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Идея Архитектоника Композиция

«Лики» образа автора Сюжет

Образ автора

  • TASK 3.

Suggest a structure and categories to provide ways of stylistic analysis. Pay attention to the interrelations among them. Begin with: Content vs. Form

These items can be helpful to you: theme – idea – life material – language material – word chain – composition - subject – architectonics – author’s image - …

  • TASK 4.

a) Explain how the given linguistic elements can be foregrounded on different levels of the language (phonetic; morphological; lexical; syntactical): e.g. Do you understand me? – Get me?

  • Hello, John, to like, nice, Is anybody home?; What do you mean?; And one fine morning… (the last phrase from Fitzgerald’s “Great Gatsby”)

b) Provide your own examples of foregrounding on various levels.

c) Enumerate the main types, mechanisms and functions of foregrounding. Can we speak of occasional accentuation in literature (prose, poetry, drama)? In what way does foregrounding differ from stylistic devices?

  • TASK 5.

Study the given information and illustrate your understanding with suitable examples.

In some branches of semantics, connotation is more or less synonymous with intension. Connotation is often contrasted with denotation, which is more or less synonymous with extension.

In everyday usage, connotation has a different meaning. The idea is the following: every word or phrase has two kinds of meaning: primary, literal meanings (sometimes called denotations), and secondary meanings known as connotations. Connotations are thought to colour what a word “really means” with emotion or value judgments.

For example, a stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. Although these have the same literal meaning (i.e. stubborn), strong-willed connotes admiration for someone’s convictions, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone.

Native speakers (of any language) intuitively make correct choices. But any language learner should be aware of the implied connotations of his vocabulary.

  • TASK 6.

Account for various interpretation of denotation and connotation. Suggest your own definition or a basis for comparison.

“Denotation is what is photographed; connotation is how it is photographed” (Fiske)

“Denotation is sometimes regarded as a digital code and connotation as an analogue code”


At the denotative level this is a photograph of the movie star Marilyn Monroe. At a connotative level we associate this photograph with Marilyn Monroe’s star qualities of glamour, sexuality, beauty, but also with depression, drug-taking and death. At a general level we understand this sign as activating the myth of Hollywood: the dream factory that produces glamour in the form of the stars it constructs, but also the dream machine that can crush them – all with a view to profit and expediency.

  • TASK 7.

  1. Identify the type of connotation in the given examples.

  • Dissect;

  • Mum;

  • notorious;

  • grown-up;

  • jerk;

  • irradiate;

  • risky;

  • many a scientist…;

  • repelling;

  • to be rolling in money;

  • splendid;

  • cool;

  • many vs. numerous;

  • eke;

  • лик,

  • отпрыск,

  • грохнуться,

  • аппелировать

  1. Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

    • TASK 8.

  1. Synonymic relations within a language

a) You are given the neutral element of a synonymic line. Reconstruct the line, supplying the missing elements.

  • Meet;

  • insane;

  • talk;

  • еда;

  • food;

  • false;

  • strong drinks;

  • квартира;

  • закрыть глаза;

  • подарить…

  1. Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

  1. Relations between direct and figurative meanings.

a) Explain the basis of connotation..

  • тормозить;

  • расколоться;

  • откинуться;

  • pig;

  • dough;

  • legless;

  • snow;

  • grandma lane;

  • sharp;

  • After wild week-ends Mondays are always a washou

  1. Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

  1. Relations based on formal similarity.

a) Give your associations with the words given.

  • Everything is sapped and sopped in Lincolnshire (Ch. Dickens);

  • blob;

  • Mr. Tangle (a lawyer from Dickens’ “Bleak House”);

  • tinkle-crackle-giggle-wriggle

b) Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

  1. Restriction.

  1. Study the statements and account for their stylistic effect.

  • His new CD is a bomb!

  • He is not bald, he is hair-disadvantaged.

  • My mother had a propensity to spoil him. (a girl, aged 13, speaking of her little brother;

(J. D. Salinger)

b) Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

    • TASK 9.

Here is a text to ponder over. After a careful examination make the necessary changes in its vocabulary and structure regarding the target audience:

  1. a bosom friend of yours;

  2. an elderly person whom you highly respect;

  3. other.

Here is an example for you:

How to fry an egg.

The art of making a sunny-side-up egg

Well, you know, you take a pan, pour some oil on it, and put it on the stove. Then you take an egg and knock it over the pan. It flops there. Oh, and don’t forget to add some salt. Hang around for a couple of minutes and you get it.

Take a jet-black pan and pour some yellowish odorous oil; put it on the blazing brilliant bonfire of a burner. Then take an oval, white snow egg and see how its chalky shell crumbs under a sharp razor, but its interiors slip out to the sizzling pan. Meanwhile take a peck of salt, which rains down to a tiny orange sun of a yolk. In a fleeting moment your fragrant fizzing sunny-side-up is to ready to be served and tasted.

  • Sally had missed the last bus home because she had had a lot of work to do and she had to take a taxi. She got into the first one that came along and immediately regretted it. The driver seemed a bit crazy. After he had gone through the third red light at high speed she said: “You are driving a bit too fast. Please, slow down. I have been in two car accidents already in my life”. “That’s nothing,” replied the driver. “I have been in over a hundred!”

