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Стои, ложи, ехай, покласть, ободнять, ага, седня летом - рязанское

  • Task 10.

Analyze the given abstract paying attention to the usage of the vocabulary items (observe the dialectal peculiarities, pay attention to changes in spelling caused by specific pronunciation).

  • The important thing, man, is that ah love.., he wraps his arm around her. – What happens sexually…that’s just the detail. The important thing is, man, that ah love everybody that ah know in this room. And ah know everybody: Exept these boys,.. But ah’d love these cunts as well if ah knew them. Ninety per cent of people are loveable, man, once ye get tae ken them… if they believe in themselves enough… if they love & respect themselves, eh…

. . . . .

Ah want that kind ay psychic communion, gittin right inside each other’s nut like astral flight & that… he presses his forefinger onto my head. – And that period is now untill I find it. Never had it, man. Had the internal rhythms, but no the joining ay the souls. Never even came close. The eckies help, but the only way you can get the joining ay the souls is if you let her into your head & she lets you into hers, at the same time. It’s communication, man. … It has to be love. That’s what ah’m really looking for, … love.

(I. Welsh)

  • Предупредительно прошелестела входная дверь. В проеме с изящной небрежностью утвердился ровно тонированный насыщенным аутентично тропическим загаром, элегантно декорированный от Hugo Boss, эргономично скомпонованный трехразовыми еженедельными штудиями в тренажерном зале дорогого спортклуба World Class гражданин начальник, руководитель пресс-службы банка Андрей Владленович Воронин.

(Гаррос - Евдокимов)

  • Task11.

Read the extract and try to reconstruct the original:

You can never rouse Harris. There is no poetry about Harris, - no great wish for unachievable. Harris never “cries he doesn’t know why” If Harris’s eyes fill with tears, you can say for sure it is because Harris has been eating raw onions. If you were to stand at night by the sea-shore with Harris, and say, “Listen! Do you hear? Is it the mermaids singing in the water; or the sad spirits, crying for the drowned?” Harris would take you by the arm and say: “I know how it is: you’ve got a cold. Now, I’d like you to go with me. I know a place near here, where you can get a glass of good whiskey – and you’ll be fine.”

Harris always knows a place where you can get something to drink. I believe that if you met Harris in Paradise (supposing such a thing likely), he would immediately greet you with: “So glad you’ve come! I’ve found a nice place not so far from here, where you can get some excellent nectar.”

(Jerome K. Jerome)

  • Task 12.

Imagine that you are to take part in a very important meeting/party as you don’t want to look a newcomer you have to adjust to the environment (teenagers, night clubbers, lawyers, businessmen, teachers etc). Make up a short dialogue: 1) introduce yourself, explain why you come here and what you expect; 2) try to find out what the others do and what sort of people they are; 3) ask for information etc using all the necessary items, but be ready with explanations if necessary.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”

Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style.



  1. The structure of a word.

  2. Simile.

  3. Metaphor.

  4. Metonymy.

  • Task 1.

A trope is a linguistic unit that has two senses, both felt by the language users. On hearing the exclamation “Oh, you pig!” (with reference to a person) the listener is aware of the traditional meaning of the word and its actual reference which imparts an additional sense of the word – “an untidy, greedy, or rude person”.

If the original meaning is lost or at least no longer associated with the secondary one, there is no trope any more, although there may have been one when it was first created. There is no trope in “legs of a table” or “neck of a bottle”. No one thinks of human legs and necks when using these expressions. These are the “dead” tropes that are dealt with in lexicology, not in stylistics.

First reproduce the utterances that contain tropes, then – trite tropes. Think of your own examples. Let your group mates identify them.

a) We were sitting at a particularly tipsy table. b) One after another those people lay down on the ground and died with laughter. c) We smiled at each other, but we didn’t speak, because there were ears around us. d) She lives at an expensive address. e) Could you help me? I can’t see the needle’s eye. f) If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster and treat those two imposters just the same…g) What’s biting you, I wonder? h) Then there would be seven good years and land would shout with grass. i) Stop flirting! You are always fishing for compliments.

  • Task 2.

Speak of the main approaches to the classification of tropes (Kuznetz – Skrebnev; Skrebnev; Galperin) taking into account the underlying foundation principles. Can any of the classifications be considered complete?

  • Task 3.

  1. Explain the difference between trite similes and genuine ones. Enumerate the words which can be called formal demarcators of similes in a text.

  2. Complete the “as…as similes”:

  1. Rose is as mad as a …..; you wouldn’t believe the crazy things she does.

  2. You are not eating enough; you are as thin as a ….. .

  3. He never says a thing. He is as quiet as a …. .

  4. You’ll have to shout. She is as deaf as a ….. .

  5. I’m afraid I can’t read this small print. I am as blind as a …. without my glasses.

  1. What can you say about …

  1. a person who sees everything and never misses a thing?

  2. a plan or course of action that works very well?

  3. someone who eats and drinks a great deal?

  4. someone with a very bad memory?

  5. someone who has been very active and busy all day?

  1. Read the given verse and speak of its message and how it is revealed with the help of similes. What other stylistic elements contribute to the effect produced?


What happens to a dream deferred?

Does it dry up

Like a raisin in the sun?

Or fester like a sore

And then run?

Does it stink like rotten meat?

Or crust and sugar over –

Like a syrupy sweet?

May be it just sags

Like a heavy load.

Or does it explode?

  • Task 4.

Analyse the given similes juxtaposing the two components.

