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Oil prices rose to a record of $67.10 a barrel last week on supply and refinery worries and there are fears that prices will not fall and may go even higher.

US light crude will cost an average of $67 per barrel this year, $13.50 higher than a previous forecast, Goldman said.

Merrill, meanwhile, expects to pay an average of $56 a barrel this year, up $6 from its earlier target.

On the horizon

Look to the long-term, however, and there is a divergence of views on what will happen to the price of oil.

Goldman Sachs expects that a barrel of US light crude will still cost close to $60 at the end of the decade.

In our view, recent strength has been driven by short-term supply disruptions and renewed geopolitical tensions

Merrill Lynch

While Merrill's global energy team also raised its forecasts for long-term US crude prices by 40%, it sees a more manageable price of $42 a barrel by 2009.

The difference in outlook is based on how they view investment by oil companies in coming years and how successful that spending will be on finding new fields and easing refinery bottlenecks.

"In our view, recent strength has been driven by short-term supply disruptions and renewed geopolitical tensions," Merrill's global energy team said.

"Longer-term, we believe $60 a barrel oil is unsustainable and expect prices to retrace."

US commodities guru Jim Rogers has told Reuters that oil will prices will soar upwards to $100 a barrel.

"I don't know about the next quarter or even next year...but it will go to over $100 a barrel," he said.

Mr Rogers, who sees strong oil prices as being based on strong demand and shortage of supply, pointed out there have been no great oil discoveries in "more than 35 years".

'People nervous'

In the current environment, however, any easing of prices seems likely to be short-lived.

After dropping on Wednesday following the publication of robust US stockpile figures, oil prices started climbing again on Friday after a blaze at a major Venezuelan refinery.

Crude oil prices rose following the fire at the massive Paraguana refining complex, which, combined with a halt in Ecuador's exports, and a reported blast at the Aqaba port of Jordan, was enough to give the market the jitters.

In electronic trading on Friday, a barrel of light sweet crude for delivery in September gained $1.33, to $64.60 per barrel.

In London, Brent crude gained $1.43 to $63.83.

Also suppliers in the Opec group of producing nations are pumping at their highest rate in a quarter century, with not much in the way of spare capacity to make up any shortfalls.

Ecuador, South America's fifth-largest oil producer, normally produces 200,000 barrels of oil a day, but has been hit by protests in Amazon provinces over the level of investment from foreign operators.

"The market is concerned about short supplies and even 200,000 barrels is able to make people nervous," said Dariusz Kowalczyk, a Hong Kong-based investment strategist at CFC Seymour Securities.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/

New look for global clothing industry

By Andrew Walker
BBC economics correspondent

Some momentous changes are coming in the global textile and clothing industry.

The end of textile quotas could lead to greater Chinese exports

At the end of 2004, a system of quotas that regulates trade between rich and poor countries comes to an end.

The changes are the final stage in a ten year phasing out of long standing restrictions in the textiles trade.

But there are many companies in both rich and poor countries which believe the result will be a free for all, with China making huge inroads into their business.

Some of those inroads can best be seen at the retail end of the sector.

Price matters

At the Cha Cha clothing outlet in London's Southall, owner MS Chadha says 50% of his stock is currently produced in China, while just 20% comes from the UK.

He expects even more of his stock to come from China once the quota restrictions are ended.

"In my area, the only thing that matters is price," he says.

Mauritius would be a prime example of a country which has thrived under the quota regime but now faces some problems

Mark Duckenfield, London School of Economics

The textile quotas were originally introduced by major industrialised countries to protect their textiles and clothing sectors from cheap competition from the developing world.

"While you had free trade relatively in automobiles, steel and coal, you didn't have that for textiles and clothing," says Mark Duckenfield, an expert on trade policy at the London School of Economics.

However, by giving quotas to individual developing nations, it also gave them a guaranteed share of the rich countries' markets.

Winners and losers

That guarantee will disappear with the quota system, and many fear that China and India will take their market share.

"China and India would be more competitive because they are able to produce larger quantities at lower cost than some of these other countries," says Mr Duckenfield.

"Mauritius would be a prime example of a country which has thrived under the quota regime but now faces some problems."

And what about the rich countries, whose workers and companies the quotas were originally supposed to protect?

Elizabeth Fox, of the British Apparel and Textile Confederation, says the industry she represents has moved up market, away from the mass produced clothing that China sells.

Job fears

Chinese clothing keeps European stores stocked but supplies are low

Increasingly, members of the UK's 195,000-strong textiles workforce are finding jobs in companies at the top end of the market "where there are larger margins and much smaller quantities needed of each particular style or size", Ms Fox says.

