Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
Violence Essay, Research Paper
Database: Health Reference Center
Sent from SearchBank.
Library: Lehman College Library
Full content for this article includes illustration, table and graph.
Source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Sept 1995 v149 n9
Title: Violent crime in the United States: an epidemiologic profile.
Author: Laura Rachuba, Bonita Stanton and Donna Howard
Abstract: Violent crime rates appear to have increased among youth while
declining or remaining stable among other age groups. Researchers used data
from several nationwide databases to track trends in crime from the early
1970s through 1992. Overall violent crime increased by 81% with a twofold
increase in aggravated assault, while murder rates varied little. According to
another database, violent crime rates remained stable. All databases showed
marked increases in violent crime rates in youths and young adults. Blacks
were disproportionately affected. For example, the homicide rate among
males aged 15 to 24 was more than nine times the rate among white males.
Particularly concerning was the increase in murders among children aged 10
14, which went up 93%. Guns were involved in over 60% of the murders, and
greatest rate of increase in murders involving guns was in children aged 10 to
Author’s Abstract: COPYRIGHT American Medical Association 1995
Objectives: To determine if (1) there was an increase in the rates of acts of
violence in the United States from 1973 to 1992 and (2) there were
disproportionate changes in rates of violent crime among specific
groups. Methods: Crime data from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program
National Crime Victimization Survey beginning in January 1973 and ending
December 1992 were examined. Homicide data from 1970 to 1991 were
with the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data from the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention. Analyses were performed for overall
rates as well as for specific demographic groups. Results: Rates of
victimization from all types of violent crime have increased among
and young adults (from ages 10 through 25 years), regardless of gender or
race. Absolute rates were highest among African Americans and males. Both
highest rates and the greatest increases in homicide from 1971 to 1990 were
among adolescents and young adults, while rates for those aged 25 years and
older decreased. A substantial increase in firearm-related homicides among
adolescents and young adults occurred as well, with rates decreasing for
aged 25 years and older. Overall rates of homicide have remained relatively
constant during the past two decades. Data addressing overall trends in the
rates of nonfatal violence during the past 20 years are inconclusive.
Conclusions: Adolescents are now experiencing the highest and most rapidly
increasing rates of lethal and non-lethal violence. The increase in violence
among youths 10 to 14 years of age is especially important and alarming. The
concentration of violence among children and adolescents has important
intervention implications. Because adolescence is a time of great
developmental changes, approaches to understanding and preventing violence
among our nation’s youths should incorporate a developmental perspective
also focuses on the relationship and interactions between individuals and
their environments, at the family, community, and societal levels. (Arch
Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:953-960)
Subjects: Violent crimes – Demographic aspects
Violent deaths – Demographic aspects
Electronic Collection: A17477467
Full Text COPYRIGHT American Medical Association 1995
Editor’s Note: This article documents what so many of us knew from reading
newspapers, watching television, and directly working with teenagers.
it be wonderful if some of the Department of Defense initiatives and funds
were aimed at defending our youth?
Catherine D. DeAngelis, MD
IN THE PAST DECADE, the public media and law enforcement, public
medical professionals have expressed a growing concern regarding violence
the United States. The establishment of the Center for Injury Prevention and
Control within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the inclusion
of questions regarding violent behavior in several national surveys conducted
by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and a substantial increase
in citations of “violence” in the medical literature provide evidence that
violence is now recognized as a public health issue. For example, the Index
Medicus (National Institutes of Health) listed 70 citations under “violence”
in 1970, 127 in 1980, 196 in 1990, and 290 in 1993. Despite
society’s increased focus on violence, epidemiologic characterization of the
problem remains imprecise, resulting in critical knowledge gaps as to the
definition of violence, changes in the rates and character of violence over
time, and factors associated with these changes. In fact, even the widely
promulgated premise that violence is increasing has been challenged recently.
Critics argue that sensationalistic reporting of crime statistics is
responsible for this misperception.
Multiple factors regarding the study of violence contribute to this imprecise
epidemiologic characterization. The study of violence as a public health issue
is a relatively new perspective compared with its study as a criminal issue.
As such, the violent act itself (as opposed to the mental and physical health
outcomes of violence) has historically been the focus of interest in studies
of violence. Indeed, except for homicide, the majority of national databases
that provide violence surveillance (eg, the Uniform Crime Report and the
National Crime Victimization Survey) do not characterize the health outcome
the violent act. Given the judicial perspective of the agencies sponsoring
such databases, an emphasis on the criminal nature of the violent action is,
of course, logical.
As a corollary, given the traditional disinterest among health professionals
in violence research, most existing medical databases do not differentiate
between unintentional and intentional injuries. For example, the International
Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, the most widely used medical
nomenclature for diagnostic categories, identifies the medical injury (eg,
“penetrating wound to the abdomen”) but does not enable identification of the
mechanism of injury (eg, “gunshot wound”). Even the more precise
classification afforded by the External Cause of Injury codes is used by a
few medical institutions. Furthermore, in medical institutions in which
External Cause of Injury codes are used, sufficient cause-of-injury
information is not obtained from emergency providers, making the use of
codes difficult. Similarly, the numerous immediate and long-term adverse
physical and mental health outcomes that result from the act of violence
remain poorly defined and poorly articulated. Given the interactive nature of
many acts of violence, such articulation and clarification will doubtless be a
It is not possible to address all of the issues mentioned above in a single
article. Furthermore, many of these issues cannot be adequately examined
databases are expanded to include information on the acts and the outcomes.
