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Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Universal, satisfactory, dishonorable, absent-minded, affectionate, agrochemical, conversational, cool, coordi­nate, double, intoxicated, hard-boiled, mindless, rest­rained, sheepish, stately, sympathetic, three-piece.

2. Give the opposites of the following adjectives by using the correct negative prefix:

Acceptable, adequate, agreeable, attentive, available, compatible, complete, considerable, constant, constitu­tional, credible, direct, discreet, distinct, excusable, fre-

quent, grammatical, hospitable, logical, loyal, mistakable, mobile, mortal, natural, polite, probable, religious, repu-

table, resistible, resolute, responsible, selfish.

3. Write down the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives:

Large, heavy, free, sly, near, able, complete, rude, polite, respectable, far, distant, slim, slender, shy, coarse, wide, narrow, high, low, sly, brave.

4. Define the class of the italicized adjectives and their syntactic function in the text given below:

Words are the raw material of the writer's craft, and in his choice of them lies very much of his skill. English

offers him an immense vocabulary, enriched from many sources. French and Latin have added most to the original Saxon stock, but words have been borrowed from almost every country under the sun. French came over with the Norman conquerors; Renaissance scholars borrowed di­rect from Latin and Greek; fine gentlemen in Elizabeth's day garnished their speech with French, Italian and Spanish phrases; merchants and sailors and adventurers brought home new words from East and West. The pro­cess has been continuous, and continues still today. By these means the English vocabulary has increased not only in size, but in richness and variety. There seems at times a bewildering number of words which might express one plain meaning. How, then, shall we select the right one?

5. Insert little or a little and define which part speech they belong to:

a) 1. Have ... patience. 2. She had ... opportunity to use it. 3. I'll go ... way with you. 4. There's ... doubt he was responsible. 5. So much to do, so ... time. 6. Won't you have ... brandy? 7. We have ... hope of success. 8. I saw ... chance of doing it. 9. Wait ... longer.

b) 1. There's ... we can do about it. 2. There's ... that I can add to what he said. 3. Have some coffee: the­re's ... left. 4. I've got ... ; he's got a lot. 5. Is there any brandy, I'll have ... . 6. He said ..., but I knew what he meant. 7. I can't help you, I know ... about it. 8. It means ... to me. 9. Try ... of this cake.

c) 1. I used to play a lot, but now I play ... . 2. He's ... interested in anyone but himself. 3. She's ... sen-

timental. 4. It was ... difficult, not very. 5. You must excuse me. I'm ... tired. 6. Can we just move it ...? 7. He says ..., but he thinks a lot. 8. We thought it would be popular but it's ... used. 9. I'm just ... worried.

6. Insert few or a few:

1. It's so difficult that ... people can do that. 2. It was so cold that ... people came. 3. There are ... places hotter. 4. He has ... friends so he almost never goes out. 5. Can you give me ... examples? 6. ...flowers would look nice, but we don't need many. 7. I've been there ... times, but not often. 8. ... men have served their country so well. 9. He's had quite ... accidents.

7. Insert little, a little, few, a few:

1. I don't need a lot of money, just ... . 2. Not many people came, just ... . 3. He did ... to help us, which was not very friendly. 4. She was tired and had ... to say. 5. Have some coffee: there's still ... left. 6. As we feared, there was ... to interest us. 7. We hoped to sell a lot, but ... have been sold. 8. He found ..., but not many. 9. These are ... of my favourite things.

8. Complete the sentences below with the adjectives tall, wide, old, deep, thick, long, high:

1. The cathedral is 600 year .... 2. The mine is half a mile ....3. This cloth is a metre .... 4. That river is 80 miles .... 5. His son is 6 feet .... 6. The building is 60 feet .... 7. I need a piece of wood half an inch ....

9. Complete the following with one of the forms good/better/best, bad/worse/worst, much/more/most:

1. It was the ... accident in the history of the company. 2. The most expensive is not necessarily the ....

3. She was very ill yesterday, but she's ... today. 4. You surely don't expect me to sell it far ... than I paid for it! 5. Last year's results were bad, but unfortunately this year's are .... 6. Managers earn ... than secretaries. 7. They all ate a lot but he ate (the) .... 8. Nobody gave very much, she gave (the) .... 9. He is not satisfied with -any­thing but the .... 10. He is a good player, but his brother is ....

