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This function is performed very rarely.

2. Be is often used as a link-verb, i.e. represents both lexical and grammatical meanings expressing mood, tense and other verbal categories. This function is basically re­vealed in 5 grammatical patterns. They are: 1) be + noun: / am a teacher. They are friends. 2) be + adjective: We are late. She is nervous. In these two cases be together with nouns or adjectives forms the compound nominal predicate. 3) be + gerund: My aim is mastering English. In this sentence is is part of the compound verbal pre­dicate. 4) be + infinitive: My aim is to master English. Here be is part of the compound verbal predicate. 5) be + adverb or adverbial phrase: The book is over there. The children are in the garden. In these sentences be functions as part of the predicate of the mixed type.

3. Be often occurs as an auxiliary that is reflected in the two grammatical patterns. They are as follows: a) be + Participle I to form continuous (or progressive) tenses: / am sitting now. They were playing football, ft has been raining since morning, b) be + Participle II to form the

Passive Voice: The cup is broken. The house was built. The key has been lost. In all these cases be is part of the simple verbal predicate.

4. Be may fulfil a modal function as well when it is associated with the infinitive to express obligation of a pre-planned character or mutual arrangement: She was to meet him at five o'clock sharp. The train is to arrive at nine o'clock p.m. We are to be married in June. In these cases be is part of the compound verbal predicate.

Note that irrespective of its function when used in simple tenses be does not require do as an auxiliary to form questions and negative sentences. For example: She is not my friend. Where is the book? Was the house built? They are not to be married in June.

6.9. Have: functions

The present tense forms of the verb are have and in the third person singular — has. The corresponding negative forms are have not/haven't and has not/hasn't.

The past form of have is had. Its negative form is had not/hadn 't.

The past participle of have is had. The present par­ticiple is having.

Have can perform 4 functions.

1. Have as well as its synonym have got are often used as notional verbs in the meaning «own, possess» which is realized in the pattern have + noun: / have a daughter. He had some good news today. We must have your answer by Friday.

As a meaningful verb have and have got cannot be used in progressive tenses. To form questions and negative sentences there are three possible ways: 1) Have you got any questions? — / haven't got any questions. 2) Do you have any questions? — I don't have any questions? 3) Ha­ve you any questions? I haven't any questions.

2. As a link-verb have functions in a number of set expressions which are polylexemic equivalents of one word denoting action. Compare: to have breakfast — to breakfast, to have dinner to dine, to have a smoke — to smoke, to have a bath to bathe, to have a look to look and so on.

In this function have can take progressive form: When I came home my family were having tea.

Note that have got is not possible in these expres­sions. Compare: I have a bath every day. (=1 take a bath every day) — / have got a bath. (=There is a bath in my house.)

In simple tenses the use of do in questions and nega­tions is obligatory: / don't usually have a big lunch. He doesn't have a rest after dinner. Did you have a swim yesterday?

3. Have is used as an auxiliary to form perfect ten­ses. This function is revealed in the pattern have + past participle: / have broken a cup. The cup has been broken. It has been raining since morning.

Have is also used as an auxiliary in non-finite perfect forms. For example: Having finished the letter he sent it down to be posted. It is better to live than to have lived.

4. In combination with infinitives have as well as have got functions as a modal to express obligation arising out of circumstances: / have to go now. = I have got to go now.

To form questions and negative sentences there arc two possible ways: 1) Do you have to work tomorrow? — 1 don't have to work tomorrow. 2) Have you got to work tomorrow? — I haven't got to work tomorrow.

Note that in the past tense only one variant is possible: Did you have to work last week? No, I didn't have to work last week.

6.10. Do: functions

The present tense forms of the verb are do and in the third person singular — does. The negative forms are do not/don't and does not/doesn 't.

The past form of do is did. Its negative is did not/ didn't.

The past participle form is done, the present parti­ciple is doing.

Do may fulfil 4 functions.

1. As a notional verb, do is used in the meaning «perform, carry out (an action), busy oneself with»: What are you doing now? What shall I do next? I will do what I can. I have nothing to do.

