year?

2. How many days are there in February, March, and April?

3. How many men are there in a football team?

4. How many grams are there in a kilogram?

5. How many new pence are there in a pound?

6. How many hours are there in a day?

2. Translate into English using cardinals:

1. Вы найдете этот рассказ на странице 15. 2. Он только что закончил чтение третьего тома. 3. Вам нужен 73-й автобус. 4. Он живет по адресу: Парковая улица, дом 65. 5. Ваши студенты в комнате 307.

6. Наш поезд отходит с платформы 9.7. Рейс 562 за­держивается. 8. Откройте раздел 24.

3. Translate into English using the words dozen, hundred, thousand, million in the proper form:

1. Я говорила ему об этом миллион раз. 2. Я сталкивался с этой проблемой десятки раз. 3. В результате взрыва на заводе погибли сотни людей. 4. Современный компьютер способен выполнять тысячи операций за секунды. 5. По предположениям некоторых ученых человек существует уже несколько миллионов лет. 6. По решению суда компании приш­лось заплатить штраф в размере миллиона долларов.

7. В Англии дюжина яиц стоит 80 пенсов, а в Рос­сии — 6 тысяч рублей. 8. Этот городок расположен в двустах милях к северу от Лондона. 9. Во время праздника на стадионе находились тысячи людей. 10. Глубина Марианской впадины в Тихом океане достигает 11 тысяч метров.

4. Translate into English using ordinals:

10-е января, 2-е февраля, 8-е марта, 1-е апреля, 9-е мая, 12-е июня, 14-е июля, 24-е августа, 19-е сентября, 30-е октября, 16-е ноября, 25-е декабря.

5. Translate into English using ordinals:

Генрих VIII, Людовик XIV, Георг V, Елизаве­та II, Ричард III, Чарльз I Екатерина II, Петр I.

6. Translate into English using ordinals:

1. Это произошло уже во второй раз. 2. Он живет на 13-м этаже. 3. Это уже 5-й директор компании за последние 2 года. 4. Вы — 20-й студент, который за­дает этот вопрос. 5. Она сдала экзамен с первого ра­за. 6. Их семья достаточно состоятельна, чтобы ку­пить вторую машину. 7. В состязаниях по бегу этот спортсмен пришел третьим. 8. Вторая мировая война началась 2-го сентября 1939 года. 9. Время называют четвертым измерением. 10. Он бывает на работе раз в 3 дня.

7. Translate into English using fractional numerals:

1. Вместимость чайной ложки составляет 1/3 столовой ложки. 2. 1 американский галлон равен 3.785 литра. 3. 1 американская пинта приблизительно составляет 1/5 галлона. 4. 1 фут составляет 1/3 ярда. 5. 1 дюйм равен 1/12 фута.

8. Read out the following extracts paying special attention to the italicised numerals:

a) Because of the movements of individual stars, the stellar configurations we call constellations are conti­nuously changung their shape. 50.000 years from now we

would find it difficult to recognize Orion or the Big Dipper. But from year to year the changes are not noticeable. Linguistic change is also slow, in human, if not astronomical, terms. If we were to turn on a radio and miraculously recieve a broadcast in our native language from the year 3000, we would probably think we had tuned in some foreign-language station.

b) The following example from Caedmon's Hymn in Old English spoken and written in the period between A.D. 658 and 680 will reveal why it must be studied as a «foreign» language.

c) Anthropologists think that man has existed for at least 1.000.000 years, and perhaps for as long as 6.000.000 years. But the earliest deciphered written re­cords are barely 6.000 years old, dating from the writings of the Sumerians of 4000 BC.

d) Now, though, less than 500 years later, English is used by at least some of the people in almost every country in the world. English is the native language of about 250.000.000 people (mostly citizens of Australia, Canada, Great Britain, New Zealand and United States). About 50.000.000 others are fluent in English as a second language, and 100.000.000 or more others understand or can use English to some extent.



6.1. Definition

The verb is a part of speech which includes words or groups of words denoting an action, or state.

For example: He read a book. They usually have breakfast at 9 o'clock a.m. She took off her coat. They took part in the discussion, (action) She feels hungry. (state)

6.2. Morphological structure of verbs

According to their morphological structure verbs may be classified into 1) simple, 2) derivative, 3) com­pound and 4) composite or multi-word.

Simple verbs consist of a root-stem only: bring, cut, put, take, use, etc.

Derivative verbs are formed from nouns, adjectives and verbs by means of suffixes and prefixes: standardize < standard, finalize < final, regulate < regular, enlarge < large', rewrite < write, disclose < close.

The verb-forming suffixes are:

-ize/-ise: containerize, modernize, hospitalize,

-fy-ify. purify, terrify., modify, codify.

-ate: activate, separate, appreciate.

The verb-forming prefixes are:

be-, befriend, belittle,

ante-, antedate,

post-, postdate, postmark:

pre-: predate, prearrange, preclude,

re-, reform, reread, reunite,

de-: decompose, depopulate, denounce,

mis-: misbehave, misunderstand, mistrust,

dis-: discover, disconnect,

un-: undo, undress, unblock.

Compound verbs consist of two stems: daydream, broadcast, browbeat.

Composite or multi-word verbs function as polylexe-mic equivalents of one word. They include: 1) verb + noun collocations, such as bring home, catch fire, have breakfast, go to bed, pay a visit, take into account, etc.; 2) prepositional verbs, such as look after, look for, look into, take after and so on; 3) phrasal verbs, or idiomatic combinations of verb and prepositional adverb such as: bring about (cause), cut down (reduce), go on (continue), put up (raise), take in (deceive), etc. (See also 7.4.)

6.3. finite vs non-finite forms

The verb exists through a variety of grammatical forms that perform different syntactic functions.

According to their syntactic position verbal forms are divided into two main groups: finite (личные) and non-finite or verbals (неличные).

Finite verbal forms always function as predicate. They show a particular mood and tense and are linked to subject and agree with it in person and number. / am a teacher. He is at school. She reads much.

The non-finite verbal forms or verbals the present participle or Participle I, the past participle or Particip­le II, the gerund and the infinitive can never be predicate in a sentence and thus have no grammatical subject. But they may perform predicative function, that is be part of a predicate in association with finite verbal forms. For example: He is watching TV. The house is built. The book has been read. My aim is to master English.

The verbals combine some characteristics of a verb with those of some other part of speech. Thus the gerund and infinitive have besides verbal characteristics some nounal features and therefore may function as subject and object: Reading English books in the original requires an extensive vocabulary, (subject) / remember hearing it before, (object) To read English books in the original is a difficult task for a beginner, (subject) / learned to read at the age of four, (object)

The participle has the characteristics of both verb and adjective and sometimes of verb and adverb. This results in the syntactic functions of attribute and adverbial modifier: Barking dogs never bite. The broken cup was on the table, (attribute) She always does her homework watching TV. (adverbial modifier) (For details see 6.17.1., 6.17.2., 6.17.3.}

6.4. Syntagmatic functioning of verbs

Irrespective their syntactic function verbs in either finite or non-finite form are characterized by their most significant grammatical feature, namely syntagmatics, that is their association with other parts of sentence. Syntag-

matically verbs may be transitive, ditransitive, and intran­sitive.

Transitive verbs take a direct object: / saw the boy in the park. Seeing the boy in the park his mother waved to him. She opened the door. Having opened the door, we noticed a letter on the table. I raised my hat to greet her. I greeted her by raising my hat.

Intransitive verbs fall into 2 groups: 1) those which are used absolutely, that is require no object: My friends are coming to have dinner with us. I didn 't sleep very well last night. My children cannot swim. The sun rises in the East. 2) those that require a prepositional object: We waited for the bus for an hour. We agreed on a price for the car. She dealt with the difficult situation effectively. , Such verbs as give, bring, hand, send, buy can take

both direct and indirect objects and are called ditransitive. For example: She gave the girl a glass of water. Bring Peter the book. I handed her a box of chocolates. We sent my friends a letter. Let me buy you a drink. (The girl, Peter, her, friends, me — are indirect objects; a glass of water, the box, a letter, a drink are direct objects.)

The above sentences may as well be restructured into: She gave a glass of water to the girl. Bring the book to Peter. I handed a box of chocolates to her. We sent a letter to my friends. Let me buy a drink to you. Here the girl, Peter, her, friends and you are prepositional objects.

Verbs may be transitive in one of their uses and in­transitive in another. Compare: The cup fell and broke. — I broke the cup. The letter reads as follows... — We read the letter. She always writes with a pen. — She wrote to me a letter asking to come.

Besides, in a sentence verbs are often associated with adverbs or adverbial phrases used to modify or limit them. For example: He sings very well. She spoke in a low voice. Leaving the room hurriedly, he ran out. Excuse me for coming late.

6.5. Conjugation of verbs

The conjugation of the English verb is based on the 4 main forms. The first 2 forms are finite, the other 2 are non-finite.

The first is the present tense form which is equivalent to the infinitive without to and is used to form The Pre­sent Indefinite (Simple) Tense: come, read, clean, work, cry, etc. For example: / work every day. My children never cry.

The exception is the verb to be which has three pre­sent tense forms: am — in the first person singular, is — in the third person singular, and are — in the plural: I am a teacher. He is a pilot. We are friends. They are late. You are my only friend.

In the third person singular the present tense form takes the -(e)s suffix: He works every day. My daughter never cries. The exceptions are the verbs have and do. Their forms in the third person singular are has and does. He has nothing to do. She does all the homework. The second is the past tense form, came, read, cleaned, worked, cried, etc. Be has two forms: was, were.

As the above examples show there is a formal dif­ference between the past tense forms. This is due to the type of a particular verb. (See 6.6.)

The third form is the Past Participle or Participle II.

Formally the past participle of a regular verb is homonymous to the past tense form and thus has the -ed suffix. In the case of irregular verbs the past participle has a form of its own. Compare: clean cleaned cleaned, cry cried cried (regular); come came come, speak spoke — spoken, am, is, are was, were been (irregular). (See Sections 6.6., 6.17.1}

The fourth form is the Present Participle or Parti­ciple I. Its formal sign is the -ing suffix which is added to the first form of a verb: coming, reading, crying, being. (6.17.1.)

6.6. Regular vs irregular verbs

The majority of verbs in English are regular in the sense that their past and past participle forms are inva­riably made up by means of the suffix -ed. For example: talk talked — talked, cry — cried — cried.

In accordance with the general rule the -ed suffix is pronounced [d] after final vowels or voiced consonants of the present tense form: cry cried, swallow swallowed, love — loved, beg — begged; [t] after voiceless consonants: ask asked, miss missed, smash smashed, grudge grudged; [id] after [d, t] sounds: end ended, present — presented, doubt doubted.

Irregular verbs do not follow the usual pattern as far as the formation of past and past participle forms are concerned. Some irregular verbs change their root vowel: run ran run, sing — sang — sung, meet — met — met, speak — spoke spoken.

Some other verbs have one word for the present, past and past participle forms: put put put, set set set, shut — shut — shut.

Irregular verbs may come from different (suppletive) stems: go went gone; am, is, are was, were been.

Irregular verbs may have only one or two forms: can could, may — might, will — would, shall — should, must, ought. Such verbs are often called defective or modals. (See 6.11. — 6.15.)

6.7. Classes of verbs: functions

With regard to the type of meaning verbs represent and their function in a sentence they are usually classified into: 1) meaningful (notional) verbs; 2) link-verbs (semi-auxiliary), 3) auxiliary verbs; 4) modal verbs.

Note that some of English verbs such as be and have. may fulfil all the above function. Some other verbs like shall, will, should, would combine auxiliary and modal functions.

Meaningful (notional) verbs such as know, read, jump, feel, cry and so on have independent lexical meaning and function in a sentence. They are used as verbal predicates and express an action or state of a per­son or thing denoted by the subject: Do you know the answer to the question? He read the book in a day. The children jumped up and down.

Meaningful verbs in the present tense form are cha­racterized by the -(e)s suffix of the third person singular: He knows four languages. She never cries.

The exceptions are the verbs be, and have which in the third person singular have is, and has correspondingly. The third person singular of the verb do is also irregular in terms of its pronunciation: does .

Link-verbs such as be, become, get, grow, etc. are syntactically dependent: they are used as part of a compound verbal or nominal predicate. It is evening. He is a teacher. He has become a teacher. We soon became acclimatized to hot weather. It is getting dark. The noise grew louder. She is growing fat. They preserve their lexical meaning and fulfil the grammatical function: they are supposed to indicate mood, tense and other verbal characteristics. (See 6.8.}

Auxiliaries, that is verbs like be, have, do, shall, will, etc. have no lexical meaning. They are used to form grammatical tenses as parts of the simple verbal predicate. For example: They are watching TV. He has already written the letter. I don't like theatre. We shall never meet again. (See 6.8., 6.9., 6.10., 6.11., 6.12.)

Modals such as can, must, may and so on have a special meaning: they express the speaker's attitude towards the action rendered by means of the infinitive they are always syntactically associated with. Compare: 7 can work. I must work. I will work.

Since such verbs as be, have and do are polyfunc-tional in English each of them deserves special attention.

6.8. Be: functions

In the present be has 3 forms: am (the first person singular), is (the third person singular), are (the plural).

The corresponding negative forms are: am not/'m not, is not/isn't, are not/aren't.

In the past be has 2 forms: was (singular), were (plural). The negative forms are: was not/wasn't, were not/ weren 't.

The past participle of be is been. The present parti­ciple is being.

Be has 4 main functions:

1. Be may be used as a notional verb in the meaning «exist, take place, happen, go, visit», etc. For example: Where have you been? To be. or not to be that is the question... (W. Shakespeare)

This function is performed very rarely.

2. Be is often used as a link-verb, i.e. represents both lexical and grammatical meanings expressing mood, tense and other verbal categories. This function is basically re­vealed in 5 grammatical patterns. They are: 1) be + noun: / am a teacher. They are friends. 2) be + adjective: We are late. She is nervous. In these two cases be together with nouns or adjectives forms the compound nominal predicate. 3) be + gerund: My aim is mastering English. In this sentence is is part of the compound verbal pre­dicate. 4) be + infinitive: My aim is to master English. Here be is part of the compound verbal predicate. 5) be + adverb or adverbial phrase: The book is over there. The children are in the garden. In these sentences be functions as part of the predicate of the mixed type.