But she acknowledges that there are some businesses in Britain that feel uneasy about the prospect of an unleashed Chinese clothing industry.

Peter Booth, of the Transport and General Workers Union, is even more worried about the prospects in the UK and in some of those developing countries that fear Chinese competition.

"We've seen hundreds of thousands of jobs shed here in the UK as the retailers have moved systematically to the lowest cost producing areas. Our concern was for the terms and conditions of workers worldwide because this was a process of global exploitation in the guise of free trade," he says.

Whether you call it exploitation or not, it is clear that there will be people who lose from the changes sweeping the textile and clothing world.

But some will gain - businesses in China and India and, perhaps, shoppers in Western cities such as London. Freer trade probably means they will pay less for their clothes.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/

  • Task 16.

Work out a few advertisement slogans praising a number of goods you like. Here are a few examples: explain what linguistic means you had to employ to make your advertisement expressive.

  • This box is only as good as the thinking outside of it. (Hewlett Packard)

  • Most servers replace yesterday’s servers. This one replaces tomorrow’s.

  • Whatever you are. Whatever you do. The Allianz Group is always on your side.

  • What you want. Where you want it. (Ericsson mobile infotainment)

  • We’ve gone a long way to make your journey feel really short. (Iberia airtravel)

  • You never actually own a Patek Philippe. You merely look after it for the next generation. (Annual calendar by Patek Philippe)

  • Task 17.

Try to make a convincing advertisement of your own making use of familiar stylistic devices. Be ready to identify those you’ve used.

  • Dear Customer,

I’d like to tell you about three different cars: the BMW (€ 20,000), the Volvo (€ 15,000) and the Mini (€ 11,000). Cars are getting faster and faster and the new BMW can reach speeds up to 200 mph. The BMW is the most expensive of the three, but as you know, the more you pay, the more you get. It comes with a fitted car stereo and air-conditioning. However, using almost twice as much petrol as the Mini, it is the least economical of the three. The Mini offers value for money, whereas the BMW offers speed and comfort. If you are looking for a small, economical car, the Mini is as good a bargain as you will find anywhere. Because of its small size it is not such a comfortable car as the BMW, but it is the best car available for those who prefer simplicity to luxury. Finally, the Volvo is the best value for those who would rather buy a family car. Seating up to six passengers comfortably, it is much more spacious than the other two cars and it is not as expensive as the BMW. It is quite fast too, reaching speeds of up to 190 mph – nearly the same speed as the BMW!

Why don’t you come down to the showroom and have a look yourself?

(after V. Evans)

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

SEMINAR 12.

1. Complex stylistic analyses. Revision.

2. Poem analyses.

  1. Prose analyses.

Part 1.

  • Task 1.

Match the stylistic devices, their definitions and the examples.

Russian term

English term

Definition

Example

1. Эпитет

Epithet

Is a structure consisting of two steps, the lexical meanings of which are opposite to each other.

I would give the whole world to know.

2. Сравнение

Simile

Is a clash of two opposite meanings within the same context, which is sustained in oral speech by intonation. If bitter, socially or politically aimed it is called sarcasm.

Andrew’s face looked as if it were made of a rotten apple.

3. Метафора

Metaphor

Is broken word order

Into a singularly restricted and indifferent environment she was born.

4. Олицетворение

Personification

Renders the character’s thoughts which were not uttered aloud. It is a purely literary phenomenon never appearing in oral speech.

Why do we need refreshment, my friends? Why can we not fly? Is it because we are calculated to walk?

5. Метонимия

Metonymy

Is a statement in the form of question which needs no answer.

Very windy. Isn’t it?”- “Very.”- “But it’s not raining.” – “Not yet.”- “Better than yesterday.”

6. Гипербола

Hyperbole

Is a sentence with one of the principal members omitted.

Passage after passage did he explore; room after room did he peep into.

7. Ирония

Irony

Is a word or group of words giving an expressive characterization of the object described.

Mr. Boffin looked full at the man, and the man looked full at Mr. Boffin.

8. Несобственно-прямая речь

Represented speech

Is observed when some parts of the sentence or sentences are repeated. It is employed as a means of emphasis.

Did you hit the woman with a child?”- “No, sir, I hit her with a brick.”

9. Антитезa

Antithesis

Is a transfer of the name of one object to another with which it is in some way connected.

He looked at the distant green wall. It would be a long walk in this rain, and a muddy one…. Anyway, what would they find? Lots of trees.

10. Инверсия

Inversion

Compares two things which are quite unlike one another by identifying one with the other or replacing one with the other.

Fine open-faced boy; generous and soft in heart; wavy flaxen hair.