10. Complete the following with far/farther/farthest, further/furthest:

1. They live on the ... side of the town. 2. I have nothing ... to say. 3. Can you give some ... examples?

4. Our products are sold in the ... corners of the world.

5. I'll race you to the ... of those two trees.

11. Put the words in brackets into the comparative forms:

1. The (near) the bone, the (sweet) the meat. 2. The (much), the (merry). 3. The (high) the temperature, the (great) the pressure. 4. The (much) I learn, the (little) I know. 5. The (great) the opportunity, the (great) the responsibility.


4.1. Definition

The pronoun is a part of speech which points out objects and their quality without naming them as nouns and adjectives do. Thus pronouns function as substitutes of nouns or adjectives and have a very general relative meaning. For example: / have a daughter. She is five years old. Her eyes are blue. She has a boyfriend. He is six. Both have a lot of toys. They meet every day. They have some secrets.

Note that according to the British tradition pronouns are viewed as noun-substitutes only. For example: He asked for money and I gave him some. Some of his friends didn't give him any. Do you like fish or meat? — Both. Both of them were happy to meet each other.

The same words used attributively, i.e. instead of adjectives, are regarded as determiners in British grammar and as adjectives in American grammar: I gave him some money. Some friends of mine didn 't lend me any money. Both articles are quite informative.

4.2. Classes of pronouns

Pronouns are divided into the following groups:

1) personal pronouns: /, we, you, he, she, it, they,

2) possessive pronouns: my, our, your, his, her, its, their, mine, ours, yours, his, hers, its, theirs,

3) reflexive pronouns: myself, ourselves, yourself yourselves, himself, herself, itself, themselves, oneself,

4) reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another,

5) demonstrative pronouns: this, these, that, those. such, (the) same,

6) interrogative pronouns: who, whose, which, what,

7) connective pronouns: who, whose, which, what, that,

8) indefinite pronouns: some, any, somebody, anybo­dy, something, anything, someone, anyone, one;

9) defining pronouns: all, each, both, either, every, everybody, everyone, everything, other, another;

10) negative pronouns: no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing.

4.3. Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are used instead of nouns. The principal grammatical category of the class is the category of Person, which is constituted by the words or lexemes, not by a set of grammatical forms: /, we, you, he, she, it, they.

Once personal pronouns are noun-substitutes they share nounal grammatical characteristics, namely they have the categories of Number, Case and in the third person singular — the category of Gender.

The category of Number is formed by the opposition of singular and plural pronouns of the first and third persons: / we, he/she/it they. The second person is represented by the only plural form you. In a sentence you always takes a plural verb: You are my only friend. You have to be careful with people you don't know.

The category of Case is manifested by the opposition of the Nominative Case (именительный падеж) and the Objective Case (объектный падеж). I me, we us, he him, she — her, they — them. For example: Last month I visited my sister. She had invited me to stay for the weekend. We were happy to see each other and her family left us to give a chance to talk. They went to the theatre. We were grateful to them for their tact.

Therefore in a sentence the personal pronouns of the first and third person singular and plural in the Nominative Case can perform the function of subject while in the Objective Case they are either indirect objects or predicatives. More examples to illustrate the point: She gave me a book to read. I thanked her for the book. They have made great progress in English studies. We are proud of them. (She, I, they, we are the subjects, me, her, them are the objects.) That's me on the left of the photograph. Is that her/him ? You can know all these things if you have lived them and if you are them. (Me, her/him, them are

used predicatively.)

In the case of the pronoun of the second person —

you and that of the third person — it, the category of

Case is left unexpressed for these words are unchangeable:

You were talking to a young man when I saw you in the

park yesterday. Where is the money? — It is on the table.

You may take it.

So syntactically you and it may be both subject and object. Note that when you functions as object it may be either direct or indirect while it is generally the direct object except for the cases when it is referred to the word baby. For example: / saw you yesterday, (direct) / gave you a book, (indirect) / looked for the book but couldn't

see it. When I find it I'll give it to you. (direct) How is the baby? I gave it the medicine, (indirect)

The category of Gender of personal pronouns is expressed by the opposition of the pronouns of the third person singular he (masculine gender), she (feminine gender) and it (neuter gender). These pronouns help to distinguish the gender of nouns: male beings (man, sun, lord, actor) are referred to as he, female beings (woman, daughter, lady, actress) are referred to as she, and inanimate things (pen, book, house, tree) are referred to as it. In the case of nouns denoting human beings of either sex like friend, teacher, doctor, etc. the personal pronouns of the third person are used to specify their gender. (See 1.3.6.}