3. Be often occurs as an auxiliary that is reflected in the two grammatical patterns. They are as follows: a) be + Participle I to form continuous (or progressive) tenses: / am sitting now. They were playing football, ft has been raining since morning, b) be + Participle II to form the

Passive Voice: The cup is broken. The house was built. The key has been lost. In all these cases be is part of the simple verbal predicate.

4. Be may fulfil a modal function as well when it is associated with the infinitive to express obligation of a pre-planned character or mutual arrangement: She was to meet him at five o'clock sharp. The train is to arrive at nine o'clock p.m. We are to be married in June. In these cases be is part of the compound verbal predicate.

Note that irrespective of its function when used in simple tenses be does not require do as an auxiliary to form questions and negative sentences. For example: She is not my friend. Where is the book? Was the house built? They are not to be married in June.

6.9. Have: functions

The present tense forms of the verb are have and in the third person singular — has. The corresponding negative forms are have not/haven't and has not/hasn't.

The past form of have is had. Its negative form is had not/hadn 't.

The past participle of have is had. The present par­ticiple is having.

Have can perform 4 functions.

1. Have as well as its synonym have got are often used as notional verbs in the meaning «own, possess» which is realized in the pattern have + noun: / have a daughter. He had some good news today. We must have your answer by Friday.

As a meaningful verb have and have got cannot be used in progressive tenses. To form questions and negative sentences there are three possible ways: 1) Have you got any questions? — / haven't got any questions. 2) Do you have any questions? — I don't have any questions? 3) Ha­ve you any questions? I haven't any questions.

2. As a link-verb have functions in a number of set expressions which are polylexemic equivalents of one word denoting action. Compare: to have breakfast — to breakfast, to have dinner to dine, to have a smoke — to smoke, to have a bath to bathe, to have a look to look and so on.

In this function have can take progressive form: When I came home my family were having tea.

Note that have got is not possible in these expres­sions. Compare: I have a bath every day. (=1 take a bath every day) — / have got a bath. (=There is a bath in my house.)

In simple tenses the use of do in questions and nega­tions is obligatory: / don't usually have a big lunch. He doesn't have a rest after dinner. Did you have a swim yesterday?

3. Have is used as an auxiliary to form perfect ten­ses. This function is revealed in the pattern have + past participle: / have broken a cup. The cup has been broken. It has been raining since morning.

Have is also used as an auxiliary in non-finite perfect forms. For example: Having finished the letter he sent it down to be posted. It is better to live than to have lived.

4. In combination with infinitives have as well as have got functions as a modal to express obligation arising out of circumstances: / have to go now. = I have got to go now.

To form questions and negative sentences there arc two possible ways: 1) Do you have to work tomorrow? — 1 don't have to work tomorrow. 2) Have you got to work tomorrow? — I haven't got to work tomorrow.

Note that in the past tense only one variant is possible: Did you have to work last week? No, I didn't have to work last week.

6.10. Do: functions

The present tense forms of the verb are do and in the third person singular — does. The negative forms are do not/don't and does not/doesn 't.

The past form of do is did. Its negative is did not/ didn't.

The past participle form is done, the present parti­ciple is doing.

Do may fulfil 4 functions.

1. As a notional verb, do is used in the meaning «perform, carry out (an action), busy oneself with»: What are you doing now? What shall I do next? I will do what I can. I have nothing to do.

Do often takes various nouns to form recurrent set expressions denoting actions which are necessary in order to complete something or bring it into a desired state. For example: to do a crossword/a sum/one's homework (the cooking, the cleaning, the washing, the ironing, the shop-

ping)/one's hair/flowers/rep aires /business/exercises/sci-ence/duty/a favour/harm/good/one's best, etc.

In the Present and Past Simple tenses an additional do is necessary to form questions and negations: Do you do your morning exercises regularly? The photograph do-esn 't do her justice.

2. As an auxiliary, do is always used in the Present and Past Simple tenses to form questions and negative sentences as well as in the negative form of the imperative mood. For example: Do your children read much? She doesn't do her work properly. I don't work. Don't be so rude.

3. In the Present and Past Simple tenses do may often function as a verb-substitute to replace a verb alrea­dy used: She plays the piano better than she did last year. The same function is performed in disjunctive questions (or question tags) when do replaces the verb in the sta­tement: He lives in London, doesn't he? So you want to be a doctor, do you?

4. In the Present and Past Simple tenses and in the imperative mood do often performs the emphatic function to stress the affirmative nature of the statement: That's exactly what he did say. I do want to go! Do tell me what happened!

6.11. Shall: Junctions

The third person singular of the present tense is shall. The negative form is shall not/shan't.

Shall combines auxiliary and modal functions.

1. Shall may be used as an auxiliary in the first person both singular and plural to form the future tense: / shall have completed my report by Tuesday. We shall be away next week.

Note that in ordinary modern speech mil or its short form 'II is more often used than shall.

2. As a modal, shall is used with all persons to form statements or questions expressing obligation, duty, command and in the negative prohibition. It should be brought out prosodically. For example: Shall I open the window? (= Do you want me to open the window?) Shall the boy wait? You shall not have it! It's mine.

In this meaning shall is often used in formal writing: You shall not kill. (The Bible) Payments shall be made by check.

6.12. Will: functions

The third person singular form is will. The negative is mil not/won't.

Will performs both auxiliary and modal functions.

Will is used as an auxiliary in the second and third person singular and plural to form the future tense in statements, questions and negative sentences. For examp­le: You will miss your train unless you hurry. They say it will rain tomorrow. What time will she be arriving? He won't come to the party.

In modern English the short form 'II is regularly used in the first person singular as part of the future tense as well as mil which acquires a modal meaning of wish,

willingness or unwillingness in the negative: / will have finished the job by that time. I will never come again.

2. As a modal, will can be used with all persons and has a variety of uses. In most cases it is brought out pro­sodically.

a) It expresses willingness, intention, consent (and unwillingness in the negative): All right, I will come. We will pay the money soon. He will have his own way. We can't find anyone who who will take the job. I won't do the work. He won't listen to me.

b) When will is used in polite requests it is often equivalent to «please»: Will you come in? Will you have a cup of tea? Shut the door, will you?

c) Will may be used in negative sentences with reference to objects to show them as unable to fulfil their function: The pen won't write. The knife won't cut. The lift won't work.

d) Will may express various degrees of possibility. For example: This car will hold five people comfortably. (=can) This will be the postman at the door now. (=must) To refer action to the past mil takes a perfect infinitive: Do you think he will have got my letter yet?

e) Will is also used to indicate characteristic beha­viour or regular actions in the present. For example: Ac­cidents will happen. Boys will be boys. She will ask silly questions. He will sit there for hours looking at the traffic go by.

6.13. Should: functions


The third person singular is should. The negative form is should not/shouldn 't.

Should can fulfil auxiliary and modal functions.

1. As an auxiliary, should is used in three gramma­tical patterns.

a) In the first person it indicates the Future-in-the Past in reported speech: / told him that I should see him the next day. We promised we should he back before night­fall

b) With all persons it is used as part of the Suppositional Mood: / was anxious our plan should not

fail. He suggests we should help him. If it should rain tomorrow we shall stay home.

c) In the first person it may occur as part of the Conditional Mood though in Modern English such uses are regarded as either formal or old-fashioned. For example: / should be surprised if he came.

2. As a modal, should is used in its full form with all persons and performs two functions.

a) It is used to express mild obligation in the form of advice or recommendation: If you see anything unusual you should call the police. He shouldn't be so impatient with the child.

To refer action to the past should takes passive infinitive: You should have told me this long ago. He shouldn 't have said this.

b) It may express probability: The photos should be ready by tomorrow morning. He studied much, he should pass the examination. There shouldn't be any difficulty about getting this book.

6.14. Would: functions

The third person singular is would. The negative' form is would not/wouldn't.

Would performs auxiliary and modal functions.

1. As an auxiliary, would is used in the two gramma­tical patterns.

a) In the second and third persons it indicates the Future-in-the Past in reported speech: They said they would meet us at the station. I knew she would be annoyed.

b) In the second and third persons it is used to form the Conditional Mood: She would be surprised if he came. What would you do if you won a million dollars?

2. As a modal would is basically used in its full form which is prosodically stressed. It may be observed in a variety of cases.

a) With all persons it is used to show willingness or in the negative — unwilligness in the past: They couldn't find anyone who would take the job. He said there had been a serious accident, but wouldn 't give any details.

b) In the second person it is used to form a polite request: Would you please lend me your pencil? Shut the door, would you?

c) It is used in the negative with reference to the object unable to fulfil its function: My car wouldn't start yesterday. The lift wouldn't work for two days.

d) It is used to show regular actions in the past: We used to work in the same office and we would often have coffee together.

6.15. Modals

Modal verbs are used to express the speaker's attitu­de towards the action or state denoted by the infinitive they are grammatically associated with, that is they show actions denoted by infinitives as obligatory, necessary, advisable, desirable, possible, impossible, uncertain, etc. They are: must, can (could), may (might), ought, shall, will, should, would, be, have, need, dare.

Modals are called defective verbs since most of them lack the non-finite forms and cannot be used in the analytical patterns such as perfect, continuous, passive as well as future tense forms. The exceptions are: be, have, need and dare. Besides, modals do not take the -(e)s suf­fix in the first person singular. Such verbs as be and have are characterized by the special forms of their own: The train is to arrive in an hour. The boy has to go to school.

Modals normally take infinitives without to with the exception of ought, be, have and sometimes dare and need.

Modals do not require any auxiliary to form ques­tions and negative sentences except for the verb have. Do your children have to wear a uniform at school? Does she have to get up early tomorrow?

According to the meaning modals can be classified into several groups: 1) verbs expressing obligation, ne­cessity — must, have to, be to, shall, should, ought to; 2) verbs denoting supposition, possibility, certainty/uncer­tainty must, may(might), can(could), should, ought to, will, 3) verbs expressing ability — can(could), 4) verbs expressing permission, requests, offers, invitations — may/

might, will/would, can/could, 5) verbs denoting willing­ness will, would.

6.15.1. Modals expressing obligation

There are 6 modals which express obligation: must, have to/have got to, be to, shall, should, ought to. Must

Must expresses strong moral obligation, necessity, determination. For example: / must work. (=1 need to work. I am determined to work. Nobody makes me work.)

Grammatically must as a modal expressing obligation is the present tense form that has no counterparts in the past and future. Therefore the idea of must in those tenses is rendered by means of have to. She felt she had to have the air. We are sure we'll have to forgive him.

Note that in indirect speech must is used to refer an action to the past: The doctor told me I must stop smoking.

Must is always associated with the infinitive without to and has no -s suffix in the third person singular: This information must be given to the general public.

Must does not take any auxiliary to form a question or a negation. The negative forms of must are 1) must not/mustn't which expresses prohibition and 2) need not/ needn't that denotes unnecessary action. Compare: You mustn't smoke in the classroom. (=It is forbidden to smoke here.) — You needn't arrive at the airport till 10.30. (=It is unnecessary to arrive at the airport till 10.30.) Have to/have got to "

Have to/have got to expresses obligation arising out of circumstances: / have to work now. I have got to go now. (= I am obliged to.) / had to get up early yesterday. I'll have to meet him at the station tomorrow.

Have always requires the infinitive with the particle to.

In the third person singular of the present tense have to is used in the form of has to: The work has to be done by tomorrow.

As a modal have to always takes the auxiliary do to form questions and negation.


Do we have to stay after the classes? No, you don't have to stay after the classes.

Have we got to stay after the classes? No, you haven't got to stay after the classes.

Does she have to get to the airport in an hour? — No, she doesn 't have to get to the airport in an hour.

Has she got to get to the airport in an hour? No, she hasn 't got to get to the airport in an hour.

Did they have to learn the poem by heart? No, they didn 't have to learn the poem by heart. Be to

Be to expresses obligation of a pre-planned character or mutual arrangement: She was to meet him at five o'clock sharp. The train is to arrive at nine o'clock p.m. We are to be married in June.

As a modal be always takes the infinitive with to.

In the third person singular of the present tense be is used in the form of is: The child is to be in bed at 8 о 'clock.

Be does not require do as an auxiliary to form ques­tions and negative sentences. For example: She is not to be my friend. Was he to stay here for long? Shall

Shall is used to express moral obligation, duty, com­mand. For example: Shall I open the window? (= Do you want me to open the window?) Shall the boy wait?

In this meaning shall is often used in formal writing: You shall not kill. (The Bible) Whoever commits robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment and shall also be liable to a fine. Payment shall be made by the end of the month.

In the negative shall expresses prohibition: You shall not have it! It's mine. He says he will do it but I say he shall not (do it). Should

Should is used to express mild obligation in the form of advice or recommendation: If you see anything unusual you should call the police. You should practise more to become a professional musician.

To refer an action to the past should takes a perfect infinitive: You should have told me this long ago. He shouldn 't have said this.

The negative form of should is used to warn that an action is wrong or unwise. For example: He shouldn't be so impatient with people. You shouldn't talk so loud; you'll wake the baby. Compare with needn't which means that

something is unnecessary: You needn't talk so loud; I can hear you.

In modern English should is synonymous to ought to though should is milder in British English. Ought to

The third person singular is ought. Its negative form is ought not/oughtn't. Ought always takes the infinitive with to.

Ought to is used to denote moral duty: She ought to look after her children better. You ought to be ashamed oj yourself.

To refer an action to the past ought takes a perfect infinitive: You ought to have helped him. This old coal ought to have been thrown away years ago.

The negative form of ought is used to warn against г wrong or unwise action: You oughtn 't to talk so loud, you'll wake the baby. Compare needn't which denotes an unnecessary action: You needn't talk so loud; you'll wake the baby.

Ought and should are similar in meaning but ought is slightly stronger in British English.