  • Вскоре над плато взорвется и нагрянет в мой день солнце, как шеренга танцовщиц на лас-вегасскую сцену.

(Д. Коупленд/ пер. Ярцев В. С.)

  • You are like the East. One loves it at first sight, or not at all, and one never knows it any better”.

(J. Galsworthy)

  • He ached from head to foot, all zones of pain seemingly interdependent. He was rather like a Christmas tree whose lights, wired in series, must all go out if even one bulb is defective.

(J. D. Salinger)

  • London seems to me like some hoary massive underworld, a hoary ponderous inferno. The traffic flows through the rigid grey streets like the rivers of hell through the banks of dry, rocky ash.

(D. H. Lawrence)

  • For a long while – for many years in fact – he had not thought of how it was before he came to the farm. His memory of those times was like a house where no one lives and where the furniture has rotted away. But tonight it was as if lamps had been lighted through all the gloomy dead rooms.

(T. Capote)

  • Task 5.

Explain the definition of metaphor given by Max Black: “A metaphor is a kind of filter. We bring forth a system of generally accepted associations.” Provide you own examples filtering the elements of meaning.

and Juliet is the sun! (warm, caring, giving life, essential for living)

STARS. of the moon from the shining sun.

Everlasting tears over its separation

(A. Boese)

Analyse the given poems and compare the ways of creating the image.


Here’s November

The year’s sad daughter,

A loverless maid,

A lamb for the slaughter,

An empty mirror,

A sunless morn,

A withered wreath,

The husk of the corn,

A night that falls

Without a tomorrow,

Here’s November,

The month of sorrow.

(E. Farjeon)


No sun – no moon!

No morn – no noon –

No dawn – no dusk – no proper time of day –

No sky – no earthly view –

No distance looking blue –

No road – no street – no “t’other side the way”

No end to any Row

No indications where the Crescents go –

No top to any steeple

No recognition of familiar people!

No warmth – no cheerfulness, no healthful ease,

No comfortable feel in any member;

No shade, no shine, no butterflies, no bees,

No fruits, no flowers, no leaves, no birds.


(Th. Hood)

  • Task 6.

a) Account for the basis of associations in the following metaphors.

  • Life – a river, a road, a hotel…

  • Eyessun, stars, зеркало души, два бриллианта в три карата

  • Family life – eternal struggle, a quiet harbour, a nest…

b) Supply your own metaphorical interpretations of the following notions.

  • Night

  • Sea

  • Wedding

  • Exams

  • Task 7.

State the number of simple metaphors comprising the following sustained metaphors. Explain why they can be classified as sustained ones.

  • Mr. Pickwick bottled up his vengeance and corked it down.

(Ch. Dickens)

  • The slash of sun on the wall above him slowly knifes down, cuts across his chest, becomes a coin and vanishes.

(J. Updike)

  • Directly he saw those rolling chalk hills he was conscious of a difference in himself and in them. The steaming stew-pan that was London was left to simmer under its smoky sky, while these great rolling spaces sunned themselves as they had sunned themselves in the days of the Barrow men.

(W. Deeping)

  • His countenance beamed with the most sunny smiles; laughter played around his lips, and good-humoured merriment twinkled in his eye.

(Ch. Dickens)

  • Мудра, взросла печальей миллионы лет, радость же всегда в детском обличье, ибо во всяком сердце она рождается заново и чем дальше в жизнь, тем меньше ее, ну вот как цветов – чем гуще тайга, тем они реже.

(В. Астафьев)

  • Task 8.

Speak about the role of context in the creation of an image through a metaphor. Discuss the interaction between the nominal and the contextual meanings.

  • There at the very core of London, in the heart of its business and animation, in the midst of a whirl of noise and notion…stands Newgate.

(Ch. Dickens)

  • It appears to her that I am for the passing time the cat of the house, the friend of the family.

(Ch. Dickens)

  • The waters have closed above your head, and the world has closed upon your miseries and misfortunes forever.

(Ch. Dickens)

  • И еще ты прищурил глаза, и от этого фонари дают такие длинные-длинные лучи, а между ресниц застряла слеза. И эта слеза – это же самая лучшая линза, самая лучшая оптика для того, чтобы увидеть всю свою жизнь насквозь.

(Е. Гришковец)

  • Task 9.

As you know, metonymy is another kind of renaming. Unlike metaphor, which brings together rather distant objects and notions, metonymy deals only with the relations existing in reality. Speak of the types of metonymy existing in the language. Label the given samples with the stylistic types of the trope.

“Hair, bosom, hips, bend of the legs, negligent falling hands all diffused…” (W.Whitman.)

  • A concrete thing used instead of an abstract notion

“It’s me”, answered a low voice.

  • The container instead of the thing contained

The fish desperately takes the death

  • A characteristic feature of an object

“The cold nickel burnt my hand”.

  • The material instead of the thing made of it

I enjoy Chekhov.

  • The instrument instead of the action performed or the doer himself

The pen stopped.

  • Part instead of the whole or vice versa

Our boss smokes a pack in one go.

  • Consequence instead of cause

Man shall not live on bread alone.

  • Symbol instead of object symbolized

Downing street still keeps silent and suggests no further explanations.

  • The name of the author instead of his works

Red dress turned round and gave me an angry look.

  • The place of origin instead of the product itself

There was perfect sympathy between Pulpit and Pew

  • Task 10.

You are given a short text. After a thorough examination change it into a regular piece of conversation with no tropes employed.

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