Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
только в названии
только в тексте
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
Now he heard the shower hitting the water in the tub from underwater. Everything seemed a lot quieter now. Johnny felt tired and dizzy and glad to be ...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
“We shall be as a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people are upon us,” the Puritan John Winthrop wrote. The Puritans departed for the New World due ...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Opponents believe that such notification laws are unnecessary because a significant portion of teenagers confide in their parents about pregnancy and ...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Vito Corleone is one of the main characters in the movie The Godfather. Throughout the movie Vito gives numerous speeches to the men who work for him,...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Polemics On Veiling Egyptian Women In The Twentieth Century Essay, Research Paper


“.. so much energy has been expended by Muslim men

and then Muslim women to remove the veil and by

others to affirm or restore it ..” (Ahmed 167).

This paper explores these efforts in two specific stages: the first and the last

thirds of the twentieth century. Through an analysis of some of the various

arguments on the veil, I will try to induce some general characteristics of the

debate on the issue and on women during these two specific periods of time.

The starting point will be Kasim Amin’s “Tahrir el Mara’a” (Liberation of

Woman) and the counter argument of Talat Harb’s “Tarbiet el Mara’a wal

Hijab”, (Educating Women and the Veil). The debate between those two

protagonists which has become a “prototype” of the debate on the veil

throughout the century (Ahmed P. 164). Malak Hefni Nassif’s and Hoda

Sha’arawi’s attitudes towards the veil represent an interesting insight to two

different interpretations of the hijab issue by feminist activists that prevail

throughout the century. The whole synthesis of this early debate is then put

in juxtaposition to the debate later in the century as represented by the

avalanche of literature on the topic in the seventies, the views of some

famous sheikhs like Mohammed Metwally el Shaarawi and others, and the

heated debate initiated by the Minister of Education’s decree of 1994 to

prevent school administrations from imposing the hijab on girls as part of the


The Early Debate

Kasim Amin’s Tahrir El-Mara’a (Published 1899)

It may not be an exaggeration to say that Amin’s “Tahrir al-Mara’a” was one

of the most controversial book in Egypt’s modern history. It has ignited a

strong debate and prompted more than thirty reaction articles and books

either to defy or assert his argument against the veil (Ahmed P. 164).

The ideas of the book were not totally new, they echoed the writings of some

writers like Mariam al-Nahhas (1856-1888), Zaynab Fawwaz (1860-1914),

Aisha al-Taymuriah (1840-1902), and Murqus Fahmi’s (a Coptic lawyer)

four act play “Al Mar’ah fi al-Sharq” or (The Woman in the East) (Badran P.

19). Yet, Amin’s book double-scored for coming from a Muslim judge and

for his overt proposal to unveiling women’s faces. His words were not the

only challenge to the existing notions of the hijab, it was his caliber as a

Moslim judge that has vocalized his call to unveil women and gave his book


After an introduction loaded with emotional phrases on the degradation of the

Egyptian woman and an exaltation of the European woman, the book is

divided into four sections: “Educating women”, “Women’s veil”, “The

woman and the nation”, and “Marriage and divorce”.

Amin starts his argument calling for the “Hijab Shara’ei” stating that the

Hijab in its form then (covering the face, the hair and the whole body) was

not mandated by the Shari’aa. He further adds that he was not calling for the

“extreme” of the West which “makes the woman liable to seduction” (Amin

P. 65). The argument against the veil is in two sections: The religious section

which is mainly text interpretation and some Hadith that prompt women to

cover the hair and the whole body except for the hands and the face; and the

“social” (practical / everyday life) perspective. The later section includes

“social” ideas such as the inconvenience for women with their faces covered

to dwell in business, to testify in courts or to get engaged (as the groom

should see her face first). Furthermore, he argues that unveiling would make

women watch their behaviors as they could be recognized and hence their

reputation would be at stake if they did any wrong. Still, from the practical

“social” point of view, the flimsy bourqo’ (face cover) used was more

tempting as it makes the viewer curious to see what was intended to be

hidden. He further argues that, if women are imprisoned in the hareem (part

of the house where women are secluded), then even if they did not commit

any shameful act, it would not be due to any virtue in them, but to the fact

that they did not have the freedom to do otherwise.

Amin accuses the veil of being a barrier to women’s development and

education (P. 85), arguing that it deprived her from interacting with the

society and learning how to live. He illustrates by comparing the ignorant

peasant with the elite urban lady who can speak French and plays the piano,

and concludes that the ignorat peasant would be more capable of coping with

the difficulties of life than the elite urbanite due to the seclusion of the latter.