6.15.2. Modals expressing supposition

There are 8 modals expressing supposition, proba­bility or possibility to various degrees: must, may, might, should, ought to, can, could, will. Must

Must expresses certainty, assurance, almost a convic­tion, i.e. the highest degree of supposition. For example:

Where is he? He must be in the library. (=1 am sure he is in the library.) You must feel tired after your long walk. You must be the new teacher. (=1 suppose you are.) The meal must be ready by now. (=1 am sure it is.)

To refer an action to the past must takes a perfect infinitive: / saw him a few years ago. He must have been forty. There's nobody here — they must have all gone home. They must have known about it.

The negative form of must as a modal of supposition is cannot/can't. He can't be in the library. You can't be the new teacher. You can't be hungry after dinner.

In the past cannot/can't or couldn't take a perfect infinitive: They can't have known about it. He couldn't have been in the library. Ought to/should

Ought to and should can be often used in the same contexts as less strong forms of must expressing milder supposition. For example: He should/ought to be in the library now. (=He is probably in the library.) She has been studying very hard, so she should/ought to pass her examination.

In this meaning should and ought to are mainly used in the positive sentences to refer actions to the present or future. May/might

Although might is historically the past form of may in Modern English both may and might generally function independently.

In the third person singular their forms are may and might. They never take an auxiliary to form questions and negations. The negative forms of may and might are may not/mayn 't and might not/mightn 't.

As compared with must, may and might express a less degree of supposition, possibility, and probability: He may/might come or he may not/might not. We will do whatever may/might be necessary. I may/might see you tonight; I don't know yet. He may/might be having lunch.

To refer an action to the past may and might take a perfect infinitive. For example: Why hasn't she come? She may/might have stopped to talk to someone. She may/might have missed the train.

Although may and might are similar in meaning and in most cases interchangeable might sometimes suggests a smaller possibility than may: Compare: He might come, but it is very unlikely. That car nearly hit me; I might have been killed.

In the indirect speech might can also be used as the past form of may. I thought it might rain. (=1 thought, «It may rain».)

Might is often used as a synonym to should and ought to: You might at least say 'good-by' when you leave. You might have offered to carry her suitcase. Can/could

Although etymologically could is the past form of can, in Modern English they are often used on their own.

In the third person singular their forms are can and could. They need not an auxiliary to form questions and negations. Their negative forms are cannot/can't and could not/couldn 't.

Can is used to show possibility. For example: / am sure they can find a solution. He is confident that the problem can be settled. This word can't be used in such a context. Can this be true? This can't be true.

Can is not usually used to express uncertainty. In­stead may/might and less commonly could are used: He may/might/could have lost the papers. The papers may/ might/could be lost. The car may/might/could have broken down.

Could expresses uncertainty, probability: What shall we do tonight? — We could go to the theatre. What will you do tomorrow? — We could have a party. When shall we meet? — We could meet on Sunday. I don't know how managed to do the work. I couldn 't do it.

Can is also possible in the above contexts but it is more certain than could. We can go to the theatre. We can have a party. We can meet on Sunday.

To refer an action to the past could takes a perfect infinitive: We could have gone to the theatre last night but we decided not to. We couldn't have chosen a worse day for the picnic it rained nonstop.

Could can be used like may and might denoting uncertainty but it is less common: The line is engaged. He may/might/could be talking to someone. He may/might/ could be trying to phone me while I'm phoning him. Will

Will may express various degrees of possibility: strong supposition, assurance and be equivalent to must and certainty being synonymous to can. For example: This will be the postman at the door now. Why are we overdrawn? This will be the desk we bought, it's too

expensive. (=must) This car mil hold five people comfor­tably. (=can)

6.15.3, Modals expressing ability

Modals which express ability — mental or physical are can and its past form could. He can run very fast. He could run very fast when he was a schoolboy. 1 can get the tickets tonight. She couldn't get the tickets yesterday.

Can/could in this meaning are generally equivalent to be able to. But can/could is more common: Can you speak any foreign languages? = Are you able to speak any foreign languages?

Besides can/could are preferably used with such verbs as see, hear, smell, taste, feel, understand, remem­ber. I can hear what they are talking about. We couldn 't understand his words.

However in some cases be able to is possible and even obligatory for can has no present perfect tense, future tense and infinitive: He hasn't been able to sleep well recently. I'll be able to play the Beethoven violin concherto if I practise for long enough. She might not be able to come tomorrow.

When talking about the past, both could and was ab­le to are possible: could expresses ability and power in ge­neral while was able to is used to denote ability in a par­ticular situation and thus equivalent to managed to. Com­pare: My brother was an excellent tennis player. He could beat anybody. (=He had the ability to beat anybody) — Once he had a difficult game against an American tennis player who played very well but in the end my brother was able to beat him. (=He managed to beat him.)

6.75.4. Modals expressine permission.__requests,

offers, invitations

Modals expressing permission, requests, offers and invitations are can/could, may/might, and will/would.

When asking for permission one can use can, could, may and might. Can/Could/May/Might I use your pen?

While giving permission can and may are used but never could. You can/may smoke if you like.

Except in formal writing can is now more common than may to express permission for the present and future: You can go now. (=You may go now.) You can borrow my car tomorrow. (=You may borrow my car tomorrow.)

In British English might is used instead of may for asking permission politely: Might I come? Yes, of course, you may.

To offer things can is usual: Can I help you?

Will is often used in polite, requests and is equivalent to «please»: Will you come in? Will you have a cup of tea? Shut the door, will you?

Would is also used for offering and inviting as part of would like. Would you like a cup of tea? Would you like to come and see us tomorrow?

6.15.5. Modals expressing willingness

Modals expressing willingness are will and would.

Will expresses willingness, intention, consent (and unwillingness in the negative): All right, I will come. We will pay the money soon. He will have his own way. We can't find anyone who will take the job. I won't do the work. He won't listen to me.

Will may be used in negative sentences with refe­rence to objects to show them as unable to fulfil their function: The pen won't write. The knife won't cut. The lift won't work.

Would is used to show willingness or in the negati­ve — unwilligness in the past: They couldn 't find anyone who would take the job. He said there had been a serious accident, but wouldn 't give any details.

It is used in the negative with reference to the object unable to fulfil its function in the past: My car wouldn't start yesterday. The lift wouldn't work for two days.

6.15.6. Semi-defective verbs: need and dare

Need expressing necessity or demand and dare which has the meaning «be brave or rude to do something dangerous or difficult» are treated together because they both are semi-defective verbs. This means that they may function as both modals and meaningful verbs.

As meaningful verbs they 1) take the -s suffix in the third person singular of the present tense; 2) use infini­tives with to, 3) require the auxiliary do to form questions and negations. For example: He needs to study. He doesn't need to study. She dares to blame her mother for all her failures. He did not dare to meet his uncle.

In the modal function, on the contrary, they 1) ne­ver take the -5 suffix in the third person singular except for dare, 2) use infinitives without to except for need, 3) do not require any auxiliary to form questions and negative sentences. For example: Need he study? He needn't study. That is as much as I dare tell you. How

dare you accuse me of lying? I daren't tell you any more, ; because it is confidential.

I Note that in Modern English dare tends to be more i recurrent in the modal function while need can be I observed in both. I Both need and dare are not usual in the progressive

| (continuous) tenses.

I 6.16. Meaningful verbs: grammatical categories


I Meaningful, auxiliary, and link-verbs find themselves

I in certain grammatical patterns (grammatical tenses) each I of which is the manifestation of a number of verbal I categories.

I The verb is characterized by 11 grammatical catego-

I ries. They are as follows: Mood, Tense, Taxis, Aspect, ] Voice, Person, Number, Negation, Interrogation, Expressi-Ij vity, Representation.



|'< 6.16.1. Category of Mood

(, The category of Mood expresses modality, i.e. the

I relation of an action or state to reality and can be realized

I by only a predicative verb.

\ The category of Mood is constituted by the 6 ca-

tegorial forms in English. They are as follows: 1) the In­dicative Mood, 2) the Imperative Mood, 3) Subjunctive I, 4) Subjunctive II, 5) the Conditional Mood, 6) the Suppo­sitional Mood.

The Indicative Mood shows that the action or state denoted by the predicative verb is viewed by the speaker

as an actual fact of the present, past, or future either in the form of a statement, negation, or a question. For example: My children go to school. They are having dinner now. Their father has not come yet. Does he usually come late? He won't work on Sunday.

The category of Mood in the form of the Indicative is indissolubly connected with the category of Tense and the categories of Aspect, Taxis and Voice. This results in the system of 11 grammatical tenses of the Indicative Mood: Present Simple (Indefinite), Past Simple (Indefi­nite), Future Simple (Indefinite), Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect, Present Continuous, Past Conti­nuous, Future Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous.

The Imperative Mood shows the speaker's urge to make a person fulful an action expressed in the form of a command or request. For example: Stand up! Go out! Be quiet and listen to me! Don't make a noise.

Subjunctive I, Subjunctive II, the Conditional Mood, and the Suppositional Mood are usually termed as the Ob­lique Moods. Their general function is to show an action or a state as a wish, purpose, doubt, condition, or suppo­sition, problematic or contrary to reality. For example: The order is that he stay with us. Long live the Queen! (Subjunctive I) She looks as though she were ill. I wish it wasn't raining. It is high time we had dinner. (Subjunctive II) / wish you would mind your own business. I would pre­fer not to be interviewed on the subject. (Conditional Mood) He suggests we should go to the theatre. It is ne­cessary you should stay with us. (Suppositional Mood)

The Oblique Moods as the realizations of the category of Mood are associated with the category of

Tense with the exception of Subjunctive I (which has no tenses). This means that they have systems of tenses of their own: Present Subjunctive II, Past Subjunctive II, Present Conditional, Past Conditional, Present Supposi­tional, Past Suppositional.

6.16.2. Category of Tense

The category of Tense shows the time of the action or state expressed by the verb. It is manifested in the 3 categorial forms: present, past and future.

The present tense form shows that the action is ; simultaneous with the moment of speaking. For example: He lives in London. She is doing her homework. She has already gone home. It has been snowing for two days.

The past tense form indicates that the action precedes the moment of speaking: He lived in London all his life. She was doing her homework when I visited her. She had already gone home when I rang her up. The train was pulled up by the heavy snowfall: it had been snowing for two days.

The future tense form shows that the action follows the moment of speaking. For example: He leaves for Eng­land, and will stay in London. She is busy tomorrow, she'll be doing her homework. If it snows today we'll go skiing tomorrow.

The category of Tense can also be manifested by the two forms of the participle, namely the present par­ticiple and past participle. For example: doing done, walking walked, singing sung, shouting shouted.

But in general, like the category of Mood, the category of Tense is expressed by the predicative verb. It

is always associated with the category of Mood and the categories of Taxis, Aspect and Voice and forms with them the system of 11 grammatical tenses. (See 6.16.1.)

6.16.3. Category of Taxis

The category of Taxis (категория временной отне­сенности) shows an action or state as related to another action or state. It is constituted by the correlation of perfect and non-perfect forms. Perfect forms express ante­riority and therefore finality, result or completion of ac­tion, while non-perfect forms render the idea of simul­taneity, incompletion of action.

The category of Taxis may be either connected or disconnected with the category or Tense. If the category of Taxis is related to the category of Tense, it manifests itself by the opposition of the perfect and non-perfect tenses. The perfect tenses are: the Present Perfect, the Past Perfect, the Future Perfect, the Present Perfect Conti­nuous, and the Past Perfect Continuous. The non-perfect tenses are the Present, Past, and Future Simple, the Present, Past, and Future Continuous.

The marked members of the opposition are perfect tenses which are expressed by the auxiliary have and the past participle of a meaningful verb.

The perfect tenses show an action as anterior or precedent to another action in the utterance. For examp­le: When we came to the theatre the performance had al-ready started. Our friends told us that they had been waiting for us for half an hour.

In the case of the Present and Future Perfect tenses the verbal forms show a period of time up to and

including the present and the future correspondingly: He has finished the work. We shall have finished the work by tomorrow.

The non-perfect tenses indicate that all the actions of the utterance are simultaneous or take place one after another: We came to the theatre and the performance started. My friends say they always have to wait for me long.

When the category of Taxis is taken separately, without any relation to the category of Tense, it is re­vealed by the opposition of perfect and non-perfect non-finite forms, i.e. present participle, gerund and infinitive. The strong members of the opposition are perfect forms which are represented by means of the auxiliary have and the form equivalent to past participle of a meaningful verb. Compare: reading, being read (non-perfect forms of the present participle/gerund) — having read, having been read (perfect forms of the present participle/gerund); to read, to be read, to be reading (non-perfect infinitives) — to have read, to have been read, to have been reading (perfect infinitives). (For details see 6.77.)

Non-finite perfect forms denote actions as precedent to the action expressed by the predicative verb while non-perfect non-finite forms indicate actions as simultaneous to the action expressed by the predicative verb. For example: Having read the book in two days the boy gave it back to the library. — While reading an English book in the original he had to consult the dictionary. He seems to read a lot. He seems to have read the book.

6.16.4. Category of Aspect

The category of Aspect (категория вида) shows that the action described is either a continuing action or an action that happens always, repeatedly, or for a moment. It is constituted by the correlation of continuous and non-continuous or common forms. Continuous forms view an action as a process whereas non-continuous or common forms show an action as a fact.

The category of Aspect may be either connected or disconnected with the category of Tense. If the category of Aspect is brought together with the category of Tense, it is realized by the opposition of continuous tenses such as Present, Past, Future Continuous, and with the category of Taxis — Present Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous and non-continuous tenses, i.e. Present, Past, Future Simple, Present, Past, Future Perfect. The marked mem­bers are the continuous tenses which are formed by means of the auxiliary be and the participle I of a meaningful verb. For example: The teacher is talking to his colleagues. They are discussing the curriculum. I was very busy last week, I was getting ready for my last examination. If you come in the morning we will be taking our lesson.

When taken separately the category of Aspect is re­vealed by the opposition of the continuous and non-con­tinuous forms of the infinitive. The continuous forms are made up of the auxiliary be and the form equivalent to the present participle of a meaningful verb. Compare: to read, to be read, to have read, to have been read (non-conti­nuous) — to be reading, to have been reading (continu­ous). (For details see 6.17.3.)

6.16.5. Category of Voice

The category of Voice expresses the relation between the action and its subject, indicating whether the subject acts, i.e. the action is performed by the subject, or the subject is acted on.