4.4. Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns have the same grammatical categories as personal pronouns, i.e. Person, Number and Gender. Besides, possessive pronouns have double grammatical forms, namely the conjoint form — my — our (the first person: singular and plural), your (the second person), his, her, its, their (the third person singular: masculine, feminine, neuter gender, plural) and the absolute form — mine, ours (the first person: singular and plural), yours (the second person), his, hers, theirs (the third person singular: masculine, feminine, plural). The difference between the two is determined by the syntactic functions they perform. The conjoint forms are always used attributively while the absolute forms may occur as both subject or part of predicate. Compare: Your

room is at the end of the passage, (attribute) This is our room, and yours is at the end of the passage, (subject) This room is yours, (predicative) His coat is very expensive. (attribute) Which coat is John's? Is this one his? (predicative) His is hanging on the hook, (subject)

The conjoint forms of possessive pronouns may be used in postposition to nouns and perform an attributive function. For example: a friend of mine/yours/his/hers/ ours/theirs, a(n) suggestion/idea of yours/his/hers/theirs.

From the above examples follows that possessive pronouns may be used in place of both nouns and adjectives.

4.5. Reflexive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns have the categories of Person, Number and in the third person singular the category of Gender. They are: myself— ourselves (the first person — singular and plural), yourself — yourselves, (the second person — singular and plural), himself, herself, itself themselves (the third person — singular: masculine, feminine and neuter gender, plural).

Reflexive pronouns are noun-substitutes and in the sentence usually function as objects. They are used when the subject and the object are the same. For example: He cut himself while he was shaving. The party was great. We enjoyed ourselves, (direct object) / don't want you pay for me. I'll pay for myself. The old lady sat in a corner talking to herself. He is pleased with himself, (indirect object)

The reflexive pronouns are not normally used after the verbs feel, relax, concentrate, meet, shave, wash, dress: I feel fine now. Sit down and relax. I cut myself when I was shaving. Stop talking! I can't concentrate. The child­ren washed and then went to bed.

Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize the doer (or agent) of action and thus function as either subject or object: My husband and myself are both tea­chers. I'll do it myself, if you won't. I myself wrote it. They built the house themselves, (subject) / want to speak to the director himself, (object)

Besides, reflexive pronouns may be predicatives, at­tributes and adverbial modifiers. For example: She was ill yesterday, but she is more herself today, (predicative) She was anxious to keep away from the subject of herself. (attribute) / like living by myself. Did you go on holiday by. yourself? (adverbial modifier)

Oneself is a reflexive form of the pronoun one (see 4.10.). One can't enjoy oneself if one is too tired.

4.6. Reciprocal pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns are the group pronouns each other and one another which are normally interchange­able. They show that each of two or more does something to the other(s) thus expressing mutual action or relation. For example: The students in the class told each other about their own countries. They haven't seen one another for years.

Reciprocal pronouns being noun-substitutes have the category of Case which is constituted by the opposition of

the Common case and Possessive case. The Common case of reciprocal pronouns is used as object while the Possessive case is used attributively. Compare: They looked at each other. They hit one another, (object) They held each other's hands. They often stay at one another's houses, (attribute)

Reciprocal pronouns are never used as subject.

4.7. Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns this (these), that (those), same, such point out the person or thing that is meant and separate it from others.

The demonstrative pronouns this and that have two number forms: this — these, that — those. This/these indi­cate the one or more people or things that is nearer in time, space or thought while that/those refer to the one or more people or things that are further away in time, space, thought, etc. Compare: I'm surprised you like that picture; I prefer this one. You look in this box and I'll look in that one. You check these figures and I'll check

those ones.

