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Compare:

Do we have to stay after the classes? No, you don't have to stay after the classes.

Have we got to stay after the classes? No, you haven't got to stay after the classes.

Does she have to get to the airport in an hour? — No, she doesn 't have to get to the airport in an hour.

Has she got to get to the airport in an hour? No, she hasn 't got to get to the airport in an hour.

Did they have to learn the poem by heart? No, they didn 't have to learn the poem by heart.

6.15.1.3. Be to

Be to expresses obligation of a pre-planned character or mutual arrangement: She was to meet him at five o'clock sharp. The train is to arrive at nine o'clock p.m. We are to be married in June.

As a modal be always takes the infinitive with to.

In the third person singular of the present tense be is used in the form of is: The child is to be in bed at 8 о 'clock.

Be does not require do as an auxiliary to form ques­tions and negative sentences. For example: She is not to be my friend. Was he to stay here for long?

6.15.1.4. Shall

Shall is used to express moral obligation, duty, com­mand. For example: Shall I open the window? (= Do you want me to open the window?) Shall the boy wait?

In this meaning shall is often used in formal writing: You shall not kill. (The Bible) Whoever commits robbery shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment and shall also be liable to a fine. Payment shall be made by the end of the month.

In the negative shall expresses prohibition: You shall not have it! It's mine. He says he will do it but I say he shall not (do it).

6.15.1.5. Should

Should is used to express mild obligation in the form of advice or recommendation: If you see anything unusual you should call the police. You should practise more to become a professional musician.

To refer an action to the past should takes a perfect infinitive: You should have told me this long ago. He shouldn 't have said this.

The negative form of should is used to warn that an action is wrong or unwise. For example: He shouldn't be so impatient with people. You shouldn't talk so loud; you'll wake the baby. Compare with needn't which means that

something is unnecessary: You needn't talk so loud; I can hear you.

In modern English should is synonymous to ought to though should is milder in British English.

6.15.1.6. Ought to

The third person singular is ought. Its negative form is ought not/oughtn't. Ought always takes the infinitive with to.

Ought to is used to denote moral duty: She ought to look after her children better. You ought to be ashamed oj yourself.

To refer an action to the past ought takes a perfect infinitive: You ought to have helped him. This old coal ought to have been thrown away years ago.

The negative form of ought is used to warn against г wrong or unwise action: You oughtn 't to talk so loud, you'll wake the baby. Compare needn't which denotes an unnecessary action: You needn't talk so loud; you'll wake the baby.

Ought and should are similar in meaning but ought is slightly stronger in British English.

6.15.2. Modals expressing supposition

There are 8 modals expressing supposition, proba­bility or possibility to various degrees: must, may, might, should, ought to, can, could, will.

6.15.2.1. Must

Must expresses certainty, assurance, almost a convic­tion, i.e. the highest degree of supposition. For example:

Where is he? He must be in the library. (=1 am sure he is in the library.) You must feel tired after your long walk. You must be the new teacher. (=1 suppose you are.) The meal must be ready by now. (=1 am sure it is.)

To refer an action to the past must takes a perfect infinitive: / saw him a few years ago. He must have been forty. There's nobody here — they must have all gone home. They must have known about it.

The negative form of must as a modal of supposition is cannot/can't. He can't be in the library. You can't be the new teacher. You can't be hungry after dinner.

In the past cannot/can't or couldn't take a perfect infinitive: They can't have known about it. He couldn't have been in the library.

6.15.2.2. Ought to/should

Ought to and should can be often used in the same contexts as less strong forms of must expressing milder supposition. For example: He should/ought to be in the library now. (=He is probably in the library.) She has been studying very hard, so she should/ought to pass her examination.

In this meaning should and ought to are mainly used in the positive sentences to refer actions to the present or future.

6.15.2.3. May/might

Although might is historically the past form of may in Modern English both may and might generally function independently.

In the third person singular their forms are may and might. They never take an auxiliary to form questions and negations. The negative forms of may and might are may not/mayn 't and might not/mightn 't.

As compared with must, may and might express a less degree of supposition, possibility, and probability: He may/might come or he may not/might not. We will do whatever may/might be necessary. I may/might see you tonight; I don't know yet. He may/might be having lunch.

To refer an action to the past may and might take a perfect infinitive. For example: Why hasn't she come? She may/might have stopped to talk to someone. She may/might have missed the train.

Although may and might are similar in meaning and in most cases interchangeable might sometimes suggests a smaller possibility than may: Compare: He might come, but it is very unlikely. That car nearly hit me; I might have been killed.

In the indirect speech might can also be used as the past form of may. I thought it might rain. (=1 thought, «It may rain».)

Might is often used as a synonym to should and ought to: You might at least say 'good-by' when you leave. You might have offered to carry her suitcase.

6.15.2.4. Can/could

Although etymologically could is the past form of can, in Modern English they are often used on their own.

In the third person singular their forms are can and could. They need not an auxiliary to form questions and negations. Their negative forms are cannot/can't and could not/couldn 't.