The category of Voice is constituted by the correla­tion of active and passive forms. Active forms are used to show that the action is performed by the subject, that the subject is the agent or doer of the action. Passive forms indicate that the subject is acted on, that the action is done to the subject.

The category of Voice can be connected or discon­nected with the category of Tense.

If the category of Voice is combined with the cate­gory of Tense and other verbal categories such as Taxis and Aspect it is realized in the opposition of active or passive forms of the grammatical tenses. The marked member of the opposition is Passive Voice which is formed by means of the auxiliary be and the past parti­ciple of a meaningful verb. Compare: We hold regular me­etings. The meetings are held regularly, I wrote a letter to a friend of mine. The letter was written. We have built a house recently. The house has been built re­cently. The building workers are painting the house now. The house is being painted now. They will have finished their work by the end of the month. The work will have been finished by the end of the month.

Taken separately, the category of Voice may mani­fest itself by the correlation of active and passive non-fi­nite verbal forms such as present participle, gerund and infinitive. The strong members of the opposition are

passive forms expressed by the auxiliary be and the form equivavlent to the past participle of a meaningful verb. Compare: reading, having read (active forms of the present participle/gerund) — being read, having been read (passive forms of the present participle/gerund); to read, to have read, to be reading, to have been reading (active forms of infinitive) — to be read, to have been read (passive forms of the infinitive). (For details see 6.17.)

6.16.6. Category of Person

The verbal category of Person manifests itself in 4 different ways in English. They are as follows.

1. The category of Person can be expressed by mea­ningful verbs in the third person singular of the Present Simple Tense. Its mark is the -(e)s suffix. For instance: He reads much. She knows English. It makes me feel nervous. He swims well.

The pronunciation of the -(e)s suffix of verbs in the third person singular is the same as that of the suffix -(e)s of nouns in the plural. (See 1.4.1.)

In the first person singular and plural, in the second and third person plural of the Present Simple Tense the category of Person is left unexpressed.

2. The category of Person is realized in the system of the verb to be as the meaningful, auxiliary, modal and link-verb in the present tense by means of the suppletive forms of the first person singular — am and the third person singular — is.

3. The category of Person is revealed in the third person singular of have as the meaningful, auxiliary and modal verb in the form of has: She has two children. The house has been built. She has lost her keys. It has been raining since morning. He has to leave tomorrow.

4. The category of Person is manifested by the opposition shall — will used to form the Future Tenses and should — would used to form the Future-in-the-Past. Shall and should are the marks of the first person while will — would are typical of the second and third persons. (See 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14)

Note that at present this opposition tends to be blur­red since will/would generally oust shall/should in the first person.

In the positions 1, 2 and 3 the category of Person works on a par with the category of Number.

6.16.7. Category of Number

The category of Number is closely connected with the category of Person and has 3 manifestations. They arc as follows.

1. The category of Number can be expressed by meaningful verbs in the third person singular of the Present Simple Tense. For instance: He reads much. She knows English. It makes me feel nervous.

In the first person singular and plural, in the second and third person plural of the Present Simple Tense the category of Number is left unexpressed.

2. The category of Number is revealed in the system of the verb to be as the meaningful, auxiliary, modal and

link-verb 1) in the present: am, is — singular, are — plu­ral; and 2) in the past tenses: was — singular, were — plural.

3. The category of Number is revealed in the third person singular of have as the meaningful, auxiliary and modal verb in the form of has: She has two children. The house has been built. She has lost her keys. It has been raining since morning. He has to leave tomorrow.

6.16.8. Category of Negation

The category of Negation is constituted by the correlation of affirmative and negative statements. This category manifests itself in each of the 11 grammatical tenses of the Indicative Mood and in the Imperative. The marked member of the opposition is the negative categorial form, its formal sign is the particle not, which is placed after a link-verb, a modal, or an auxiliary before a predicative in the form of a meaningful verb, noun, adjective, and so on. In spoken language not is often shortened to n't and clings to the preceding verb. For example: I'm not a student. He wasn't late. He couldn't understand the question. She doesn't speak English. They haven't come yet. He isn't watching TV, he is reading. Don't be so rude.

6.16.9. Category of Interrogation

The category of Interrogation is formed by the oppo­sition of affirmative and interrogative patterns. Is is re­vealed in each of the 11 grammatical tenses of the In-

dicative Mood. The marked member of the opposition is the interrogative form or the question that is normally ex­pressed by inversion, or reverse word order, with the help of auxiliaries. For example: I'm a teacher. — Are you a teacher? Have you been to England? When did you finish school? Was he waiting for you when you turned up?

There are 5 grammatical types of questions in English. 4 of them refer to various parts of a sentence and demand inversion. Besides they need the auxiliary do in the case of the Present and Past Simple Tenses. The last one, the question to the subject, takes a direct word order and requires no auxiliary in the Present and Past Simple Tenses. Here are the types of questions:

1. The general question which requires yes/no ans­wer: Are you a teacher? Have you been to England? Was he late? Can you swim? Was he waiting for you when you turned up ?

2. The special question which is characterized by interrogative pronouns in the initial position and can be referred to any part of sentence except for the subject: Who were you talking with? (Question to the prepositional object) Whose book did you take yesterday? (Question to the attribute) When did he finish school? Where shall we go? (Questions to the adverbial modifier) What can I do? (Question to the direct object) How many languages do you know? (Question to the attribute)

3. The alternative question which may be referred to predicate and secondary parts of a sentence and expresses opposition by means of the conjunction or: Does he drink

or smoke? (Question to the predicate) Would you like tea or coffee? (Question to the direct object) Did you spend summer in Venice or Florence? (Question to the adverbial modifier) Shall we buy some red apples or green ones?

(Question to the attribute)

4. The disjunctive question or question tag which is

added to the end of a statement and is brought out by a

comma. Positive statements are followed by negative

question tags while negative statements are followed by

positive tags. In sentences with be, have and modals, the

verb is repeated in the tag, while with meaningful verbs

the auxiliary do is employed in the tag. Compare: October

is often a fine month, isn't it? It isn't cold in October,

is it? Leaves turn red and gold then, don't they? The

leaves haven't fallen yet, have they?

Note that as part of a question tag shan't is used for

shall not and won't for will not. I shall see you soon, shan 't

I? You will be quick, won't you?

The abbreviation 'd becomes either had or would in

a negative tag: He'_d seen it before, hadn't he? You'd like

to see it too, wouldn't you?

An important exception is a negative tag involving

the first person singular and the verb to be. Here the

plural form of the verb is used: I'm meeting you next

week, aren't I? The form 'Am I not?' is also possible but

is rather formal.

The imperative may be softened by means of the question tag 'will you?' For example: Lend me 10 dollars, will you?

The suggestion «Let's» might be followed by the tag «shall we?» For example: Let's see how quickly we can get this work finished, shall we?

5. The question to the subject is formed by means of the interrogative pronouns who and what. It requires a direct word order no the auxiliary do in the case of the Present and Past Simple Tenses: Who has done it? Who

did it? Who is doing that? What is going on? What has

happaened? What happened?

6.16.10. The Category of Expressivity

The category of Expressivity manifests itself within the Present and Past Simple Tenses and the Imperative Mood. It is revealed by the opposition of stylistically neutral and expressive forms. The marked member of the opposition is the expressive form, its formal sign is the use of the emphatic do followed by the infinitive without to in affirmative sentences. Compare: / want to go. You mustn 't. But I do want to go. Why didn 't you tell me? — / told you. — I did tell you. Be careful. Do be careful. Sit down, please. Do sit down, please.

6.16.11. The category of Representation

The category of Representation shows an action as expressed in its variety, that it as such and complicated by some nounal and adjectival properties. The category is manifested by the opposition of the finite and non-finite verbal forms and is constituted by the 3 groups of forms. They are as follows: 1) the finite forms as the verbal

representation: present tense and past tense forms, 2) the infinitive and gerund as the substantival representation; 3) the participle as the adjectival representation: the pre­sent and past participles. (For details see 6.16.12. —}

6.17. Non-finite forms of verbs

The non-finite verbal forms or verbals are the present participle or Participle I, the past participle or Particip­le II, the gerund and the infinitive. Their main characte­ristic feature is determined by their syntactic functioning: verbals can never be predicate in a sentence and thus have no grammatical subject to agree with in person and num­ber. However, they may perform a predicative function, that is be part of predicate in association with finite verbal forms. For example: He is watching TV. The house was built. The book has been read. My aim is to master English.

Besides, verbals are characterized by their common traits with some other parts of speech. Infinitives and gerunds combine verbal and nounal characteristics while participles have both verbal and adjectival as well as verbal and adverbial features.

Verbals participate in the realization of some of verbal categories. Thus, the participle has two tense forms: the present — Participle 1 and the past — Participle II. For example: writing — written, cleaning — cleaned: reading read, working — worked.

Such verbals as the present participle, gerund and infinitive have Taxis and Voice distinctions. This means that they may be either perfect or non-perfect and either

active or passive. Compare: writing, being written, to write, to be written, to be writing (non-perfect) — having read, having been read, to have written, to have been written, to have been writing (perfect) writing, having written, to write, to have written, to be writing, to have been writing (active) being written, having been written, to be written, to have been written (passive).

The infinitive has also aspect distinctions: to read, to be read, to have read, to have been read non-continu­ous: to be reading, to have been reading continuous.

The three verbals retain the syntagmatic characteris­tics of the finite forms of the verb they are derived from. They may be transitive and intransitive. Compare: transi­tive The teacher told us to learn the poem by heart. (infinitive) I'm learning the poem by heart, (present par­ticiple) I've learnt the poem by heart, (past participle) On learning the news we got upset, (gerund); intransitive — I'd like you to come tomorrow, (infinitive) He's coming. (present participle) He's come, (past participle) On coming nearer I saw a friend of mine crossing the street, (gerund) See also 6.4.

As well as the finite forms of the verb participles, gerunds and infinitives are modified by adverbs: / was sitting in the armchair waiting patiently for her. She woke the child by talking loudly. Children must listen to the teacher attentively.

6.17.1. Participle

The participle is a non-finite verbal form which has some common features with the adjective or the adverb. There are two participles in English which are the two

realizations of the category of Tense: the present participle or participle I and the past participle or participle II.

The formal sign of the present participle is the -ing suffix added to the infinitive without to. being, having, doing, coming, flying, etc.

The formal sign of the past participle of regular verbs is the -ed suffix added to the first (or the present tense) form: cleaned, worked, loved and so on. Irregular verbs have past participles of their own: been, had, done, spo­ken, come, flown. Verbal characteristics of the participle

The verbal characteristics of the present participle are determined by the Categories of Taxis and Voice. This results in the following set of forms: 1) active, non-per­fect — reading, 2) passive , nonperfect — being read, 3) active, perfect having read, 4) passive perfect ha­ving been read.

The non-perfect forms of the participle show that the action is simultaneous with the action denoted by the finite form of the verb in the sentence: He was sitting in the arm-chair, looking through a magazine. She sat next to him trying various topics of conversation.

The perfect participle indicates that the action pre­cedes the action expressed by the finite verb in the sen­tence. Having looked through a magazine he rose and went away. Having tried various topics of conversation she asked him to tell her who all the people at table were.

Participle II has only one form for each of verbs which is passive, be been, have had, come come, love loved, clean cleaned, work worked. There is no corresponding active participle in English, so its func-

tion is performed by a clause. Compare: I don't like books written in the first person. — The woman who wrote the book is a friend of mine.

The present participle of a transitive verb can take a direct object: Opening the window, he noticed a stranger in the garden.

The participle can be modified by an adverb: The room was crowded by people talking and laughing noisily. Deeply impressed she couldn't help crying.

6Л 7.1.2. Adjectival characteristics of the participle Like adjectives the participle is related to a noun in the sentence, either as attribute or predicative. For exam­ple: The next minute we were welcomed by a smiling woman of about forty, (attribute) The young mother was looking at her little child, (predicative) Participle and adjective

Both present and past participles should not be con­fused with homonymous adjectives ending in -ing and -ed. These adjectives form pairs like annoying annoyed, amazing —- amazed, amusing — amused, astonishing — astonished, boring — bored, confusing confused, depres­sing — depressed, disappointing disappointed, em­barrassing — embarrassed, exhausting — exhausted, ex­citing — excited, frightening frightened, horrifying — horrified, satisfying satisfied, shocking — shocked, sur­prising — surprised, tiring tired, worrying — worried. Adverbial characteristics of the participle The adverbial character of the participle is mani­fested in its syntactic function of adverbial modifier: While travelling around the country we visited many interesting places. Having entered the house he heard some noise.

When left alone she spends her time at her writing table. Syntactic functions of participle

The participle can fulfil the following syntactic func­tions:

1) attributive: I saw a running boy. It was a pleasant room overlooking a garden. There was a broken cup on the table. This was a story made up to impress me.

2) predicative: The boy was running. The cup was broken. I have broken a cup. The cup has been broken.

In the predicative function the participle may find itself in the Complex Subject (see also}. The boy was seen running to the river. The children were heard laughing.

3) objective as part of the Complex Object (see also}: I saw a boy running along the street. She heard him playing the piano. In this function the past participle is used only after have to show an action done by someone: We have just had our house painted. (Someone has painted the house for us.) / have my hair cut once a month. (Compare: We have just painted our house. I cut my hair once a month.}

4) adverbial as part of the Absolute Participial Const­ruction. Turning round, he stared at me. While working so hard he needed fresh air. When dressed. I sat a long time by the window. He drove slowly, enjoing the evening.

Adverbial function may also be carried out by both participles when they find themselves as parts of the Absolute Nominative Participial Construction. Absolute Nominative Participial


The Absolute Nominative Participial Construction or the Nominative Absolute is a special grammatical pattern in which either the present or past participle is in pre­dicative relation to a noun in the Common Case or a pronoun in the Nominative Case; the noun or pronoun is not the subject of the sentence. For example: She turned, losing her restraint, her eyes sparkling with honest indig­nation. (A. Cronin) He found that Ann had advanced into the hall, her hands folded upon her apron, her eyes con­templating him... (A. Cronin.)