This/these and that/those are used instead of adjec­tives and may function as subjects, predicatives, objects and attributes. For example: This has been the best year in the company's history, (subject) Who was that I saw you with last night? (predicative) Who told you that? The cost of the air fare is higher than that of the rail fare, (object) Wait until you've heard this story, (attribute)

The pronoun such is both noun- and adjective-sub­stitute used as subject, predicative, and attribute: We pre-

dieted their victory and such was the result, (subject) The force of the explosion was such that it blew out all the win­dows, (predicative) Such people as him shouldn't be allowed in here, (attribute)

The pronoun same usually performs the attributive function though it may be used as subject, predicative, object and adverbial modifier. It is always used with the definite article. For example: You've made the same mis-take as last time. My father sits in the same chair every evening, (attribute) You are wrong.The same can be said about you. (subject) These programmes are too much the same. They may look the same, but they really quite different, (predicative) They always say the same, (object) They feel the same about this question as I do. These two words are pronounced differently but they are spelt the same, (adverbial modifier)

4.8. Interrogative pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are used to form special questions. They are: who, whose, what, which.

Who is a noun-substitute, whose is always used instead of adjectives, what and which may function as both noun- and adjective-substitutes

The interrogative pronoun who has the category of Case which is constituted by the two categorial forms: the Nominative case — who and the Objective case — whom Who can be used in the function of both subject and object. For example: Who is that woman over there? Who did you stay with? (subject) Whom did you see? (object)

4.9. Connective pronouns

Connective pronouns such as who, whose, which, what, that are used to connect a relative clause to the rest of the sentence thus performing a syncategorematic function. Besides, they have a syntactic function of their own — that of subject, object, attribute, etc. in the clause they introduce. For example: A postman is a man who/ that delivers letters, (subject) This is the man whose house was burned down, (attribute) This is the book that/which I told you about, (object)

Depending on the type of a clause they are linked to connectives are divided into relative who, whose, which and that, and conjunctive pronouns — who, what, which.

4.9.1. Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns introduce attributive clauses: who,

whose, whom, which, that.

Who and whose are used in reference to human beings or animals. Syntactically who is subject, its case form whom is object, and whose is attribute: Do you know the people who live there? Whom did you see? We never discovered whose money it was.

Which is used to refer to both people and things, in a clause it being subject, object, or adverbial modifier. Compare: She said she had been waiting for an hour, which was true, (subject) / can't find the book which you gave me last week, (object) She may have missed her train, in which case she won't arrive for another hour. (adverbial modifier)

That may refer to both persons and things and function as both subject or object: Did you see the letter that came today? He is the greatest man that's ever lived. (subject) Did you get the book that I sent you? (object)

Note if a relative pronoun describes a noun with a preposition, the latter is usually placed at the end of the sentence. For example: This is the book which I told you about.

4.9.2. Conjunctive pronouns

Conjunctive pronouns who, what, which introduce subordinate subject, predicative and object clauses being either subject, predicative or object in the clause. For example. / didn't know who he was. (subject) The twins look so alike that I can't tell which is which, (subject, predicative) What made her cry he could never make out. (subject) We are very grateful for what you did. (object)

4.10. Indefinite pronouns

The indefinite pronouns some, any, somebody, any­body, someone, anyone, something, anything, one point out some person or thing indefinitely.

Somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, anything and one are noun-substitutes, some and any may function as both noun- and adjective-substitutes.

Somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, and anything are always singular and take a singular verb: There is somebody at the door. Is there anyone at home?

Some and any may denote both singular and plural persons and objects. If they are used to determine or substitute uncountable nouns they take a verb in the singular: There is some milk in the bottle. Is there any butter in the fridge? — Yes, there is some.

If some and any determine or substitute countables they take a verb in the plural. For example: There are some flowers in Mr White's garden. There aren't any flowers in Mr Brown's garden. Are there any trees in his garden ? Yes, there are some.

Some, somebody, someone, something are generally used in positive sentences while any, anybody, anyone, anything in negative and interrogative sentences: There are some apples on the table. There aren't any apples on the table. Are there any apples on the table? There is someone in the house. There isn't anyone in the hou­se. Is there anyone in the house?

However some/someone/something can be used in questions especially when the positive answer is expected ' or when some things are offered or asked for. For example: What's wrong with your eye? Have you got something in it? Will someone help me? Would you like some coffee? Can I have some tea?

Any/anyone/anything can be used in positive senten­ces in i/-clauses: If any letters arrive for me, I'd like them to be sent to this address. If anyone has questions, I'm ready to answer them. If you need anything, just ask.

Any/anyone/anything may be used in positive senten­ces in the meaning «every/any person, all people/any ob­ject, act, event». For example: Any child would know that. Come and see me any time you want. Anyone can cook it's easy. Anything will do to keep the door open.