Do often takes various nouns to form recurrent set expressions denoting actions which are necessary in order to complete something or bring it into a desired state. For example: to do a crossword/a sum/one's homework (the cooking, the cleaning, the washing, the ironing, the shop-

ping)/one's hair/flowers/rep aires /business/exercises/sci-ence/duty/a favour/harm/good/one's best, etc.

In the Present and Past Simple tenses an additional do is necessary to form questions and negations: Do you do your morning exercises regularly? The photograph do-esn 't do her justice.

2. As an auxiliary, do is always used in the Present and Past Simple tenses to form questions and negative sentences as well as in the negative form of the imperative mood. For example: Do your children read much? She doesn't do her work properly. I don't work. Don't be so rude.

3. In the Present and Past Simple tenses do may often function as a verb-substitute to replace a verb alrea­dy used: She plays the piano better than she did last year. The same function is performed in disjunctive questions (or question tags) when do replaces the verb in the sta­tement: He lives in London, doesn't he? So you want to be a doctor, do you?

4. In the Present and Past Simple tenses and in the imperative mood do often performs the emphatic function to stress the affirmative nature of the statement: That's exactly what he did say. I do want to go! Do tell me what happened!

6.11. Shall: Junctions

The third person singular of the present tense is shall. The negative form is shall not/shan't.

Shall combines auxiliary and modal functions.

1. Shall may be used as an auxiliary in the first person both singular and plural to form the future tense: / shall have completed my report by Tuesday. We shall be away next week.

Note that in ordinary modern speech mil or its short form 'II is more often used than shall.

2. As a modal, shall is used with all persons to form statements or questions expressing obligation, duty, command and in the negative prohibition. It should be brought out prosodically. For example: Shall I open the window? (= Do you want me to open the window?) Shall the boy wait? You shall not have it! It's mine.

In this meaning shall is often used in formal writing: You shall not kill. (The Bible) Payments shall be made by check.

6.12. Will: functions

The third person singular form is will. The negative is mil not/won't.

Will performs both auxiliary and modal functions.

Will is used as an auxiliary in the second and third person singular and plural to form the future tense in statements, questions and negative sentences. For examp­le: You will miss your train unless you hurry. They say it will rain tomorrow. What time will she be arriving? He won't come to the party.

In modern English the short form 'II is regularly used in the first person singular as part of the future tense as well as mil which acquires a modal meaning of wish,

willingness or unwillingness in the negative: / will have finished the job by that time. I will never come again.

2. As a modal, will can be used with all persons and has a variety of uses. In most cases it is brought out pro­sodically.

a) It expresses willingness, intention, consent (and unwillingness in the negative): All right, I will come. We will pay the money soon. He will have his own way. We can't find anyone who who will take the job. I won't do the work. He won't listen to me.

b) When will is used in polite requests it is often equivalent to «please»: Will you come in? Will you have a cup of tea? Shut the door, will you?

c) Will may be used in negative sentences with reference to objects to show them as unable to fulfil their function: The pen won't write. The knife won't cut. The lift won't work.

d) Will may express various degrees of possibility. For example: This car will hold five people comfortably. (=can) This will be the postman at the door now. (=must) To refer action to the past mil takes a perfect infinitive: Do you think he will have got my letter yet?

e) Will is also used to indicate characteristic beha­viour or regular actions in the present. For example: Ac­cidents will happen. Boys will be boys. She will ask silly questions. He will sit there for hours looking at the traffic go by.

6.13. Should: functions


The third person singular is should. The negative form is should not/shouldn 't.

Should can fulfil auxiliary and modal functions.

1. As an auxiliary, should is used in three gramma­tical patterns.

a) In the first person it indicates the Future-in-the Past in reported speech: / told him that I should see him the next day. We promised we should he back before night­fall

b) With all persons it is used as part of the Suppositional Mood: / was anxious our plan should not

fail. He suggests we should help him. If it should rain tomorrow we shall stay home.

c) In the first person it may occur as part of the Conditional Mood though in Modern English such uses are regarded as either formal or old-fashioned. For example: / should be surprised if he came.

2. As a modal, should is used in its full form with all persons and performs two functions.

a) It is used to express mild obligation in the form of advice or recommendation: If you see anything unusual you should call the police. He shouldn't be so impatient with the child.