The Nominative Absolute is mainly recurrent in fic­tion or intellective prose: Supper finished, he led him into the parlour... (S. Maugham) Sitting like that, his eyes half closed, tasting blood, an image began to form hazily in his mind. (I. Shaw) Africans who spoke different languages were purposefully grouped together by the slave traders to discourage communication between the slaves, the idea being to prevent slave revolts.

The Nominative Absolute may precede or follow the sentence it is attached to or sometimes be inserted bet­ween subject and predicate and is normally separated by a comma (commas): Then Ms face lightening, he ran to the desk. (A. Christie) She had the window opened, and sat looking out, the feeble sun shining full upon her. (T. Har­dy) The Strand, it being the hour when the theatres began

to empty themselves, was a roaring torrent of humanity and vehicles. (P. Woodhouse)

The Nominative Absolute usually expresses adverbial relations, that is time, cause, condition, or manner and therefore is used in the function of adverbial modifier. For example: This duty completed, he had three months' leave. (T. Hardy) It being now pretty late, we took our candles and went upstairs. (Ch. Dickens) One morning he stood in front of the tank, his nose almost pressed to the glass. (Th. Dreiser) Weather permitting, we shall start tomorrow.

The Nominative Absolute may be introduced by the preposition with and is then called the Prepositional Abso­lute Participial Construction. For example: The daughter sat quite silent and still, with her eyes fixed on the ground. (Ch. Dickens) The accent variations have provoked not a little controversy in recent years, with the broad Australian accent in particular having its critics and its defenders.

Besides participles absolute constructions may admit of adjectives, nounal phrases and adverbs. For example: Mansion went homeward alone, his heart full of strange emotion. (T. Hardy) He was there, writing busily at a dis­tant table, with his back towards the door. (Elliot) Break­fast over, he went to his counting house. (Ch. Bronte)

6.17.2. Gerund

The gerund is a non-finite verbal form which has some common features with the noun.

The gerund is homonymous to the present participle and thus is formed by means of the -ing suffix added to the infinitive without to: being, having, doing, coming, flying, etc. Verbal characterisrics of gerund

Like the present participle the gerund has the same set of forms which is the result of the realization of such categories as Taxis and Voice: 1) active, non-perfect — reading, 2) passive, non-perfect — being read, 3) active, perfect having read, 4) passive perfect having been read.

The perfect gerund indicates that the action precedes the action expressed by the finite verb in the sentence. However, the same meaning may be rendered by means of the non-perfect form used as a direct object: He admitted having stolen the money. = He admitted stealing the money. They now regret having got married. = They now regret getting married.

To render finished actions the non-perfect gerund is often used with the prepositions on and after as adverbial modifier: On hearing the news she got pale. On arriving in the city the travellers went to the hotel. After leaving school he went to work at a factory. After looking through the book she gave it back to the shop assistant.

In the above sentences the actions denoted by the gerunds may as well be rendered by means of perfect participles: Having heard the news she got pale. Having arrived in the city the travellers went to the hotel. Having looked through the book she gave it back to the shop assistant.

Passive gerunds can be formed only out of transitive verbs or intransitive verbs with prepositions: She disliked both reading aloud and being read to. He was surprised at being surrounded by his former enemies and being spoken to.

Note that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning. For example: The flowers need watering. The child deserves praising. The pictures are not worth looking at.

The gerund of a transitive verb can take a direct object: The boy has made progress in reading and speaking English.

The gerund can be modified by an adverb: She is fond of reading aloud. He objected to going there imme­diately. Gerund and Participle

Although the gerund and the present participle are formally identical, their functions in the language are completely different.

As distinct from the participle the gerund may be preceded by a preposition, it may be modified by a noun in the possessive case or by a possessive pronoun; it can be used as subject and object. Although both the gerund and the present participle may be used as attributes and adverbial modifiers the gerund in these functions is always preceded by a preposition. Compare: The very idea of sailing makes me sick. — The sailing ship was on its way to the port, (attributes) On coming home he phoned his mother. — Coming home he found the gate open, (adver­bial modifiers) Nounal characteristics of gerund

The nounal characteristics of the gerund are realized first and formost in its syntactic functioning as subject, object, and predicative. For example: Reading aloud is dying out these days, (subject) In the silence the boy began reading, (object) His hobby is reading aloud, (predicative)

The gerund can be preceded by a preposition: Without asking for his advice I have taken an important step. On receiving the telegram he went to the station. After stamping the envelope she went to post the letter.

The gerund can be attributed by a possessive pro­noun: They didn't approve of his playing a roulette. She was not pleased at my coming. They were surprised at their coming so early.

The gerund can be modified by a noun in the Pos­sessive Case: She was furious at her son's having disobeyed her. I was proud of my sister's dancing so well. Syntactic functions of gerund The gerund is used as

1) subject: Swimming against the current was diffi­cult. Learning rules without examples is useless.

2) predicative: Her aim is learning English grammar. They couldn 't help laughing.

3) direct object: Avoid making mistakes. Excuse my interrupting you. They postponed giving a definite answer. The room needs cleaning.

4) prepositional object: / was never tired of talking to him. She is very good at reciting poems. He was accused of stealing the money. I object to going there.

5) attribute (always with a preposition, mostly of): He gave up the idea of becoming a professional singer. Could you do me a favour of introducing me to you wife?

6) adverbial modifier (always with a preposition): After talking to us for a moment he left to get his train on the other side. She left without saying «goodby». On coming nearer I could recognize my schoolfriend who was buying a newspaper. Gerund and infinitive as a direct object

Some verbs and verbal phrases may be followed by 1) gerunds only, 2) by infinitives only (see}, and 3) by both gerunds and infinitives.

The verbs that are usually associated with gerunds are: finish, delay, enjoy, mind, suggest, fancy, imagine, ad­mit, deny, avoid, consider, involve, practise, miss, postpo­ne, risk, give up (stop), put off (postpone), carry on (con­tinue), keep or keep on, like, dislike, hate, enjoy, can't stand. For example: / don't fancy going out this evening. Would you mind closing the door? He admitted stealing the car. She gave up trying to find a job. I enjoy meeting people. I can't stand being alone.

Gerunds are used after such verbal expressions as be interested in, be good at, be fed up with, be excited about, be/get used to, it's no use/it's no good, there's no point in, it's (not) worth, go ing. Are you interested in working for us? He is not very good at learning languages. They are not used to getting up early. I've got used to driving on the left. It's no use worrying about it. The book is not worth reading. I've never been sailing. I have to go shop­ping everyday.

The gerund is used after prepositional verbs like suc­ceed in, feel like, think about/of, dream of, approve/dis­approve of, look forward to, insist on, persist in, decide against, apologise for, accuse somebody of, suspect some­body of, congratulate somebody on, prevent somebody from, thank somebody for, forgive somebody for, warn somebody against. For example: Has he succeeded in finding the job? I'm looking forward to meeting them. He apologised for having been rude. They accused him of

telling lies. They warned us against staying at the hotel. What prevented him from coming to the meeting?

The verbs that may be followed by both gerunds and infinitives without any difference in meaning are as fol­lows: begin, start, intend, continue, love, can't bear. For example: The girl began crying. = The girl began to cry. It has started raining. = It has started to rain. He continued working after his illness. = He continued to work after his illness.

The verbs and verbal phrases that can be used with both gerunds and infinitives with some difference in mea­ning are as follows: stop, forget, remember, regret, try, be afraid, help. Compare: He stopped to smoke. He stopped smoking. I remembered to lock the door before I left. — / clearly remember locking the door before I left. I regret to inform you that you are bankrupt. We've always regretted selling the farm. The two sides are still trying to reach an agreement. If the car won't start, try pushing it. I was afraid to go out of the house at night. I'm always afraid of being bitten by dogs. Can you help me (to) move the desk? We couldn't help laughing at the joke. Gerund and verbal noun

The gerund must not be confused with the verbal noun that has the same -ing suffix. The points of differences between the two are given below.

Like all the verbals the gerund has a double natu­re — nominal and verbal while the verbal noun has only a nominal character. Besides, the nominal meaning of nouns is much wider since they are intended to name people, objects, states, abstract notions, and actions. Ge-

runds are supposed to name actions only. For example, as a noun teaching means «the work or profession of a tea­cher» as well as in the plural — teachings denote some­thing which is taught, especially the moral, political, or religious beliefs taught by a person of hisporical im­portance. Painting is used to refer to the act of painting houses, rooms, etc. and pictures, as well as to a painted picture. As gerunds they denote only actions of teaching and painting correspondingly.

The gerund is not used with articles whereas the verbal noun may be used with an article. For example: We have come to an understanding. I have only a limited understanding of economics. I lent him the money on the understanding that he paid it back the next month.

The gerund has no plural form while the verbal noun (countable) may be used in the plural: Hard work will be the making of him. She has the makings of a good doctor.

The gerund of a transitive verb takes a direct object whereas the verbal noun takes a prepositional object with the preposition of. Compare: He received so many letters that he gave up reading them. She tried to pull herself together and get ready to the reading of the letter.

The gerund can be modified by an adverb while the verbal noun may be modified by an adjective. Compare: On the course she got a thorough training in every aspect of the job. The man insisted on shaking hands enthhu-siastically.

6.17.3. Infinitive

The infinitive is a non-finite verbal form that has some nounal characteristics. The infinitive is homony-mous to the present form of the verb with the exception of to be, its formal sign is the particle to: to come, to do, to have, to clean, to fly.

However there are cases in which infinitives are used without to. They are as follows:

1) after auxiliaries: We shall meet tomorrow. I don't speak French.

2) after modals such as must, can/could, may/might, shall/should, will/would: You must visit us when you are in Moscow.

3) as part of the Complex Object after verbs deno­ting sense perception: / saw him cross the street. We heard her singing.

4) as part of the Complex Object after the verbs ma­ke, let, have. He made her cry. Let us be friends. I had them take my baggage.

5) after such expressions as had better, would rather. You'd better go home now. I'd rather play tennis than swim.

The particle to may be used without the infinitive provided it is easily understood in the context: f couldn't go to the party yesterday but I wanted to. He can leave if he prefers to.

The particle may be separated from the infinitive by an adverb making a split infinitive. This is often consi­dered bad English: He was wrong to suddenly say that. But sometimes there is nowhere else to put the adverb: Your job is to really solve the problem. Verbal characteristics of infinitive

The verbal characteristics of the infinitive arc

determined by the categories of Taxis, Aspect and Voice

This results in the six forms:

1) active, non-perfect, non-continuous — to read,

2) active, perfect, non-continuous — to have read,

3) active, perfect, continuous: to have been reading,

4) active, non-perfect, continuous — to be reading,

5) passive, non-perfect, non-continuous: to be read,

6) passive, perfect, non-continuous — to have been read.

The perfect forms of the infinitive show an action as anterior to another action and thus are used to express a result or finality while its non-perfect forms indicate simultaneity. For example: It is better to live than to have lived.

The continuous forms of the infinitive denote an action in progress whereas the non-continuous forms show an action as a fact. For example: She seems to be reading now. She seems to read a lot.

The perfect continuous infinitive shows an action as lasting a certain period of time before another action of the finite verb: She seems to have been reading since morning.

Passive infinitives can be formed from either transi­tive verbs or intransitive with prepositions: She prefers to be told news rather than tell it. Such dishonest action is not to be thought of.

In sentences with the construction there is the infi­nitive of some verbs may be active or passive without any change in meaning. For example: There is nothing to fear/to be feared. There was no work to do/to be done.

The infinitive can be modified by an adverb: / can't speak French so well. I used to get up early but now I prefer to stay in bed till afternoon. Nounal characteristics of infinitive The nominal character of the infinitive is revealed in its syntactic functions as subject, predicative and object. For example: To know a foreign language is to know its grammar and vocabulary, (subject) To learn is to gain knowledge of something. The train is to arrive at 5 p.m. (predicative) The boy has already learned to read and i write, (direct object)

i Infinitive as a direct object

Infinitives are normally used as direct objects after the following verbs: afford, agree, appear, arrange, at­tempt, decide, fail, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, pre­tend, promise, refuse, seem, threaten, would like, would love, hate, prefer. For example: They agreed to lend me some money. We can't afford to lose such a chance. She decided to say no. He pretended to be reading. I refused to answer the question. I would like to come to a party. I would love to meet with you tonight. She hates to be late for work. Syn ta ctic fun ctions of infin itive In a sentence the infinitive may function as subject, predicative, object, attribute and adverbial modifier. For example: To keep silent under the circumstances is almost a crime, (subject) / can drive. One has to know a foreign language. The aim of the book is to give the reader the idea of literature, (predicative) My father taught me to

drive. Can you help me (to) move the table? (object) / ha­ve much work to do. I have no pen to write with, (at­tribute) To learn a foreign language one has to work hard. To be in time for the party we had to take a taxi.

(adverbial modifier)

Besides, the infinitive enters into the specific gram­matical patterns, namely Complex Subject and Complex Object. Complex Subject

Complex Subject (or the Nominative-with-the-Infini-

tive Construction) is a pattern in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the Common Case or a pronoun in the Nominative Case. Thus the pattern includes the two elements, the first functions as subject, the other one is part of the compound verbal predicate. For example: Susan is said to resemble me.

Complex Subject admits of any form of the infini­tive, i.e. perfect/non-perfect, active/passive, continuous/ non-continuous.

Complex Subject may be used with some verbs in the Active Voice, with other verbs in the Passive Voice, and with a number of verbal phrases.

Complex Subject is used after the following pairs of synonymous verbs in the Active Voice: a) seem, appear, b) happen, chance, c) prove, turn out. For example. Peter seems to have recieved the letter. The discussion appeares to have been friendly and fruitful. If you happen to find it, please let me know. She chanced to be in the park when I was there. Perhaps the book will prove to be useful after all. His statement turned out to be false.

Complex Subject is used with the following groups of verbs in the passive:

1. With verbs denoting sense perception: to see, to hear, etc. For example: The dark-haired man was seen to leave the house. He was heard to laugh heartily.

Note that with these verbs Complex Subject admits of present participles showing an action going on: They were heard talking together. She was seen descending the hill.