(after V. Evans)

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics”

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”

Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style


  1. Division of the English vocabulary. The neutral layer.

  2. Terms and their classifications.

3. Foreignisms vs. Barbarisms.

4. Archaisms vs. Historicisms.

5. Neologisms.

Language is a living and continually changing thing. Many words used in the past by good writers would not be suitable today; and words used even today in poetry, where choice may be dictated by the needs of rhyme or rhythm, might strike an affected or pompous note in prose. There are so-called “formal words”: words that are not so common English for what is meant, but translations of them into language that is held more suitable for public exhibition. If there is a doubt whether the given word should be regarded as a formal one, the only appeal can be to the practice of good contemporary prose writers. The qualifications of “contemporary” and “prose” are important.

Sometimes the use of formal words is a sign that speakers or writers wish to be taken as better educated than they really are. Usages prompted by this motive might be called “show-words”. There are so called “genteelisms”, which can be defined as the substitution for the ordinary natural word that would first suggest itself to the mind, of a synonym thought to be less soiled by the common herd, less familiar, less plebeian, less vulgar, less improper. There is a class of words springing into popularity that are called “vogue-words”. They may be new words or they may introduce a new use of an old word. Sometimes a cause of their being taken up is that at first they have the charm of novelty. At a later stage, when they have come into common usage, they are seized upon by people too lazy to select a word more suitable for the context. Often still later the use of such words is extended; their original sense becomes blurred. But it is not necessarily that the person thinking in slang should write in slang, or that the formal words should be avoided as some of them have special and traditional uses.

    • Task 1.

Study the information and explain the idea of neutrality; enumerate the characteristics of the neutral bulk of the English vocabulary supplying necessary examples. Account for the borderline between neutral and colloquial, neutral and literary words being so blurred. Give examples of various vocabulary items passing from one layer of the language into another: зелень, лопух, чайник, зараза, chick, grass, paralytic etc.

    • Task 2.

Study the table suggested by O. Grigoryeva and the given word analysis. Choose any word and show interrelations and shades of meaning.

Для слова красный в словаре отмечено 5 основных зна­чений: 1. Цвета крови, спелых ягод земляники, яркого цвета мака. 2. Относящийся к революционной деятельности, к советскому строю, к Красной Армии. 3. В народной речи и поэзии для обозначения че­го-нибудь хорошего, яркого, светлого. Красный денек. Красный угол (в старых крестьянских избах: передний, противоположный печи, обращенный на юго-восток угол, в котором ставился стол, и вешалась икона). Красная (красна) девица. «Долг платежом красен»(пословица). 4. Для обозначения наиболее ценных пород, сортов чего-нибудь (специальное). Красная рыба. Красный зверь. Красная дичь. Красный лес (из хвойных пород). 5. Сторонник или предста­витель большевиков, их революционной диктатуры, военнослужа­щий Красной Армии 0 Красная Армия - название советской армии в период 1918- 1946гг.

Слово красный имеет обширную фразеологию: Красная книга, красная строка, красная цена (разговорное), проходить красной нитью (книжное), красный уголок (устаревшее). С первым значени­ем этого слова обычно связаны определенные ассоциации: страсть, бой быков, кровь, закат, огонь, рябина, стыд. Но у многих оно вы­зывает и национально-культурные соответствия: флаг, пионерский галстук, праздник Октябрьской Революции 7 ноября.

В восьмидесятые-девяностые годы, когда отношение к Ок­тябрьской Революции в обществе резко поляризовалось, слово красный, как и многие другие, социально маркированные, слова, стало «слугой двух господ». У сторонников коммунистической идеи оно ассоциируется с понятиями: «правда», «справедливость», «на­ши», «добро», «победа». У противников этой идеи слово красный имеет другие ассоциации: «агрессия», «расправа», «зло», и даже «фашизм».

Народнопоэтическое красный имеет ярко выраженные нацио­нально-культурные коннотации. Производное от красный угол сло­восочетание красный уголок, которое в советское время означало: «помещение при большом доме, в учреждении, отведенное для культурно-просветительской работы», сейчас уже стало устаревшим и вытеснено нейтральным клуб. Но может употребляться и с ирони­ческим оттенком.

    • Task 3.

You are given a list of words on the register they belong to nowadays. Use your dictionaries to trace the stylistic colouring they used to have.

e.g.Alibi” = professional - journalism – literary

- until recent years never meant anything except a plea by a person that, when an alleged act happened, he was elsewhere, then appeared in print in newspaper reports and is now being used for any grounds for defence against a charge, and in even more slipshod senses with the meaning of excuse.

Abnormal/anomalous” formal

Malady/ailment” high-flown

Mutual” colloquial

Phenomenon” neutral

Maybe (= perhaps)” common

Aftermath” common

Aggravating” vulgar (in writing)

    • Task 4.

Give your definition of terms. Be ready to provide examples of terms following the classification given in your lecture. Explain the effect, produced by the so-called de-terminization.

E.g. Allergic (med) = “allergic to blondes”, “ I have always been very allergic to this man”, “so allergic to conventional values as to find a sardonic delight in flouting them”

Provide the necessary contexts to illustrate the de-terminization of the following terms:

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