To refer action to the past should takes passive infinitive: You should have told me this long ago. He shouldn 't have said this.

b) It may express probability: The photos should be ready by tomorrow morning. He studied much, he should pass the examination. There shouldn't be any difficulty about getting this book.

6.14. Would: functions

The third person singular is would. The negative' form is would not/wouldn't.

Would performs auxiliary and modal functions.

1. As an auxiliary, would is used in the two gramma­tical patterns.

a) In the second and third persons it indicates the Future-in-the Past in reported speech: They said they would meet us at the station. I knew she would be annoyed.

b) In the second and third persons it is used to form the Conditional Mood: She would be surprised if he came. What would you do if you won a million dollars?

2. As a modal would is basically used in its full form which is prosodically stressed. It may be observed in a variety of cases.

a) With all persons it is used to show willingness or in the negative — unwilligness in the past: They couldn't find anyone who would take the job. He said there had been a serious accident, but wouldn 't give any details.

b) In the second person it is used to form a polite request: Would you please lend me your pencil? Shut the door, would you?

c) It is used in the negative with reference to the object unable to fulfil its function: My car wouldn't start yesterday. The lift wouldn't work for two days.

d) It is used to show regular actions in the past: We used to work in the same office and we would often have coffee together.

6.15. Modals

Modal verbs are used to express the speaker's attitu­de towards the action or state denoted by the infinitive they are grammatically associated with, that is they show actions denoted by infinitives as obligatory, necessary, advisable, desirable, possible, impossible, uncertain, etc. They are: must, can (could), may (might), ought, shall, will, should, would, be, have, need, dare.

Modals are called defective verbs since most of them lack the non-finite forms and cannot be used in the analytical patterns such as perfect, continuous, passive as well as future tense forms. The exceptions are: be, have, need and dare. Besides, modals do not take the -(e)s suf­fix in the first person singular. Such verbs as be and have are characterized by the special forms of their own: The train is to arrive in an hour. The boy has to go to school.

Modals normally take infinitives without to with the exception of ought, be, have and sometimes dare and need.

Modals do not require any auxiliary to form ques­tions and negative sentences except for the verb have. Do your children have to wear a uniform at school? Does she have to get up early tomorrow?

According to the meaning modals can be classified into several groups: 1) verbs expressing obligation, ne­cessity — must, have to, be to, shall, should, ought to; 2) verbs denoting supposition, possibility, certainty/uncer­tainty must, may(might), can(could), should, ought to, will, 3) verbs expressing ability — can(could), 4) verbs expressing permission, requests, offers, invitations — may/

might, will/would, can/could, 5) verbs denoting willing­ness will, would.

6.15.1. Modals expressing obligation

There are 6 modals which express obligation: must, have to/have got to, be to, shall, should, ought to. Must

Must expresses strong moral obligation, necessity, determination. For example: / must work. (=1 need to work. I am determined to work. Nobody makes me work.)

Grammatically must as a modal expressing obligation is the present tense form that has no counterparts in the past and future. Therefore the idea of must in those tenses is rendered by means of have to. She felt she had to have the air. We are sure we'll have to forgive him.

Note that in indirect speech must is used to refer an action to the past: The doctor told me I must stop smoking.

Must is always associated with the infinitive without to and has no -s suffix in the third person singular: This information must be given to the general public.

Must does not take any auxiliary to form a question or a negation. The negative forms of must are 1) must not/mustn't which expresses prohibition and 2) need not/ needn't that denotes unnecessary action. Compare: You mustn't smoke in the classroom. (=It is forbidden to smoke here.) — You needn't arrive at the airport till 10.30. (=It is unnecessary to arrive at the airport till 10.30.) Have to/have got to "

Have to/have got to expresses obligation arising out of circumstances: / have to work now. I have got to go now. (= I am obliged to.) / had to get up early yesterday. I'll have to meet him at the station tomorrow.

Have always requires the infinitive with the particle to.

In the third person singular of the present tense have to is used in the form of has to: The work has to be done by tomorrow.

As a modal have to always takes the auxiliary do to form questions and negation.

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