11. Риторический вопрос

Rhetorical question

Is a pattern of two steps where the second repeats the structure of the first in a reversed manner.

Stoney smiled the sweet smile of an alligator.

12. Эллипсис

Elliptical sentences (ellipsis)

Is play on words.

The doctor wrapped himself in a mist of words. He’s a brick. He’s a snake. He’s a tiger. He’s a mule.

13. Повтор

Repetition

A kind of context that allows to realize two meanings of the same polysemantic word without the repetition of the word itself.

A smile would come into Mr. Pickwick’s face; the smile extended in a laugh; the laugh into a roar, and the roar became general.

14. Синтаксический параллелизм

Parallel constructions (parallelism)

Is a description of an object or an idea as if it were a human being.

The hall applauded.

15. Хиазм

Chiasmus

Joins two antonymous words into one syntagma.

On your left you can see the well preserved ruins of this ancient temple.

16. Каламбур, игра слов

Pun

Present identical structure of two or more successive clauses or sentences.

Mr. Stiggins…took his hat and his leave.

17. Зевгма

Zeugma

Is a comparison of two things which are quite different, but which have one important quality in common. The purpose of it is to highlight this quality.

In marriage the upkeep of a woman is often the downfall of a man.

18. Оксюморон

Oxymoron

Is a deliberate exaggeration of some quantity or quality.

The long arm of the law will catch him in the end.

  • Task 2.

Identify the stylistic devices in the passages:

    1. The laugh in her eyes died and was replaced by something else.

    2. For every look that passed between them, and the word they spoke, and every card they played, the dwarf had eyes and ears.

    3. “If there’s a war, what are you going to be in?” – “The Government, I hope,” Tom said. “Touring the lines on an armored car, my great belly shaking like a jelly. Hey, did you hear that? That’s poetry.”

    4. Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old.

    5. The girl gave him a lipsticky smile.

    6. The silence as the two men stared at one another was louder than thunder.

    7. There comes a period in every man’s life, but she is just a semicolon in his.

    8. “I’m going to give you some good advice.” – “Oh! Pray don’t. One should never give a woman anything she can’t wear in the evening.”

    9. Up came the file and down sat the editor, with Mr. Pickwick at his side.

    10. Gentleness in passion! What could have been more seductive to the scared, starved heart of that girl?

    11. Poor boy….No father, no mother, no anyone.

    12. It was better that he knew nothing. Better for common sense, better for him, better for me.

    13. The coach was waiting, the horses were fresh, the roads were wet, and the driver was willing.

    14. There are so many sons that won’t have anything to do with their fathers, and so many fathers who won’t speak to their sons.

    15. The mechanics are underpaid, and underfed, and overworked.

    16. I hear your voice – it’s like an angel’s sigh.

    17. He held the cigarette in his mouth, tasting it, feeling its roundness, for a long time before he lit it. Then, with a sigh, feeling, well, I’ve earned it, he lit the cigarette.

    18. And then in a moment she would come to life and be as quick and restless as a monkey.

    19. The sky was dark and gloomy, the air damp and raw.

    20. “Our father is dead.” – “I know.” – “How the hell do you know?” – “Station agent told me.” – “How long ago did he die?” – “About a month.” – “What of?” – “Pneumonia” – “Buried here?” – “No. In Washington.”

    21. She had her breakfast and her bath.

    22. …whispered the spinster aunt with true spinster-aunt-like envy.

    23. A team of horses couldn’t draw her back now; the bolts and bars of the old Bastille couldn’t keep her.

    24. It was you who made me a liar, - she cried silently.

    25. I have only one good quality – overwhelming belief in the brains and hearts of our nation, our state, our town.

    26. I looked at the gun, and the gun looked at me.

    27. The evening is spread out against the sky like a patient etherized upon a table.

    28. England has two eyes, Oxford and Cambridge. They are the two eyes of England, and two intellectual eyes.

29. Stone, bronze, stone, steel, stone, oakleaves, horses’ heels over the paving.

And the flags. And the trumpets. And so many eagles.

30. Ah, if I had as many dolla’ as I had promised from Celestine, I would n’ have to work, je vous garantis.

Part 2.

The stone top

The damp echo

The cold wind

The held breath

The fading foothills 5

The small trees

The missed turning

The hopeless face

The chinks of light

The life-line sky 10

The greening moss

The cold echo

The stone steps

The lost recourse

The pelting rain 15

The howling winds

The stone tower The stone body

  • Task 1.

Think of a suitable title for the poem, you are free to choose from the given variants or to think of your own one.

  1. Suicide;

  2. Coldness;

  3. Tower;

  4. Stone body;

  • Task 2.