However, existing data can be used to delineate some trends and to generate
hypotheses about relationships. In the present article, we propose to examine
whether evidence exists in the United States for (1) increased rates of acts
of violence over time and (2) a disproportionate change in the rates of acts
of violence among specific demographic groups.
OVERALL TEMPORAL TRENDS
Figure 1 depicts rates of violent crimes from 1973 to 1992 according to the
UCR Program data. The rate of overall violent crime increased 81%. The
increase in rate (twofold) occurred for aggravated assault. The homicide rate
remained relatively consistent during a 20-year period, a finding that was
consistent with the N CHS mortality data.
The Victimization Survey data from 1973 to 1992 indicate that the rate of
violent crime fluctuated during the 20-year study interval but remained stable
overall (Figure 2). Although the Victimization Survey rates were higher than
the UCR Program rates for each type of violent crime during these years, both
data sets showed that the rate and number of violent crimes peaked in 1980,
subsequently declined, and began increasing again after 1989. For specific
types of crime, rates decreased for rape, robbery, and aggravated assault
while simple assault rates increased.
SUBANALYSES BY DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES
The NCHS homicide data demonstrated that from 1970 to 199 1, youths aged
34 years experienced the highest rates of homicide (Figure 3). The largest
increase (220%) in homicide rates occurred for those aged 15 to 19 years,
followed by a 56% increase for those aged 20 to 24 years. A substantial
proportionate increase (47%) also occurred for youths aged 10 to 14 years,
although the absolute rates and increases were smaller than for the older
teens and young adults. Rates remained constant for those aged 30 to 34
and decreased for those aged 35 to 39 and 40 to 44 years.
The Victimization Survey data showed that fates of overall violent crime
increased from 1973 to 1992 for those aged 12 to 34 years, but remained the
same or decreased for those aged 35 years and older. Furthermore, rates were
highest among those aged 16 to 19 years. Robbery rates increased among
aged 16 to 19 years (64%) and 25 to 34 years (40%), but decreased for those
aged 12 to 15 years and 35 years and older. Aggravated assault rates
for those aged 12 to 15 years (32%) and 16 to 19 years (12%) but decreased
remained the same for those aged 20 years and older. Simple assault rates
increased for all age groups between 12 and 49 years, with the largest
increase among youths aged 12 to 15 years (58%). Rates decreased for those
aged 50 years and older.
Age by Gender
According to NCHS data from 1970 to 1991, an increase in the homicide rate
experienced by males aged 10 to 29 years and females aged 10 to 34 years
(Table 1 For males, the largest proportionate increase (93%) occurred for
youths aged 10 to 14 years, while the largest absolute increases were seen
among youths aged 15 to 19 years of age and those aged 20 to 24 years. For
females, the largest increase occurred among youths aged 15 to 19 years
Increases in rates also occurred among those aged 10 to 14 years (44%), 20
24 years (32%), and 30 to 34 years (28%).
[TABULAR DATA 1 OMITTED]
According to the Victimization Survey data from 1973 to 1992, robbery rates
increased for males aged 16 to 19 years and 25 to 34 years and females aged
to 34 years. However, the largest proportionate increase (250%) occurred
females aged 16 to 19 years. Aggravated assault rates increased for males
12 to 15 years (15%) and 60 years and older (50%). Female aggravated
rates increased among those aged 12 to 19, 25 to 34, and 50 to 64 years, with
the largest increases experienced by persons aged 50 to 64 years (twofold)
12 to 15 years (80%). Rates remained the same or decreased for all other
groups. Among males, simple assault rates increased for those aged 12 to 24
years and decreased among those aged 25 years and older. Simple assault
among females increased for all those younger than 50 years, with the largest
increase (90%) occurring among those aged 25 to 34 years. The highest rates
violent crime occurred among youths aged 12 to 24 years.
Age by Gender by Race
The age by gender by race comparison demonstrates the most striking
demographic differences in homicide rates (Table 1). According to the NCHS
data from 1970 to 1991, regardless of race, male homicide rates increased for
those aged 10 to 24 years. Homicide rates for white males increased for those
aged 10 to 34 years but remained constant among those aged 35 to 44 years.
- Domestic Violence Essay, Research Paper An American football ... providers are licensed mental health professionals, many other ... call the than V.I.N.E. database and will quickly be told ... Domestic and Sexual Violence, Florida Mortality Review Project, 1997,p. ...
- ... In Korea Essay, Research Paper INTRODUCTION Telecommunications ... order by inciting violence or other means ... functions listed above, database, remote computer service, ... or foreign, may hold more than a one ... Chapter 5: Literature Review Eun-Ju Kim states ...
- Police Brutality Essay, Research Paper Police Brutality ... to me that such violence and viciousness by ... was searching for a rape suspect. Diallo was shot ... force that their held accountable for their actions ... of American Prospect Sirs database, 1999.49-54 ...
- ... History Of Entrepreneurship Essay, Research Paper Entrepreneurship ‘A Balanced ... people but provide, health care, infrastructure, ... it into a database or file, keeping ... . (American Sociological Review 45 (1980:571 ... people condemned the violence as unjustified. Even ...
- Glass Menagerie Essay, Research Paper Thesis: The ... Modern Language Association electronic database. The MLA lists ... on a Hot Tin Roof” Catherine: They had ... Williams has Mrs. Venable hold up a bound collection ... cover his incompletion. Or violence such as a war, ...