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(e.e. cummings)

*unmoving are you asleep & bee in the only rose

  • Task 11.

Explain paragraph division in the below given extracts.

  • The crowd was quiet, and one by one the people left the cafe. Mules were waked up and untied, automobiles cranked, and the three boys from Society City roamed off down the road on foot. This was not fight to hash over and talk about afterwards; people went home and pulled the covers up over their heads. The town was dark, except for the premises of Miss Amelia, but every room was lighted there the whole night long.

Marvin Macy and the hunchback must have left the town an hour or so before daylight. And before they went away this is what they did:

They unlocked the private cabinet of curios and took everything in it.

They broke the mechanical piano.

They carved terrible words on the cafe tables.

They found the watch that opened in the back to show a picture of a waterfall and took that also.

They poured a gallon of sorghum syrup all over the kitchen floor and smashed the jars of preserves.

They went out in the swamp and completely wrecked the still, ruining the big new condenser and the cooler, and setting fire to the shack itself.

They fixed a dish of Miss Amelia's favourite food, grits with sau­sage, seasoned it with enough poison to kill off the county, and placed this dish temptingly on the cafe counter.

They did everything ruinous they could think of without actually creaking into the office where Miss Amelia stayed the night. Then they went off together, the two of them.

That was how Miss Amelia was left alone in the town.

(B. McCullers)

• The crowd was pushing harder. The men in front were jammed against the jail, and the men behind were trying to get within earshot. Those in the middle were squeezed against each other so tightly they could not move in any direction. Everyone was talking louder.

Jim's face pressed between the bars and his fingers gripped the iron until the knuckles were white.

The milling crowd was moving across the street to the vacant lot. Somebody was shouting. He climbed up on an automobile and began swearing at the top of his lungs.

A man in the middle of the crowd pushed his way out and went to his automobile. He got in and drove off alone.

Jim stood holding to the bars and looking through the window. The sheriff had his back to the crowd, and he was saying something to Jim. Jim did not hear what he said.

A man on his way to the gin with a load of cotton stopped to find out what the trouble was. He looked at the crowd in the vacant lot for a moment, and then he turned around and looked at Jim behind the bars. The shouting across the street was growing louder.

(E. Caldwell)

    • У меня в жизни этого уже не будет. Никогда!

Никогда. Но раньше было как-то…я не знаю…а домой пришел, а дома нет! Ну, в смысле…что ли…Но с другой стороны, чего жаловаться-то…Очень многие ведь. Просто в моей жизни этого не будет…И совсем даже – необязательно…А дома нет….

Просто…ну, нужно как-то понять, разобраться…ведь что получается, или…Хотя конечно, ничего не попишешь…оно все так…конечно.

Да! Да, да, да, я и сам так думаю…

Не стоит… это ведь…

Я бы не стал так однозначно…

Это уж - как хотите…

(Е. Гришковец)

Read the abstract and divide it into paragraphs according to:

A) logical criteria:

  1. chronology;

  2. characters;

  3. summing up factual information

B) artistic impression:

1. emphasis;

2. pause;

3. detalization/generalization;

4. change of time

5. …

  • He might have been put together from parts of the tree, for his nose was like a wooden peg, his legs were strong as old roots, and his eyebrows were thick, tough as strips of bark. Among the topmost branches were beards of silvery moss the colour of his centre-parted hair, and the cowhide sycamore leaves, sifting down from a neighbouring taller tree, were the colour of his cheeks. Despite his canny, tomcat eyes, the general impression his face made was that of someone shy and countrified. Ordinarily he was not the one to make a show of himself, Judge Charlie Cool; there were many who had taken the advantage of his modesty to set themselves above him. Yet none of them could have claimed, as he could, to be a graduate of Harvard University or to have twice travelled in Europe. Still, there were those who were resentful and felt that he put on airs: wasn’t he supposed to read a page of Greek every morning before breakfast? and what kind of man he was it that would always have flowers in his button-hole? If he wasn't stuck up, why, some people asked, had he gone all the way to Kentucky to find a wife instead of marrying one of our own women? I do not remember the Judge's wife; she died before old enough to be aware of her, therefore all that I repeat comes second-hand. So: the town never warmed up to Irene Cool, and appar­ently it was her own fault. Kentucky women are difficult to begin with, keyed-up, hellion-hearted, and Irene Cool, who was born a Todd in Bowling Green (Mary Todd, a second cousin once removed, had married Abraham Lincoln) let everyone around here know she thought them a backward, vulgar lot: she received none of the ladies of the town, but Miss Palmer, who did sewing for her, spread news of how she'd transformed the Judge's house into a place of taste and style with Oriental rugs and antique furnishings. She drove to and from Church in a Pierce-Arrow with all the windows rolled up, and in church itself she sat with a cologned handkerchief against her nose: the smell of God ain't good enough for Irene Cool. Moreover, she would not permit either of the local doctors to attend her family, this though she herself was a semi-invalid: a small backbone dis­location necessitated her sleeping on a bed of boards. There were crude jokes about the Judge getting full of splinters. Nevertheless, he fathered two sons, Todd and Charles Jr., both born in Kentucky where their mother had gone in order that they could claim to be natives of the bluegrass state. But those who tried to make out the Judge got the brunt of his wife's irritableness, that he was a miserable man, never had much of a case, and after she died even the hardest of their critics had to admit old Charlie must surely have loved his Irene. For during the last two years of her life, when she was very ill and fretful, he retired as circuit judge, then took her abroad to the places they had been on their honeymoon. She never came back; she is buried in Switzerland. Not so long ago Carrie Wells, a school-teacher here in town, went on a group tour to Europe; the only thing connecting our town with that continent are graves, the graves of soldier boys and Irene Cool; and Carrie, armed with a camera for snap-shots, set out to visit them all: though she stumbled about in a cloud-high cemetery one whole afternoon, she could not find the Judge's wife, and it is funny to think of Irene Cool, serenely there on a mountain-side still unwilling to receive. There was not much left for the Judge when he came back; politicians like Meiself Tallsap and his gang had come into power: those boys couldn't afford to have Charlie Cool sitting in the courthouse. It was sad to see the Judge, a fine-looking man dressed in narrowcut suits with a black silk band sewn around his sleeve and a Cherokee rose in his button­hole, sad to see him with nothing to do except go to the post office or stop in at the bank. His sons worked in the bank, prissy-mouthed, prudent men who might have been twins, for they both were marsh-mallow-white, slump-shouldered, watery-eyed. Charles Jr., he was the one who had lost his hair while still in college, was vice-presi­dent of the bank, and Todd, the younger son, was chief cashier, in no way did they resemble their father, except that they had married Kentucky women. These daughters-in-law had taken over the Judge's house and divided it into two apartments with separate entrances; there was an arrangement whereby the old man lived with first one son's family, then the other. No wonder he'd felt like taking a walk to the woods.