2. With verbs denoting mental activity: to think, to consider, to know, to expect, to believe, to suppose. For instance: The government is thought to be planning an election in June. The manuscript is believed to have been written in the twelveth century. He was supposed to have left the country.

3. With the verb to make: She was made to wait for hours.

4. With verbs to say, to report, to allege. He is said to be the richest man in the world. He is reported to have been seen in London. He is alleged to have passed on secret information to a newspaper.

Complex Subject can be used with verbal phrases like to be certain, to be sure, to be (un)likely. For example: She is certain to pass the exam. It is really a good film you are sure to like it. He is likely to arrive a bit late. It is unlikely to rain. Complex Object

Complex Object (or the Objective-with-the-Infini­tive) is a pattern in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the Common Case or a pronoun in

the Objective Case. In the sentence the pattern functions as a complex object.

Complex Object is used with various groups of verbs. They are as follows:

1. Verbs of perception: to hear, to see, to watch, to feel, to observe, to notice, etc. The infinitive is used without the particle to. For example: / heard her say so. I saw him leave the house. I felt something touch my foot.

2. The verb to make which is followed by the infi­nitive without to. For example: The pain made her cry.

3. Verbs of mental activity: to know, to think, to considerate believe, to suppose, to expect, to find, to trust, to feel. They take the infinitive with the particle to. For example: The jury believed her to be innocent. I expect him to fail the exam. You can't trust the trains to run on time. She felt her story to impress him.

4. The verbs of willingness: want, would like, wish. They are followed by the infinitive with particle to. For example: He wants you to wait here. I wouldn't like you to think I was being unfair. Is there anything else you wish me to bring you ?

5. The verbs to declare, to report. They take the infinitive with the particle to. For example: She declared herself to be a supporter of the cause.

6. Verbs denoting likes and dislikes: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate. They are followed by the infinitive with the particle to. For instance: / dislike you to talk like that. I hate you to think we were late on purpose.

7. Verbs of order and permission: to order, to allow, to have. They take the infinitive with the particle to. For example: The doctor ordered her patient to take a month's rest. Mother doesn 't allow me to smoke in the house.

8. Verbs of compulsion: to cause, to get, to have. For instance: His illness caused him to miss the game. I got him to help me when I moved the furniture. What would you have me say?

Note that Complex Object may admit of participles instead of infinitives. Infinitives as part of the pattern show an action as a fact while present participles show an action in process. Compare: / saw him leave the house. — / saw him leaving the house. I heard him lock the door. — / heard him locking the door.

Past participles as part of Complex Object are used only after have. This structure is used to show an action as performed by someone: Will you have my cases sent up, please ? I've just had my roof fixed. She has her hair cut once a month.


/. Comment upon the morphological structure of the verbs below:

Run, blow up, daydream, specialize, disagree, mis­take, understand, put up with, remake, remark, widen, unite, take notice, catch cold, get hold of, make use of, break down, broadcast, look for.

2. Define the syntagmatic characteristics of the ita­licized verbs in the following extracts:

a) In the 1786 Sir William Jones (a British scholar who found it best to reside in India because of his


sympathy for the rebellious American colonists) delivered a paper in which he observed that Sanskrit bore to Greek and Latin 'a stronger affinity ... than could possibly have been produced by accident'. Jones suggested that these three languages had 'sprung from a common source' and that probably Germanic and Celtic had the same origin. The classical philologists of the time attempted to disprove the idea that there was any genetic relationship between Sanskrit, Latin, and Greek, since if such a relationship existed it would make their views on language and lan­guage development obsolete.

b) For many languages there are historical records that go back more than a thousand years. These records are studied to find out how languages were once pro­nounced. The spelling in early manuscripts tells us a great deal about the sound system of older forms of modern languages. If certain words are always spelled one way, and other words another way, it is logical to conclude that the two groups of words were pronounced differently, even if the precise pronunciation is not known.

c) In Tolstoy's masterpieces all is probable and typical of human life. These are the sort of things that might happen to anyone. Things like them have probably happened to thousands. These are such people as we might meet any day. We can say without reservation, This is what life is like'.

d) But we cannot help noticing that until quite mo­dern times nearly all stories were of a different type. Just as all except bores relate in conversation not what is nor­mal but what is exceptional, so earlier authors told of the exceptional.

e) No one knows exactly how or why languages change. Certainly linguistic changes do not happen sud­denly. It is not the case that all speakers of English awoke one morning and decided to use the word beef for «ox meat». Nor is it true that all the children of one particular generation grew up to adopt this new word usage. Changes are more gradual, particularly changes in the phonological and syntactic system.

3. Define the forms of conjugation of the italicized verbs below:

a) Strictly speaking, metaphor occurs as often as we take a word out of its original sphere and apply it to new circumstances. In this sense almost all words can be shown to be metaphorical when they do not bear a physi­cal meaning; for the original meaning of almost all words can be traced back to something physical; in our first sen­tence above, for instance, there are eight different meta­phors. Words had to be found to express mental percep­tions, abstract ideas, and complex relations, for which a primitive vocabulary did not provide; and the obvious course was to convey the new idea by means of the nearest physical parallel.

b) A chronological investigation most obviously begins with the native tongue that was brought to these islands in the fifth century by the Germanic tribes who eventually overran the native Britons. The importance of this purely Germanic basis is often overlooked, largely because of the great number of foreign words incorporated in our present-day vocabulary. But an examination of

actual usage, as opposed to mere presence in a dictionary, shows how important the native words are.

c) While Nathaniel Hawthorn was still living, he took ' a place among the greatest American authors, a position he shows no sign of losing. During the last three decades, in fact, his achievement has been valued higher than ever before. As his works have been reassessed by standards which have been revised to accord with the critical view and tastes of recent years, enthusiastic recognition has been given to the consistency of his total thought, to the balance and perception of his social outlook, to his understanding of human character, particularly the darker elements, to the mastery he displayed in the use of indefiniteness, ambiguity, and suggestion, and above all to the richness of metaphor and symbol he achieved.

4. Comment upon the functions of be:

a) The linguistic effects of Anglo-Saxon wars were just as clear-cut. Many Celtic communities were destroy­ed, assimilated, or gradually pushed back westwards and northwards, into the areas we now know as Cornwall, Wales, Cumbria, and perhaps also Scotland. Here the Celtic dialects were to develop in separate ways, resulting in such modern languages as Welsh and Gaelic.

b) Complaints about the state of the English lan­guage and the uses made of it are by no means new. They first appeared five centuries ago, after English had dis­placed French as a respectable vernacular and as the ins­trument for law and administaration, when English was beginning to compete with Latin as the medium for se­rious and scholarly writing. In the fifteenth century a

national standard language was emerging that was based on the dialect of London, the political and judicial capital of the country, but also its commercial, social and intellectual centre. ...Then, as now, the country needed a standard dialect that was not only generally intelligible but also, because of its naturality, did not distract through its regional peculiarities from efficient communication bet­ween people of different parts of the country. But at the end of the fifteenth century the standard language was not yet stable or uniform, though the invention of printing was to hasten its development.

c) By the end of the seventeenth century, conside­rable progress had been made towards the standardization of the printed language in spelling, syntax and vocabulary. It was agreed among the learned that English had reached in the recent past a near-perfect stage, having been purged of its impurities and inconsistencies. A major concern of the eighteenth-century writers was to prevent further change, to preserve English largely as it then was, remo­ving imperfections that they believed were creeping into the language in their own time. Any further changes, they feared, must be for the worse: that language must be pro­tected from corruption.

d) For generations of American children Mother Goose rhymes have been the first contact with the lite­rature of their native language and culture. At home and in their early years at school, the rhythmic lilt of these rhymes delights and instructs them. So well-known are these rhymes and their subjects that allusions to them permeate our adult conversation and writing; without a knowledge of them no English-speaking American has a truly complete literary education. It has been said that

there is something for everyone in Mother Goose. Even scholarly adults are intrigued by her possible origin, by the hidden meaning in the simple verses, and even which historical characters are being lampooned in them.

5. Comment upon the functions of have in the following extracts:

a) Scott, though he had some antecedents, including Maria Edgeworth's picture of Irish life in Castle Rackrent (1800), may be said to have invented the histotical novel.

b) As well as the ceaseless process of change, several factors have combined recently to blunt the angularities of Received Pronunciation. Some of them turn out to have affected more than the way we speak, in the revolution in the English language that is going through one of its rapid and violent phases, as after 1066 and in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.

c) Just as everyone has an accent, so everyone speaks a dialect. This point sometimes comes as surprise to people who have been brought up to think of dialects as belonging to country yokels. But rural dialects make up only some of the regionally distinctive varieties of English.

d) Now all of this happened in educated speech only. Since the fourteenth century, the pronunciation associated with the south-east of England, and especially that heard in the area around London, had acquired a special social status. This was where the Court was located. Anybody who was anybody in politics, the law, the church or commerce would have had an eye — and an ear — on London.

e) Conversation is usually spontaneous; speakers have to 'think standing up'. They therefore do not have the time to plan out what they want to say, and their grammar is inevitably loosely constructed, often con­taining rephrasing and repetition.

f) However, as we have already indicated, language is very much a social phenomenon. A study of language totally without reference to its social context inevitably leads to the omission of some of the more complex and interesting aspects of language and to the loss of oppor­tunities for further theoretical progress. One of the main factors that has led to the growth of sociolinguistic re­search has been the recognition of the importance of the fact that language is a very variable phenomenon, and that this variability may have as much to do with society as with language.

6. Comment upon the functions of do in the following extracts:

a) When we hear a language we do not know, it sounds like gibberish. We don't know where one word ends and another begins. And even if we did, we wouldn't understand the meaning.

b) The continual impoverishment of English speech, in its frank descripton of the passions and the crudities of life, deprives his style of the range which Shakespeare possessed. Nor did he penetrate into the hidden places of his characters' minds. Their conduct and emotions are governed by simple motives.

c) However, by talking to the other person about some neutral topic like the weather, it is possible to strike

up a relationship with him without actually having to say very much. Railway-compartment conversation of this kind — and they do happen, although not of course as often as the popular myth supposes — are a good example of the sort of important social function that is often fulfilled by language.

d) Taboo words occur in most languages, and failure to adhere to the strict rules governing their use can lead to punishment or public shame. Many people will never employ words of this type, and most others will only use them in a restricted set of situations. For those who do use taboo words, however, 'breaking the rules' may have connotation of strength or freedom which they find desirable.

e) Languages are always in a state of flux. Change affects the way people speak as inevitably as it does any other area of human life. Language purists do not welcome it, but they can do very little about it. Language would stand still only if society did. ...During the greater part of the 19th century, linguistic scholarship used the comparative method to establish the facts of language change. What features of language have changed in the past? When did they change? How did they change? ...Why do languages change?

f) ...«poetry is the best words in the best order». It is not a good specimen of his (Coleridge's) wisdom, but it does serve to remind us that words cannot be treated in isolation, except in respect of their sound and spelling. ...It is a maxim he (writer) he does well to remember, all the same.

7. Define the meaning of the italicized modals in the extracts below:

a) This initial sampling gives them an expectation about the way the text should be read, and they use their background knowledge to 'guess' the remainder of the text and fill in the gaps. In this view, a text is like a problem that has to be solved using hypotheses about its meaning and structure.

b) A short narrative passage might first be presented on tape for aural comprehension. A series of pictures il­lustrating the story might then be provided on banda sheets for each pupil. Question-and-answer work may then ensue. If the teacher is going to pass from one acti­vity to another in this way, it should be noted that the passage mil be limited to only a small number of sen­tences. A following lesson may well allow the pupils to perform varied substitution, transformation and expansion exercises on the same sentences.

c) When addressing other research chemists, a scien­tist can say: «Chlorophyll makes food by foto-synthesis», and they will all understand the platitude he is expressing in simple jargon. When addressing a class of non-scien­tists, the research chemist could translate his statement into «Green leaves build up food with the help of light».

d) It must also be true, though equally tiresome to have to prove, that there is more jargon in the English language today than has been there since the immigrant Angles, Saxons, and Jutes started to develop their jargon of Englisc. As Jacob Grimm, the German philologist, recognized: «In wealth, wisdom and strict economy, none of the other living languages can vie with it». It has to

- express all the knowledge and opinion of all the learning and pseudo-learning in the world.

e) The more subtle kind of repetition we are advo­cating should be a built-in feature of any good language course. Structures and vocabulary items ought to be re­peated at regular intervals from lesson to lesson. The same linguistic units will occur in a number of different situa­tions and in conjunction with a range of varied visuals.

8. Translate into English using modals of obligation:

1. Ему пришлось лечь в больницу. 2. Никому не говори о том, что я сказал тебе. 3. Вам следовало со­общить об этом раньше. 4. Нужно всегда говорить правду. 5. Поезд прибывает в 5 часов вечера. 6. Вам не следовало приходить так рано. 7. Я должна прово­дить занятия по расписанию. 8. Почему ему приш­лось обратиться в полицию? 9. Не смей трогать этот выключатель. Это опасно. 10. Что нужно сделать, чтобы получить водительские права? 11. На экзамене я должен ответить на многие вопросы. 12. Боюсь, мы не сможем увидеться. Я завтра работаю. 13. Ему не следует так быстро ездить: он еще совсем неопытный водитель. 14. Всем надо идти на выборы. 15. Вы обя­зательно должны нас навестить.

9. Translate into English using modals of supposition:

1. Он был отличным теннисистом и мог бы обы­грать любого. 2. Вчера вечером мы могли пойти в театр, но из-за дождя решили остаться дома. 3. Мы только что пообедали. Ты просто не можешь быть

голодным. 4. Нигде не могу найти свою сумку. На­верное, я оставил ее в магазине. 5. Она не подошла к телефону. Наверное, она спала. 6. Хотя огонь рас­пространялся стремительно, всем удалось спастись.

7. Однажды у него был трудный матч с сильным соперником. Но ему все-таки удалось выиграть.