Talat Harb (1867 – 1941)

In his introduction, Talat Harb states that the main purpose of writing his

book was to defy Amin’s argument against the veil. Harb was called “father

of Egypt’s economic independence” and has established the first national

bank in Egypt in 1920. So when someone in his caliber – though it was early

in his career – writes a book, his prestigious position would place heavier

weight to his argument.

In the introduction, he states that the majority of those who read Amin’s

book have denounced its ideas, and then declares the now common notion

that liberating women is a Western imperialist conspiracy. He ends the

introduction with a note that Kasim Amin would not have such hideous goals

in mind, that he wrote his “notorious” book out of a mixture of good will and

misjudgment. Yet at the very end of the introduction, Harb implicitly accuses

Amin of plagiarism saying that the ideas of his book were published earlier in

Turkey and India.

The book is divided into two main sections: “The woman and her role in the

society” and “What moral qualities should the woman have”. In the first

section he states that “women are inferior to men in perception and senses”,

that she has a different “calling” in life than the man (she for the private

sphere, he for the public sphere), and that she should not do men’s job. He

ends this section with the results he perceived out of liberating women in

Europe (immorality, drunkenness, casual relations..). Then he devotes the

biggest section of the book defending the veil (from page 60 to page 105)

concluding that the current veil is not good enough and that women are

wrongly doing their best to show their beauty from behind the veil.

He starts his argument against unveiling with a compelling statement on the

importance of morality, fidelity and modesty. Then he moves on saying that

Hijab is the best assurance for these wonderful qualities, defying Amin’s

religious argument with a different interpretation of the same text the former

had used (same text used by Ashmawi and Tantawi later in the century). At

the end, he puts a logical question: What is better for women to veil or to be

immodest? The question answers itself.

Harb uses the holy text as one source for convincing the reader, he had many

other sources such as a “scientific” research done in Europeby a German

scientist that proved that the German women betray their husbands seven

times in average, the Belgium six times, the British five times … (Harb P.

63). So, if unveiling is to emulate the West, here is the corruption and

deficiencies resulting from the absence of veil. Harb uses the same (social)

practical argument used by Amin yet with different anecdotes, for example

he says that mingling with the other sex will make the woman compare her

husband to a stranger with possible unfavorable conclusions on the first.

Harb laments that the society was much better before the migration of

foreigners attaching their existence with the introduction of legalized

prostitution and the call for unveiling women (Harb P. 97).

Malak Hefni Nassif (1886-1918)

Nassif was the daughter of a follower of Mohammed Abdou and one of the

early female teachers for five years before she got married to a tribe leader in

Fayoum. After marriage, she realized that she was a second wife, the

discovery was distressful to her, and she seems to have experienced chronic

depression as expressed in her words to May Zeiada (El-Gabri P. 11). Nassif

used to send articles to newspapers advocating women’s rights specifically

against polygamy – reflecting her personal experience. In 1911 she sent a

petition to the people’s assembly (was read by a man, as she was not allowed

as a woman to speak in public). The petition included ten recommendations

asking for more education for women, access to mosques, having women

enter the fields of medicine and education, full participation in public life, and

legal protection for women in marriage and divorce. All recommendations

were rejected, yet at least that was a feminist voice heard in the People’s

Assembly (although through a mediator).

Nassif’s position on the unveiling was firm opposition. She does not base her

argument on text interpretation as did Amin or Harb. She follows the “social”

practical line introduced by Amin arguing that although religion did not

mandate the woman to veil, nor that the veil was the proof of modesty, she

refuses unveiling on the basis of the immaturity of the society and the

immorality of some men. She believed that the major interest of the women

who unveil was to follow the fashions and not to seek education as Amin had

argued (Ahmed P. 180).

Hoda Sha’arawi (1879-1947)

Sha’arawi comes from an upper-class Egyptian-Circasian family. She was

forced to marry her cousin at the age of nine while he was nearly the age of

her father. At the age of thirteen, she left her husband because of his return

to his first wife. In her early twenties, she accepted to return back to him,

after he promised not to return to his first wife again. Sha’arawi liked to

stress the Western influence on her character and that she had “created”

herself by reading French books and socializing with French women like

Eug?nie Le Brun (Ahmed P. 178). Early in 1909, Sha`arawi with the support

of Princess Ayn al-Haya Ahmed, approached the Cairo University with a

proposal to hold a lecture for female audience at the University hall to be

given by her friend Margret Cl?ment. The topic was a comparison between

the European and the Egyptian woman including a discussion on the veil.