Was it significant to show the direction of the poem or not? Explain.

  • Task 3.

Make a list of linguistic peculiarities of the given text and explain the author’s intentions following the table.

Phenomenon Result Reason

Grammar:

1) the definite article, capitalized;

2) the absence of personal pronouns;

3) …

Punctuation:

1) no full stops;

2)…

  • Task 4.

Some of the words are repeated but in different combinations. Find the examples of such repetitions and explain the effect produced (e.g. stone top, tower, body, steps…).

  • Task 5.

Find the examples and explain what lexical meanings of adjectives/participles render the atmosphere (especially in the upper part), motion, etc?

  • Task 6.

Some of the lines are numbered. Is it significant that “The life-line sky” is given No. 10?

  • Task 7.

What pictographic peculiarities of the letter “T” are used?

  • Task 8.

How is the rhythm of the poem created (sound, visual …)?

  • Task 9.

The image is created on different levels:

1) lexical (“The stone tower – top - body”);

2) graphical;

3) …

Find the examples and comment upon them.

  • Task 10.

Try to write your own poem following the scheme “article – adjective - noun”, but mind the unity of form and content.

Part 3.

5 Heather


As if.

As if the physical proximity can make up for emotional distance.

He’s holding me tightly, but there’s no love or tenderness in it, just desperation. Perhaps it’s to do with the realisation that I’m slipping away from him, slipping away from this world he wants me to inhabit: his world, which is not our shared world.

It’s not our shared world cause I’m his, his property and he won’t relinquish it easily. I’m a source of comfort, a teddy bear for a grown-up wee boy. Only they’d never see him as that and if they did see throgh the mind-shaking immaturity of this supposedly successful man, they’d only find it endearing, like I once did. Only I don’t now, because it’s sad and pathetic.

He’s a fucking retard.

what does he get out of acting like that?

He thrives while I’m dying inside.

He should be dying too, but he’s not.

He’s not because he has me to do it for him.

what do I want? Love is not enough. It has to do with being in love. I love my mother, my father. I don’t want another mummy and daddy. I used to. I used to by default because I didn’t know what I really wanted.

I don’t wan’t to be protected. Hugh protects.

I used to need that too.

But Hugh, I’ve been growing up inside, growing up more than you want me to. You used to tell me that I had to grow up. You’d fear me if you saw who I really was. I think you already do. That’s why you’re holding on, holding on for dear life.

Dying inside.

Growing up inside.

How do you reconcile them?

(I. Welsh “Ecstasy”)

  • Task 1.

What is the tone of the narration? Who is the speaker? What can you say about the speaker’s emotional state?

  • Task 2.

What type of inner speech is given by the author:

    1. dialogue;

    2. monologue;

    3. autodialogue;

4) stream of consciousness?

  • Task 3.

What kind of graphical means does the author make use of to render the interior speech:

  1. quotation marks;

  2. italic type;

  3. the absence of punctuation;

  4. paragraph division;

  5. text continuum?

  • Task 4.

What is the principle (logical, associative, both…) of paragraph division? Is it possible to the order of the paragraphs? Is it possible to single out a “one word combination” paragraph?

  • Task 5.

There are a lot of cases of anadiplosis on different levels (sentence, paragraph …). Find the examples and explain the author’s intentions.

  • Task 6.

What kind of stylistic devices create “the stream of consciousness” effect:

  1. ellipsis;

  2. punctuation peculiarities;

  3. violation of spelling;

  • Task 7.

There are many cases of lexical, syntactical repetition in the given abstract. Find the suitable examples and comment on them.

  • Task 8.

What stylistic devices does the author use to create:

  • the atmosphere;

  • stream of consciousness;

  • feelings and emotions?

  • Task 9.

Try to foresee the future events and further behaviour of the character. By what facts were you guided in your choice?

литература

    1. Амосова Н.Н.«Этимологические основы словарного состава англ. яз.» - М., 1956.

    2. Бабенко Л.Г. «Филологический анализ текста» (учебник) – М., 2004.

    3. Бабенко Л.Г., Казарин Ю.В. «Филологический анализ текста» (практикум) – М., 2003.

    4. Горшков А.И. «Русская стилистика» - М., 2001.

    5. Григорьева О.Н. «Стилистика русского языка» - М., 2000.

    6. Кацев А.М. «Языковые табу и эвфемия» - Л., 1988.

    7. Кирсанова С.В. «Обсуждаем прочитанное» - М., 1991.

  1. Кухаренко В.А. «Seminars in Style» - М., 1971

  2. Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

  3. Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

10. Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”

11.Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

  1. Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style



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