The pronouns some, any, somebody, anybody, some­one, anyone, something, anything may function as subject, predicative and object. For instance: Some of these books are useful. In his situation anything may happen. Anybody will tell you where the bus stop is. (subject) Was she anybody before her marriage? He is somebody in the Edu­cation Department, (predicative) Scotland has some of the finest scenery in the world. I hear he has broken an arm or something. You can tell him anything you like, (object)

The pronouns some, any may also function as attri­bute in a sentence: All work is not dull, some work is plea­sant. Please give me some milk. We haven't any tea. Have you any sugar?

The pronoun one is used instead of a noun or noun phrase that describes a single thing or person and thus has number distinctions: one ones: I have several books: which one/which ones would you like to borrow?

One can be determined by the definite article and demonstrative pronouns. For example: Which book do you want? The one that's lying on the table. Those ones you gave me yesterday were most interesting.

One can be used with the indefinite article when attributed by an adjective: This dress is a bit small — have you got a slightly bigger one?

In this meaning one may function as subject, predi­cative, and object. For example: Which picture do you like? The one on the right seems attrative. (subject) He buys German cars rather than British ones, (object) The officer is the one who gives orders, (predicative)

One is often used to indicate a contrast extressed or implied with the other, or another, or other(s). The twins

are so much alike that it is difficult for strangers to tell the one from the other.

When one is used in the meaning «any person, you» it has case distinctions. One functions as subject, its possessive form one's is used attributively. For example: One should do one's duty, (compare with the American variant: One has to do his duty.}

One has its reflexive form oneself which is used as an object: One can't enjoy oneself if one is too tired, (compa­re with the American variant: One can't enjoy oneself if he is too tired.}

Oneself may function as a strong form of one: To do something oneself is often easier than getting someone else to do it.

One can be used as an adjective-substitute in the meaning «some» and function as an attribute: Come again one day soon.

4.11. Defining pronouns

The defining pronouns are: all, each, both, either, every, everybody, everyone, everything, other, another.

All or all of can be used before nouns with the definite article or the demonstrative pronouns: All (of) the students are coming to the party. All her friends are leaving for London. All, not all of is used before nouns without any article: All students hate exams. All of may be used before personal pronouns: I'd like all of you to come. All can be used after a pronoun: They all like parties. I'd like you all to come.

All is singular with uncountable nouns and is plu­ral with plural nouns. Compare: All (of) the money is spent. All (of) the people have gone.

All may function as subject, predicative, object, and attribute. For example: We invited many people but not all of them came, (subject) That is all. (predicative) I brought all of them. He gave all he had. (object) All children like toys, (attribute)

Each is used to denote every single one of two or more things or people considered separately: She had a cut on each foot/each of her feet. Each is used either sepa­rately, as a noun-substitute, or with nouns without any article: Each has a lot of friends. Each student has a lot of friends.

Each of is usually used with nouns determined by the definite article or personal pronouns. For example: Each of her children goes to a different school. Each of the children answered the teacher's question.

Each is usually singular and takes a singular verb, except after a plural subject or when each of is followed by a plural noun. Compare: Each has his own room. They each have their own room. Each of the young philo­logists of the department is/are specializing in a different subject.

Each can be used after the pronoun: They each want to do something different.

In the sentence each/each of functions as subject, object, and attribute. For example: Each has his own opi­nion. Each of the students came to the party, (subject) He paid a dollar each, (object) He was sitting with a child on each side of him. (attribute).

As distinct from each/each of, both/both of arc used for two things taken together. For example: Both children go to the same school.

Both/both of can be used with the definite article and demonstrative pronouns: / like both (of) the paintings. Both (of) their children are grown up.

Both, not both of, can be used before nouns without any article or pronoun: I like both paintings.

Both may be used after a noun or pronoun it is attributed to: She and her husband both like dancing.

Both/both of may function as subject, object, and at­tribute. For example: Both seemed to be interested in the subject. Both of them were interested in the subject, (sub­ject) / like them both. He continued talking to both, (ob­ject) Both sides are keen to reach an agreement. (attribute)

Either is used to denote one or the other of the two objects or living beings. It is often synonymous to each and both. Compare: He sat in the car with a policeman on either side of him. He sat in the car with a policeman on each side of him. — He sat in the car with policemen on both sides. Either of them will be satisfactory. Each of them will be satisfactory. Both will be satisfactory.

But in the negative either is the only possible way of expression: She's lived in Manchester and Liverpool, but doesn 't like either city very much.