Can is used to show possibility. For example: / am sure they can find a solution. He is confident that the problem can be settled. This word can't be used in such a context. Can this be true? This can't be true.

Can is not usually used to express uncertainty. In­stead may/might and less commonly could are used: He may/might/could have lost the papers. The papers may/ might/could be lost. The car may/might/could have broken down.

Could expresses uncertainty, probability: What shall we do tonight? — We could go to the theatre. What will you do tomorrow? — We could have a party. When shall we meet? — We could meet on Sunday. I don't know how managed to do the work. I couldn 't do it.

Can is also possible in the above contexts but it is more certain than could. We can go to the theatre. We can have a party. We can meet on Sunday.

To refer an action to the past could takes a perfect infinitive: We could have gone to the theatre last night but we decided not to. We couldn't have chosen a worse day for the picnic it rained nonstop.

Could can be used like may and might denoting uncertainty but it is less common: The line is engaged. He may/might/could be talking to someone. He may/might/ could be trying to phone me while I'm phoning him.

6.15.2.5. Will

Will may express various degrees of possibility: strong supposition, assurance and be equivalent to must and certainty being synonymous to can. For example: This will be the postman at the door now. Why are we overdrawn? This will be the desk we bought, it's too

expensive. (=must) This car mil hold five people comfor­tably. (=can)

6.15.3, Modals expressing ability

Modals which express ability — mental or physical are can and its past form could. He can run very fast. He could run very fast when he was a schoolboy. 1 can get the tickets tonight. She couldn't get the tickets yesterday.

Can/could in this meaning are generally equivalent to be able to. But can/could is more common: Can you speak any foreign languages? = Are you able to speak any foreign languages?

Besides can/could are preferably used with such verbs as see, hear, smell, taste, feel, understand, remem­ber. I can hear what they are talking about. We couldn 't understand his words.

However in some cases be able to is possible and even obligatory for can has no present perfect tense, future tense and infinitive: He hasn't been able to sleep well recently. I'll be able to play the Beethoven violin concherto if I practise for long enough. She might not be able to come tomorrow.

When talking about the past, both could and was ab­le to are possible: could expresses ability and power in ge­neral while was able to is used to denote ability in a par­ticular situation and thus equivalent to managed to. Com­pare: My brother was an excellent tennis player. He could beat anybody. (=He had the ability to beat anybody) — Once he had a difficult game against an American tennis player who played very well but in the end my brother was able to beat him. (=He managed to beat him.)

6.75.4. Modals expressine permission.__requests,

offers, invitations

Modals expressing permission, requests, offers and invitations are can/could, may/might, and will/would.

When asking for permission one can use can, could, may and might. Can/Could/May/Might I use your pen?

While giving permission can and may are used but never could. You can/may smoke if you like.

Except in formal writing can is now more common than may to express permission for the present and future: You can go now. (=You may go now.) You can borrow my car tomorrow. (=You may borrow my car tomorrow.)

In British English might is used instead of may for asking permission politely: Might I come? Yes, of course, you may.

To offer things can is usual: Can I help you?

Will is often used in polite, requests and is equivalent to «please»: Will you come in? Will you have a cup of tea? Shut the door, will you?

Would is also used for offering and inviting as part of would like. Would you like a cup of tea? Would you like to come and see us tomorrow?

6.15.5. Modals expressing willingness

Modals expressing willingness are will and would.

Will expresses willingness, intention, consent (and unwillingness in the negative): All right, I will come. We will pay the money soon. He will have his own way. We can't find anyone who will take the job. I won't do the work. He won't listen to me.

Will may be used in negative sentences with refe­rence to objects to show them as unable to fulfil their function: The pen won't write. The knife won't cut. The lift won't work.

Would is used to show willingness or in the negati­ve — unwilligness in the past: They couldn 't find anyone who would take the job. He said there had been a serious accident, but wouldn 't give any details.

It is used in the negative with reference to the object unable to fulfil its function in the past: My car wouldn't start yesterday. The lift wouldn't work for two days.

6.15.6. Semi-defective verbs: need and dare

Need expressing necessity or demand and dare which has the meaning «be brave or rude to do something dangerous or difficult» are treated together because they both are semi-defective verbs. This means that they may function as both modals and meaningful verbs.

As meaningful verbs they 1) take the -s suffix in the third person singular of the present tense; 2) use infini­tives with to, 3) require the auxiliary do to form questions and negations. For example: He needs to study. He doesn't need to study. She dares to blame her mother for all her failures. He did not dare to meet his uncle.

In the modal function, on the contrary, they 1) ne­ver take the -5 suffix in the third person singular except for dare, 2) use infinitives without to except for need, 3) do not require any auxiliary to form questions and negative sentences. For example: Need he study? He needn't study. That is as much as I dare tell you. How

dare you accuse me of lying? I daren't tell you any more, ; because it is confidential.

I Note that in Modern English dare tends to be more i recurrent in the modal function while need can be I observed in both. I Both need and dare are not usual in the progressive

| (continuous) tenses.

I 6.16. Meaningful verbs: grammatical categories

I



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