8. Возможно, цены на бензин снова поднимутся. 9. В последнее время я плохо сплю. 10. Она прошла мимо меня, не поздоровавшись. Должно быть, она меня не видела. 11. На прошлой неделе отменили футбольный матч, но я в любом случае не смог бы играть из-за болезни. 12. Вы целый день путешествовали и, долж­но быть, очень устали. 13. Наверное, он не видел, ку­да идет. 14. В дверь стучат. Это должен быть почталь­он. Он всегда приходит в это время. 15. Он должен сдать экзамен, так как много занимался.

10. Define the function of shall, will, should, would and the grammatical pattern in the following sentences:

1. The children of the village would shout with joy whenever he approached. 2. You should have phoned me at once. 3. I thought that by doing that, I would have solved all my problems at a stroke. 4. He said he wouldn't be late. 5. These poems will assuredly take high rank among the class to which they belong. 6. We will not have this man to reign over us. 7. Whoever commits robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment. 8. For this opinion we shall proceed to give our reasons. 9. The handle turned, but the door would not open. 10. I'm sorry. I shouldn't have said this. 11. In the afternoon he would go out and walk for hours. 12. Will you have a cup

of tea? 13. Let us ask this man what the creature is, and I will stand by what he shall say. 14. It is impossible that you should have said this. 15. Should he come this way, 1 will speak to him.

11. Analyse the italicised verbal forms in terms of the grammatical categories:

a) There are indeed many differences between the way grammar is used in writing English and the way it is used in speaking it. This is only natural. When we are writing, we usually have time to make notes, plan ahead, pause, reflect, change our mind, start again, revise, proof­read, and generally polish the language until we have reached a level which satisfies us. The reader sees only the finished product.

b) Meanwhile, the Bible, which had been appearing in various forms in the vernacular, was approaching the translation in which it was to become for centuries the best-known book in English. The English Bible as it is known today owes its form mainly to the labours of two men, William Tyndale (1490-15360) and Miles Coverdale (1488-1568). Already in the fourteenth century John Wycliff (1324-84) had laboured to make an English ver­sion, but his renderings were based on the Vulgate, or La­tin version, and his English was literal and stiff. His influence on the development of English prose has been exaggerated. Tyndale, who at Vilvorde in 1536 was strangled at the stake for heresy, and his body burnt, gave to his prose the simple vigour of phrase and the strong cadences, with which the Authorized Version of 1611 has made us familiar.

c) An experiment was carried out in the USA in which a number of people acting as judges were asked to listen to tape-recordings of two different sets of speakers. Many of the judges decided that speakers in the first set were black, and speakers in the second set white — and they were completely wrong, since it was the first set which consisted of white people, and the second of Blacks. But they were wrong in a very interesting way. The speakers they had been asked to listen to were ex­ceptional people: the white speakers were people who had lived all their lives amongst Blacks, or had been raised in areas where black cultural values were dominant; the black speakers were people who had been brought up, with little contact with other Blacks, in predominantly white areas.

d) Our perception of the English language and how it works has changed radically in the present generation. In the High Victorian world the pristine philologists saw the language in much the same way as they saw Victorian society: as a pyramid. At the top was the Queen's English (not, as it happens, spoken very well by Her Majesty, who retained a faint German accent all her life; she wrote it with naive charm and enthusiasm).

e) It is sometimes thought that only a few people speak regional dialects. Many restrict the term to rural forms of speech — as when they say that 'dialects are dying out these days'. They have noticed that country dialects are not as widespread as they once were, but they have failed to notice that urban dialects are now on the increase.

12. Comment upon the forms of the participle and its syntactic functions:

a) The news that fresh varieties of English are developing around the world, bringing in large numbers of new words, is seen by some as a good thing, adding still further to the expressive potential of the language; but many people shake their heads, and mutter about the language going downhill.

b) English is constantly being stretched in new directions. We wake up every morning to new discoveries, new concepts and fresh demands on language to express what we think and feel. All the time spoken English is lubricating the wheels of the written language, leaving it more easygoing.

c) Since the late 1980s, editors of dictionaries have become wary of criticism and hedge some entries with a new qualification: disp, short for disputed, meaning that there are many people who reject the way certain words are used or pronounced.

d) Although these comments can be supported, they are stretching language beyond reasonable limits. It takes two to communicate, and it is asking a great deal of the other person to pick up such reading-between-the-lines nuances.

13. Comment upon the forms of the gerund and its syntactic functions:

a) The best way to keep abreast of changing fashions in pronouncing place-names, as well as dealing with the more obscure places in the news, is to listen to

newscasters. They rehearse pronunciations carefully to be sure of saying any name that comes up with a cosmo­politan nonchalance.

b) Brackets are useful for including a piece of back­ground information, without holding up the flow of the sentence.

c) Translators aim to produce a text that is as faith­ful to the original as circumstances require or permit, and yet that reads as if it were written originally in the target language. They aim to be «invisible people». What they do is transferring content without drawing attention to the considerable artistic and technical skills involved in the process.

d) The best-known current example of external influence causing language change is the 'Americaniza­tion' of world culture, which has caused English words to appear prominently in city streets all over the world, reflecting the dominance of that culture's popular songs, films, television, high finance, food and drink, and consumer goods.

14. Comment upon the forms of the infinitive and its syntactic functions:

a) It's only recently that people have begun to criticise the view that English ought to be shaped to fit the rules of Latin. These days, the fashion is to study a language as it is. Latin is no longer a dominant influence in education, though that is a source of regret to many.

b) But a hundred years ago, you couldn't be thought of as educated without knowledge of Latin. And, amongst other things, this meant showing in your English speech

and writing that you 'knew the rules'. To split the infini­tive became one of the signs of a lack of education, or of carelessness.

c) By contrast, the primary aim of phonology is to discover the principles that govern the way sounds are organized in languages, and to explain the variations that occur. A common methodology is to begin by analysing an individual language, to determine which sound units are used and how they pattern...

d) In 1350 the Black Death wiped out a third of the population in less than two years. Those who were left to speak English were speaking a less elaborate language that was ceasing to be inflected. Gender was going. The Eng­lish no longer wanted to remember that while woman was masculine, wife was neuter.

e) Although there seems to be little regional speech variation, factors to do with social prestige are important. In particular, Recieved pronunciation continues to exert a considerable influence.

75. Define the grammatical status and the syntactic function of the italicised -ing forms in the following extracts:

a) Central to the success of this rapidly emerging field lies the ability of researchers to devise satisfactory methods for eliciting linguistic data from children. The problems that have to be faced are quite different from those encountered when working with adults.

b) And anyone who has tried to obtain even the most basic kind of data — a tape recording of a represen­tative sample of a child's speech — knows how frustrating

this can be. Some children, it seems are innately pro­grammed to switch off as soon as they notice a tape recorder being switched on.

c) Spelling and pronunciation in English are very much like trains on parallel tracks, one sometimes racing ahead of the other before being caught up. An arresting example of this can be seen in the slow evolution of verb forms in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that turned hath into has and doth into does.

d) All language-teaching methods are necessarily based on some sort of analysis, for the very process of making a method involves the breaking down of the language into the elements which are to be taught. Lan­guage -teaching analysis depends ultimately on the recog­nition of these elements. The more we know about what a particular language contains, the more we can analyse the teaching of it.

e) And generally actors try to pronounce words clearly paying special attention to their endings, and with­out rushing weak syllables. In this way, the words can be heard more clearly at the back of the theatre. But their speech is much slower than normal conversation as a result.

f) The arguments in favour of spelling reform are easy to state. Children and foreign learners of English would save much time and emotional effort in learning to read and write. People using the language would save time and money, because they would be able to write English more rapidly, and with fewer letters — as many as 15 per cent fewer, according to some estimates. Over the years, the saving in terms of paper, ink, storage, and so on would be very great.

g) Bacon is the most complete representative of the Renaissance in England, learned, worldly, ambitious, intriguing, enamoured of all the luxury that wealth in his times could supply, and, while knowing so much, almost completely ignorant about himself. One can picture him in his study ... with music playing softly in an adjoining room, running his fingers through a heap of precious stones, while his mind is contemplating the nature of truth...

h) Just as Hawthorn's starting point in planning an essay or a work of fiction was an idea, so his normal method of developing an idea was by accretion, by accumulating manifestations, frequently in the manner of a catalog or a procession, so as to reiterate, expand, or modify the initial idea. A loose parallel exists in Emer­son's method in his essays of stating the central idea over and over...

16. State the grammatical status of verbals and their syntactic function in the following extracts:

a) Reading and writing have long been thought of as complementary skills: to read is to recognize and interpret language that has been writen; to write is to plan and produce language so that it can be read. It is therefore widely assumed that being able to read implies being able to write — or, at least, being able to spell. Often, children are taught to read but given no formal tuition in spelling; it is felt that spelling will be «picked up». The attitude has its counterpart in the methods of 200 years ago, when teachers carefully taught spelling, and assumed that reading would follow automatically.

b) The educational setting presents them (children) with a variety of unfamiliar, subject-related styles of language. They have to learn a new range of linguistic skills — reading, writing, and spelling. And they find themselves having to talk about what they are doing, which requires that they learn a special technical voca­bulary — a 'language for talking about language', or meta­language.

c) We begin by considering the way foreign lan­guages can act as a barrier to international communica­tion and the various methods that have been proposed to reduce or eliminate the problem. One possible solution lies in translating and interpreting — a field whose future will be much affected by progress in computer appli­cations. Another is to promote the development of an existing language as a world language — something that currently seems to be happening to English. Each of these approaches is given separate discussion and illustration. A focus is provided by the branch of sociolinguistics known as 'language planning' — an area that has attracted in­creasing attention in recent years.

17. Translate into English using the Complex Subject:

1. Все, казалось, было в полном порядке. 2. По-видимому, они использовали эти сведения. 3. Похоже на то, что он опять не сдал экзамен. 4. Казалось, он подыскивал нужные слова. 5. Известно, что римляне построили на Британских островах хорошие дороги и много крепостей. 6. Полагают, что эта рукопись относится к VIII веку нашей эры. 7. Сообщают, что экспедиция достигла места назначения. 8. Валь-

тер Скотт считается основоположником историчес­кого романа. 9. Он, кажется, уже две недели работает над этой статьей. 10. Вы, случайно, не знаете при­чину его отсутствия? 11. Он оказался хорошим спорт­сменом. 12. Случилось так, что мы попали под дождь и промокли до нитки. 13. Нам уже случалось иметь дело с такими людьми. 14. Ее считают хорошим спе­циалистом. 15. Он поехал на юг, но климат оказался вредным для его здоровья. 16. Студентам не разреша­ется опаздывать на занятия. 17. Ее заставили изме­нить свое решение. 18. Маленьким детям не разреша­ется смотреть телевизор более двух часов в день. 19. Его статья, несомненно, будет опубликована. 20. Вы, непременно, найдете там много друзей. 21. Вряд ли она откажется выполнить эту работу. 22. Неужели он так и не выучил это правило? 23. Непохоже, что хо­лодная погода простоит долго. 24. Известно, что когда-то этот город был столицей. 25. Говорят, что он увлекается современным искусством.

18. Translate into English using the Complex Object:

1. Я почувствовал, что кто-то тронул меня за плечо. 2. Она чувствовала, что он говорит правду. 3. Он попросил подать машину. 4. Я слышала, как ваше имя упомянули несколько раз. 5. Я видел, как она вошла в дом и зажгла свет. 6. Дождь заставил нас вернуться домой. 7. Преподаватель велел студентам проработать текст. 8. Я хочу, чтобы мой сын стал врачом. 9. Все считали его порядочным человеком. 10. Мы не раз слышали, как он поет. 11. Я остано­вилась перед дверью и услышала, как он поет. 12. Мы

долго наблюдали за тем, как теплоход отчалил от берега и вскоре скрылся за горизонтом. 13. Он заста­вил меня снять пальто и выпить чашку чая. 14. Ди­ректор распорядился немедленно отправить счет. 15. Библиотекарь разрешил сделать ксерокопию ру­кописи.



7.1. Definition

Adverb as a part of speech includes words that describe circumstances in which an action takes place, and specify some characteristic features of an action, or a quality. For example, come tomorrow, to walk slowly, most interesting, very well. Thus adverbs add to or modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, and therefore function mainly as adverbial modifiers in a sen­tence: I've just read a most interesting book. He speaks English very well. She was walking slowly. They won't come tomorrow.

7.2. Morphological structure of adverbs

According to their morphological structure adverbs are classified into 1) simple, 2) derivative, 3) compound, 4) complex.

Simple adverbs are devoid of affixes and consist of a root-stem: enough, back, here, there, then, quite, well, rather, too.

Derivative adverbs are formed by means of suffixes. The most productive adverb-forming suffix added to ad­jectives is -ly. For example: slowly, widely, beautifully, heavily, easily, lazily, differently, simply, etc.

There are also -ward/-wards suffixes: northward/ northwards, southward/southwards, earthward/earthwards, downward/downwards.

Compound adverbs are made up of two stems: any­where, anyway, anyhow, sometimes, somehow, nowhere, clockwise, likewise, longwise.

Complex adverbs include prepositional phrases like at a loss, at work, by name, by chance, by train, in debt, in a hurry, in turn, etc. (See, 2.5.3., 2.6.3.)

7.3. Classes of adverbs

According to the meaning adverbs can be divided into 2 main classes: 1) adverbs that denote the quality of an action, or the manner in which an action is performed, such as well, kindly, by heart, in turn and so on; 2) ad­verbs that denote various circumstances in which an ac­tion takes place, such as today, tomorrow, now, before, already, etc.

7.5.7. Adverbs denoting the quality of an action

Adverbs denoting the quality of an action include words that answer the question how? They can be further divided into 3 groups. They are as follows: a) adverbs of manner, b) adverbs of degree or quantity, c) adverbs of frequency.

Adverbs of manner are largely words derived from qualitative adjectives. For example: kindly, quickly, lazily, heartily, slowly, willingly, badly, well, fluently, beautifully, etc. They may have degrees of comparison. (See

This group also comprises numerous preposition + noun set phrases like at a loss, by name, in a hurry, in the main and others presented in sections, 2.5.3., 2.6.3. Besides it includes set expressions of another type, such as at once, at last, at least, one by one, head over heels, etc.