King Fou’ad (then Rector of the University) agreed. The lecture was a

success and was followed by others. Nassif was one the speakers invited


In 1920, Sh’arawi was elected president of the Wafdist Women’s Central

Committee (WWCC) and in 1923, she and other WWCC members created

an independent feminist group called The Egyptian Feminist Union (EFU)

after receiving an invitation from the International Alliance of Women for

Suffrage and Equal rights (IAW) to attend its conference in Rome where they

made their first public declaration of their program. The EFU philanthropic

activities included a dispensary for poor mothers and children, a center for

instruction in domestic arts, a handicrafts workshop, and a daycare center for

the children of working mothers. In 1925 the EFU founded L’Egyptienne ,

the first explicitly feminist journal in Egypt (Badran P. 102). L’Egyptienne

was in Frenche, later in 1937, they issued al-Misriah in Arabic. These two

papers formed a channel for the EFU agenda which mainly included family

laws and education for girls.

While Badran argues that unveiling was never part of the formal agenda of

the EFU (P. 23), Sha’arawi was one of the first women to declare her

denunciation of the veil and to take it off in a theatrical dramatic act in 1923

upon her return from the (IAW) conference in Rome.

Both Sha’arawi and Nassif represent what Laila Ahmed terms as “two

divergent voices” (Ahmed P. 174) within the feminist voices on the veil:

Sha’arawi was a voice connected with the western culture through readings

and friends and consequently advocating Western ideas; Nassif was a voice

representing indigenous ideas, influenced by Mohammed Abdou rather than

western writers, wrote in Arabic rather than in French, and raised issues that

are totally indigenous such as access to mosques.

The Debate Late in the Century

The issue of the veil was not resolved with the unveiling of most urban

women during the middle decades of the century. The issue is back on the

foreground as of the seventies. One basic difference is the definition of hijab

(the veil): early in the century it meant covering the face and keeping women

in the house. Later in the century, hijab meant covering the hair and the

whole body, only showing the hands and face, and not necessarily limiting

women to the private sphere. The new hijab has become, as Macloed puts it,

a symbolic resolution of women’s dilemma of having to work, and feeling

guilty about it. (Macloed P. 120) The earlier version of the hijab is now

called “Nikab” and is adding a new dimension to the controversy on the veil:

a veiled women like Nabila Hassan, the reporter of Akher Sa’a (an Egyptian

magazine) investigating the world of Monakabat treats it as a mysterious alien

world (Akher Sa’a 8/12/92). Preachers and sheikhs, specially on audio tapes,

consider it as a double score for a woman to be monakaba though not

mandated. Opposition Islamic groups found a golden opportunity to attack

the government for not allowing monakabat to university compasses.

The Wave of the Seventies

In the seventies, Egypt witnessed what was described as a revival of

indigenous Islamic values. Some of the reasons given for that include: the

Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. On Kenneth Rexroth

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... is further enriched by polemic and ideology, exquisite lyric ... set-pieces, philosophic meditations on love, the compacted evil ... absolutely transparent time, I Take on a kind of crystalline Being. ... an exalted clarity ("I take on a kind of crystalline being"). ...
  2. The Role of Grammatical Transformations While Translating

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... During Translation 43 2.4. Summary on Different Types of Transformations 47 ... translation drawback. As soon as polemics on Russian English appeared, translators of ... concerning syntactical transformations. 6.Summary on Different Types of Transformations The ...
  3. Politics Of Criminal Justice Essay Research Paper

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... toward business in Sutherland s pioneering polemic on white-collar crime has never ... permeated criminological studies and statements on the subject. It reflects a ... to comply with government regulations on environment pollution, unfair pricing practices ...
  4. Geoffrey Macnab On Norwegian Novelist Knut Hamsun

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... of his more egregious wartime polemics.) No one can explain exactly ... the wrestler Giant Haystacks), taking on the land as he tries ... he published his last book, On Overgrown Paths, in which he ... Nazis. Even today, two generations on, he acknowledges that there is ...
  5. Review Secrets By Jacqueline Wilson Essay Research

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... same themes, shedding fresh light on the problems affecting young people ... at school. Her savage commentary on the techniques needed to make ... ’s. But Wilson is not writing a polemic on class. Her goal is to ... , not the adventure that hangs on it.

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0015361309051514