Either is usually used with a singular noun but either of may be followed by a plural noun and then takes a singular verb in formal writing: Is either of the factories in operation yet? But in speech and informal writing a plural verb is usually used: Are either of the teams playing this week?

In the sentence either usually functions as an attri­bute but either of may be subject and object: Take either half. In either event you will benefit. Either of them will be present, (subject) There is coffee or tea you can have either. Take either of these books, (object)

Every points to the whole as compared with each which is directed to the object or individual. Compare: Each pupil was given a different book by the teacher. Every boy ran in the race.

Every is never used with of or after a subject like each.

Every is always used with a singular noun, being an attribute in the sentence: Every boy in the class passed the examination. He enjoyed every minute of his holiday.

Everybody, everyone can only be used of people and are never followed by of. They always take a singular verb and may function as subject and object. For example: If everyone is ready, we'll begin, (subject) They gave a prize to everyone who passed the examination, (object)

Everyone (or everybody) should not be confused with every one that means «each person or thing» and is often followed by of. Compare: Everyone in the class passed the exam. There are 20 students and every one passed:

Everything is used with a singular verb and may function as subject, object, and predicative in the senten­ce. For example: Everything is ready for the party, (sub­ject) This shop sells everything needed for camping, (ob­ject) Money is everything to him. Beauty is not everything. (predicative)

Other denotes the second of two and may substitute both nouns and adjectives. In this meaning other is followed by a singular noun with the definite article and

takes a singular verb. For example: The twins are so much alike that people find it difficult to know (the) one from the other. The post office is on the other side of the street. One of them is mine, the other is my sister's.

Other may be used to point out an additional person or thing. In this meaning as a noun-substitute it has two numbers. As an adjective-substitute it is followed by a plural noun and takes a plural verb. For example: Six of the books are mine, the others are John's. I saw John with some other boys. Where are the other boys?

As a noun-substitute other may function as a subject and object while as an adjective-substitute it is used attri­butively. For example: One of the twins lives in London, the other — is in York, (subject) / know one of them but I've never met with the other, (object) They live on the other bank of the river, (attribute)

Another points to one more person or thing of the kind. It is normally used as an adjective-substitute before a singular noun, thus being an attribute: Will you have another cup of tea? We can do that another time.

However, sometimes another may be used as attribute with a plural noun, or without any noun in the function of object: In another two weeks we'll be on holiday. I don't like this dress, show me another (one).

4.12. Negative pronouns

The negative pronouns no, none, nobody, no one, nothing, neither are closely connected with the indefinite and defining pronouns. Most of the indefinite pronouns correlate with the negative pronouns: some no, none,

something nothing, none, somebody, someone, one nobody, no one, none.

Some defining pronouns are the opposites of the negative pronouns: everyhing nothing, all, everybody, every, each no, none, nobody, both, either neither.

No is used only before a noun as an adjective-sub­stitute in the function of attribute: There is no telephone in our house. He is no gentleman.

None is used as a noun-substitute and takes a sin­gular verb: I'm afraid we can't have coffee there's none left. When none is followed by of it may take either a sin­gular or plural verb: There are faults from which none of us is/are free. None of them has/have come back yet. In the sentence none is either subject or object. For example: None of this money is mine, (subject) They chose none but the best, (object)

The negative pronouns nobody and no-one are noun-substitutes and refer to human beings only. They correlate with somebody, someone and all, every, each and every­body. They are mostly used as subjects and objects: Nobody could find their luggage. No-one likes to be cri­ticized, (subject) We saw nobody we knew, (object)

Nothing is a noun-substitute that refers to things. It is opposed to something and everything. In the sentence it is used as subject, predicative and object. For example: Nothing I could say had any influence on her. (subject) He's had nothing to eat yet. (object) She's nothing to me. (predicative)

The negative pronoun neither is the opposite of either and both. It can be used as both a noun- and adjective-substitute. As a noun-substitute it is used with of

before a plural noun and takes a singular verb: Neither of the statements is true.

In the sentence neither of functons as subject and object: Neither of them was happy, (subject) / like neither of them, (object)

As an adjective-substitute neither takes a singular noun, functioning as an attribute: Neither neither state­ment is true. I can agree in neither case.


/. Point out the pronouns in the following extracts and define the class each belongs to:

a) Although we agree by and large about a Standard

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