Adverbs of degree or quantity denote the degree of a quality, expressed by adjectives and adverbs, or point out the extent to which an action is performed. They are the following: very, most, quite, almost, nearly, only, merely, entirely, altogether, totally, wholly, utterly, exceedingly, too, sufficiently, enough, little, much, partly, half, hardly, scarcely and so on.

Adverbs of frequency include words like often, frequently, seldom, rarely, sometimes, occasionally, usually, always, ever, never, daily, weekly, monthly, year­ly, once, twice, firstly, secondly, finally, eventually, etc.

Besides this group comprises a number of set expres­sions like as a rule, as usual, at first, in general, in the beginning, in the end, at last, etc. Adverbs and adjectives

Not infrequently adverbs and adjectives turn out to be so closely related to each other as far as their function in a sentence is concerned that one finds it difficult to tell one from another. Here are some points to take into consideration.

a) Some adverbs of manner are homonymous with their corresponding adjectives, such as early, friendly, lively, late, hard, long, far. For example: She rises early. (Compare: She is an early riser.) We arrived home late. (Compare: We were late for the party.) He worked hard to

get a promotion. (Compare: He got a promotion because of his hard work.) Stay as long as you like. (Compare: She is staying with us for a long time.)

Note that sometimes, homonymous adverbs and adjectives differ in meanings: pretty as an adverb is an informal word for «very», pretty as an adjective is «attrac­tive». Compare: I'm pretty sure you'll say yes. It's pretty cold today. She was a pretty girl of sixteen. What a pretty little garden!

b) Some words have two adverbial forms, both are used to modify verbs: cheap cheaply, close closely, dear dearly, direct directly, late lately, loud loudly, pretty prettily, right rightly, slow slowly, sure surely, wrong wrongly, wide widely. The choice is generally a matter of usage with forms in -ly considered more formal, the shorter forms more empha­tic: Buy cheap and sell dear. He loves his wife dearly. The dresses were cheaply made. We live close to the church. They sat close together. It was a closely guarded secret. Mail the order direct to me. The clerk went directly home. Don't speak so loud. The child called loudly to the lifeguard. Turn right at the crossroads. Did I do it right/wrong? He was standing right in the middle of the room. You were rightly informed. We be­lieve, rightly or wrongly that they have been badly treated. Go slow. John drove so slowly that he was late.

Note that in some cases the homonymous forms differ in their meaning: late means «after the necessary or expected time», lately «in the recent past»; pretty means «very», prettily «nicely, attractively». He always works late. He hasn 't been feeling well lately. This work

of yours is a pretty poor effort. He was never expected to behave prettily.

c) Both adjectives and their corresponding adverbs such as firm firmly, silent silently, complete completely, quiet quietly, etc. function as modifiers: the modifier should be an adjective if it denotes the condition of the subject, but an adverb if it explains the action of the verb. Compare. We stand firm in our opinion. We stand firmly by our decision. They stood silent as the ambulance passed. They listened silently to the soloist. The house has been restored complete in every detail. The house has been completely restored. The patient remained quiet. He walked quietly around the room.

Such verbs as be, become, appear, seem, prove, turn out, get, grow, feel, look, smell, sound, taste, used as link-verbs take an adjective to denote the quality or the condi­tion of the subject: The new secretary appears competent. The patient seems better today. She always looks cheerful. The flowers smell sweet. Susan felt bad about the delay.

The adjective bad and the corresponding adverb badly are both almost equally acceptable when following feel, although bad is usually preferred in formal writing. When preceded by look, smell, etc. the usual choice is bad. (See 3.4.)

d) There is also a special group of words in English formed with the prefix a-, such as afire, aflame, ajar, agog, aloof, alike, etc. which can be used as both adverbs and adjectives. Compare: He set the house afire. He went on working afire with enthusiasm, (figurative use) She treats all her children alike. The two brothers are very much alike. (See 3.4.)

Such words as little, a little, few, a few, much may function as adjectives, pronouns and adverbs. Compare: We have a little milk and few eggs. I've got much work to do. (adjective) There is only a little left, (pronoun) Can stay a little longer? This picture is much admired, (adverb) See also 3.3.1. Degrees of comparison of adverbs Adverbs of manner derived from qualitative adjec­tives usually form their degrees of comparison analyti­cally, by adding more and most. For example: rarely more rarely most rarely, slowly more slowly most slowly, quickly more quickly most quickly, beau­tifully more beautifully most beautifully.

Some one-syllable adverbs homonymous with adjec­tives like long, wide, fast, hard, far, near, late form their degrees of comparison as the adjectives do: long lon­ger longest, wide wider widest, hard harder hardest, etc. For example: I can't wait for you longer than half an hour. You must work harder to pass the exami­nations.

Some adverbs have irregular forms of comparison homonymous with the corresponding adjectives. For instance: well better best, badly worse worst, much more most, little less least. Besides, the adverbs far, near, late homonymous with the adjectives have suppletive forms of comparison: near nearer nearest, next, far farther/further farthest/furthest, late later latest. (See 3.3.1.)

7.5.2. Adverbs denoting circumstances

Adverbs denoting circumstances in which an action is performed are further divided into groups: a) adverbs of time, b) adverbs of place and direction, c) adverbs of cause and purpose.

Adverbs of time denote the time of an action, thus answering the question when? They are as follows: yester­day, today, tomorrow, soon, late, now, then, before, just, already, still, yet, shortly, hitherto.

Besides to this group belong some set expressions like at present, in the past, by day, at night, in the begin­ning, in the end, from morning till night, etc.

Adverbs of place and direction indicate the place of the action or its direction, thus answering the question where? They are as follows: inside, outside, here, there, southward, northward, homeward, ashore, around, where, somewhere, nowhere, everywhere.

This group includes also such set expressions as back and forth, to and from, hither and thither, up and down, etc.

Adverbs of cause, purpose and consequence include why, therefore, consequently, finally, eventually, accor­dingly, as well as set expressions like in consequence, as a result.

7.4. Prepositional adverbs

Prepositional adverbs (or adverbial prepositions), namely about, around, down, in, off, on, out, over, up, and

so on form a special class of words which may function

both as units of full meaning or adverbs, and syncategore-matically, i.e. as prepositions. The double nature of prepo­sitional adverbs is accounted for by their position in a sentence.

When the prepositional adverb functions as a prepo­sition it is syntactically connected with both the preceding verb and the following noun. As an auxiliary word it is unstressed. For example: Get in the car, and we'll go for a drive.

When the prepositional adverb performs an adverbial function it is syntactically linked to and modifies the preceding verb. As a word of full meaning the preposi­tional adverb is always stressed. For example: I'll hold the car door open for you while you get in.

Examine the following pairs of sentences:

1. / looked round the station but couldn't see my friend anywhere.

2. / looked round but couldn't find my friend anywhere.

1. The boy climbed the wall and then jumped off it.

2. The boy climbed the wall and then jumped off.

1. The child was not tall enough to look over the wall.

2. The boy pulled himself to the top of the wall and looked over.

1. It is so difficult to deal with frer.

2. She is so difficult to deal with.

1. They have sent for the doctor.

2. The doctor has been sent for.

1. The country depends on its tourist trade.

2. What does the economy of the country depend on?

In the first sentences of each pair prepositional ad­verbs are used as prepositions while in the second sen­tences they function as adverbs.

Prepositional adverbs in the prepositional function regularly reproduced with a particular verb form preposi­tional verbs: abstain from, comment on, depend on, deal with, rely on, etc. Some verbs may associate with a num­ber of prepositional adverbs and thus reveal their poly­semantic character. For example: look at, look for, look after, look into, agree to, agree on, agree with, listen to, listen for, and so on.

Prepositional adverbs used syncategorematically find themselves in a fixed syntactic position: they always pre­cede an object. For example: She was looking for the lost books. I often listen to classical music. Phrases like She was looking the lost books for and I often listen classical music to are ungrammatical. (Compare with the patterns in which for and to are used as adverbs: What is she looking for? What kind of music do you often listen to?)

Combinations of verbs with prepositional adverbs in the adverbial function regularly reproduced in speech and functioning as equivalents of one word are usually termed phrasal verbs: bring up (educate), call up (shout), find out (discover) carry out (perform), put on (dress), etc. Their second component is a word in its own right and its position in a sentence may sometimes vary. For example: He put on his coat. He put his coat on. The case is full, I can't pack in any more clothes. I can't pack any more clothes in.

In most of phrasal verbs both verbs and prepositional adverbs no longer preserve their literal meanings, and thus the meaning of the whole is different from the meanings of the separate words, i.e. idiomatic. For example: She made up her face, (used cosmetics) You can just make out the farm in the distance, (see clearly) The washing ma­chine seems to have broken down again, (failed to work) The boy took in all those present, (deceived) When in doubt look up the word in a dictionary, (search for) Where can we put up tonight? (find food and lodging)

Some idiomatic phrasal verbs have their non-idiomatic counterparts in which both the verb and the prepositional adverb are used in their direct meanings. Compare: The boat is taking in water. I was buried in my book; when I looked up. he had gone. Put up your hand if you know the answer. (See also 6.2.)

7.5. Interrogative and connective adverbs

There are 2 more groups of adverbs that stand aside: interrogative and connective adverbs. The interrogative adverbs are used to introduce special questions: where, when, why, how. For example: Where and when were you born? Why didn't you come yesterday? How can I get to the town centre?

The same adverbs used in a complex sentence to connect its clauses are called connective adverbs. Besides their auxiliary function, as words in their own right, they perform an independent syntactic function in a clause they introduce.

Connective adverbs are subdivided into relative and conjunctive.

Relative adverbs where, when and sometimes why in­troduce attributive clauses. For example: This is the buil­ding where_I_work. (Where is adverbial modifier of place.) I remember the day when he left. (When is adverbial mo­difier of time.) Is there any reason why you can't come? (Why is adverbial modifier of cause.)

Conjunctive adverbs how and why introduce subject, predicative and object clauses: How he got in here is still a mystery for me. (Subject clause, how is adverbial modifier of manner.) This is why she did it. (Predicative clause.) / can't see why it shouldn't work. (Object clause, why is adverbial modifier of cause.)

When an adverb introduces an adverbial clause, it turns into the conjunction proper, i.e. a syncategorematic word that is used only to connect parts of a complex sentence and thus cannot be regarded as part of sentence: Things were different when I was a child. Crossing the street he at once saw her where he had left her.

7.6. Syntactic functions of adverbs

The main function of adverbs is that of adverbial modifier. For example: They got up early in the morning. (adverbial modifier of time) The travelers were walking eastward, (adverbial modifier of direction) He began to work very deliberately and carefully, (very adverbial modifier of degree; deliberately, carefully — adverbial modifiers of manner) He worked so hard that eventually made himself ill. (adverbial modifier of cause)

Besides adverbs may be used as part of a compound predicate: At last the holidays are here. Where is your home? — It's over there. (See 7.5.)


1. Comment on the morphological status, lexical class and syntactic function of the italicized adverbs in the sentences below:

a) This widely practised approach is undoubtedly very successful, as can be judged by millions who succeed in mastering foreign languages.

b) Formerly, people taking on the role of chairman were exclusively male, and the word was obviously origi­nally a compound of chair and man.

c) Moreover, it is highly probable that the way in which the usage of gentleman — lady, man woman differs reflects, and presumably also reinforces, different attitudes in our society to men and women and to sex roles generally.

d) It is commonplace to find children who can read far better than they can spell. More surprisingly, the reverse happens with some children in the early stages of reading.

e) It is only occasionally that the adoption of a social role requires the learning of a completely different lan­guage. For instance, a knowledge of Latin is required in traditional Roman catholic practice.

f) So, if you make a mistake in on of the following sentences, it is very definitely a Mistake, from the point of view of Standard English. But it is important to put the error in perspective. Some mistakes are serious, in that you end up saying or writing something quite different from what you intended. But other are not too serious, in that it may be perfectly clear from the context what you meant. Sometimes, even the mistake won't be noticed — especially in the rush of conversation.

2. Choose the right word and define the part of speech it belongs to:

1. Firm, firmly: a) I ... believe that we are justified in taking this course of action, b) Our army stood ... in the face of a terrible onslaught, c) The pound stayed ... in London, d) She has a good ... handshake.

2. Close, closely: a) Although he came very ..., he didn't win the race, b) We live ... by. c) The two points are ... connected, d) The question of wo­men's rights is a subject ... to her heart.

3. Dear, dearly: a) Her decision to marry him cost her ... . b) He paid ... for the mistake.

4. Wide, widely: a) The dentist told me to open my mouth ... . b) He stood with his legs ... apart.

5. Late. Lately: a) He married ... in life, b) We haven't been there ....

3. State whether the italicized words in the sentences below are adverbs or prepositions:

1. a) The children are playing inside because it's raining, b) The present was inside the box.

2. a) The new road will be completed before the end of the year, b) We had met on Saturday before.

3. a) We flew over the clouds, b) I heard some noises from the room over.

4. a) We walked along the road, b) She cycled along, singing happily.

5. a) The lamp is hanging over the table, b) The milk is boiling over, c) If we can't go over the mountain we must go round it. d) Come over and see us later.

6. a) He stood outside the door, b) It's quite dark outside.

7. a) When I drew back the curtains, there outside the window stood a crowd of people looking in. b) Look in the cupboard and see whether we have any more coffee.

8. a) I don't want to go; besides, I'm too tired, b) Besides being a professional pianist, he is also a keen amateur singer.

4. State whether the italicized forms below are pre­positional or phrasal verbs:

a) 1. I hate to see accidents, so I looked away as we passed the scene of the crash. 2. If you look beyond the trees, you can just the farm in the distance. 3. When you are on a high ladder, don't look down or you might fall. 4. Many people who enjoy fast sports are looking for

excitement. 5. It wasn't raining when I last looked out.

6. She is looked upon as a very promising young singer.

7. The shop looks out into a busy street. 8. I'll look your suggestion through before passing it to the committee. 9. I

. looked through the open door, but the room was empty. 10. You have to look at these things as a scientist.

b) 1. The boy takes after his father. 2. Does this toy take apart so that the child can find out how it works? 3. The shop has promised to take back any unsatisfactory goods. 4. Taking up a child under each arm, she ran from the fire. 5. You can't take away these books, they are for reading in the library.

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