(T. Capote)

  • At ten o'clock everything changed. The big glass doors of the bank folded open and a river of people dipped in for money and brought the money to Marullo's, and took away the fancy foods Easter calls for. Ethan was busy as a water skater until the sixth hour struck. The angry firebell from its cupola on the town hall clanged the sixth hour. The customers drifted away with their bags of baked meats. Ethan brought in the fruit stands and closed the front doors, and then for no reason except that a darkness fell on the world and on him, he pulled down the thick green shades and the darkness fell on the store. Only the neon in the cold counter glared a ghostly blue. Behind the counter he cut four fat slices of rye bread and buttered them liberally. He slid open the cold doors and picked out two slices of processed Swiss cheese and three slices of ham. "Lettuce and cheese," he said, "Lettuce and cheese. When a man marries he lives in the trees." Lie mortared the top slices of bread with mayonnaise from a jar, pressed the lids down on the sandwiches, and trimmed the bits of lettuce and ham fat from the edges. Now a carton of milk and a square of waxed paper for wrapping. He was folding the ends of the paper neatly when a key rattled in the front door and Marullo came in, wicle as a bear and sack-chested so that his arms seemed short and stood out from his body. His hat was on the back of his head so that his stiff iron-gray bangs showed like a cap. Marullo's eyes were wet and sly and sleepy, but the gold caps, on his front teeth shone in the light from the cold counter. Two top buttons of his pants were open, showing his heavy grey underwear. He hooked little fat thumbs in the roll of his pants under his stomach and blinked in the half-darkness.

(J. Steinbeck)

  • Task 12.

Explain whether all text elements are necessary or some of them can be omitted. What kind of text equivalent or symbol would you use to substitute it? Would it be possible to reconstruct afterwards?

…but nothing seemed to disturb the good humour of the jolly old man, who marched on, chanting his melodious refrain:

(L. Carrol)

(L. Carrol)

  • Task 13.

  1. Suggest the title to the given poems and explain your choice;

  2. Comment on the sequence of words: is it possible to change places? How would you start reciting them orally?

  3. Compare the poems as far as the message goes and the linguistic means used.

  • О, где же те мечты? Где радости, печали,

Светившие нам столько долгих лет?

От их огней в туманной дали

Чуть виден слабый свет…

И те пропали,

Их нет.

(А. Апухтин)




в твои


где б не был до того никто

найдет безмолвныя твои

и тайны света низведя

в тьме безответныя

родит тебе мечты

тот светлый ты

твоя звезда живая

твой гений двойника

его смиренно призывая

смутясь молись издалека

а ты а ты вечерняя звезда

тебе туда


где я


( И. Рукавишников )

the time of daffodils (who know

the goal of living is to grow)

forgetting why, remember how

in time of lilacs who proclaim

the aim of waking is to dream,

remember so (forgetting seem)

in time of roses (who amaze

our now and here with paradise)

forgetting if, remember yes

in time of all sweet things beyond

whatever mind may comprehend,

remember seek (forgetting find)

and in a mystery to be

(when time from time shall set us free)

forgetting me, remember me

(по материалам Internet)

Task 14.

A) Rearrange the given elements and explain the chain of words and associations (cherry in blossom, exams ahead, birds singing, piles of tests, the fluttering heart, an open textbook,a love note...)

B) Think of your own shape poem based on associations, ask your group mates to entitle it and account for the effect.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style


Functional styles

  • Task 1.

Discuss different classifications and approaches to the problem of functional styles.

  • Task 2.

Analyse the following table. Indicate the basic style-forming characteristics of each functional style and find the overlapping features.



official documents



1. sphere of social life

2. main function

3. type of relation between the members of communication

4.prepared/unprepared speech

5. limitations

6. topical range

7. prevailing form of speech

8. form of expression

9. peculiarities of lexical meaning

10. evaluation

11. emotiveness

12. expressiveness

  • Task 3.

To what functional style can these types of discourse belong? Explain.

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