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“Jump -”


“Imagine the moon,” advised a little dog who had been eavesdropping, “as only slightly higher than the Albert Memorial. Or consider the Albert Hall….”

(J. Updike)

  • Task 5.

What is the function of dots/dash accompanied by aposiopesis? What emotional state is emphasized:

  1. embarrassment;

  2. secrecy;

  3. interruption;

  4. nervousness;

  5. indecision;

  6. lost thought;

  7. emotional flow

    • James rose from his chair. “There!” he said, “there! I knew there was something wro-” He checked himself, and was silent, staring before him, as though he had seen a portent.

(J. Galsworthy)

  • As Freezing persons, recollect the Snow

First – Chill – then Stupor – then the letting go –

(E. Dickinson)

  • “Guardian, dear Guardian!!! If you please - I –I have something, really something important. Probably you should know it - to tell you – I really have intrust to tell you - that Richard and Ada - have fallen in love”

(Ch. Dickens)

  • “until I have – blown to fragments – the – a – detestable – serpent – Heep! I’ll partake of no one’s hospitability, until I have – a – the – moved Mount Vesuvius – to eruption – on – a – the – abandaned rascal – Heep! Refreshment – a – underneath this roof – particularly punch – would – a – choke me – unless – I had – previously – choked the eyes – out of the head – a – of interminable cheat, and liar – Heep! I – a – I’ll know nobody – and – a – say nothing –

and – a – live nowhere – until I have crushed – to – a – undiscoverable atoms – the – transcendent and immortal hypocrite and perjurer – Heep ! ”

(Ch. Dickens)

    • Jean:No.

Billy: Not even the pension people. I don't tell them my business. But, as I say—

Jean: Grandad! I promise. If I want anything—

Billy: Probably don't give you much in that job, do they? You tell them what you're worth, they're robbers. -

Jean: They pay pretty well.

Billy: How much was your fare up here? (He is getting slightly carried away.)

Jean: No, Grandad, please— I don't want it. .

Billy: Hold your bloody noise. If I want to give it to you, you shall have it. Here just a minute—

Jean: Please—

Billy: What's the matter? Isn't it good enough for you?

Jean: It isn't that —

Bill y: Well then. Do as you're told...

(J. Osborne)

  • Task 6.

Study the given abstract and account for the absence of punctuation.

  1. What type of narration do we have, who is/are the speakers?

  2. What can you say about emotional state of the character (love, hatred, reminiscences, dream, delirium etc…)?

  3. Is it possible to divide the passage into syntagms? How can we see the borders between different parts? Can they be emphasized in some other way?

  4. What makes the given text coherent?

  • …and then I asked him with my eyes to ask again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.

(J. Joyce)

  • (extract) Eimi

did you ever keep caterpillars did you ever have them make cocoons did you ever wait did you ever hear a rustling a dim thudding a desperate thin knocking it was a moth trying to escape from the cocoon but something is wrong it can’t it will die in there you must help it you really can’t help helping it you can’t stand the tinying noise you slit the cocoon Out Flops A Monstrous Unthing which Dies dies because it did Not escape Itself because it was Helped because it cannot Grow you let it out but It Cannot Grow it had better died inside the Cocoon at least that would have been a natural death a doom caused by itself’s weakness by itself’s inability to burst forth and to live! Living to grow! growing to be.

(e. e. cummings)

  • Task 7.

Explain why the author uses capital letters (or vice versa) in following phrases:

  1. to highlight the inscription;

  2. to render loud, irritated tone;

  3. to ask for help;

  4. to copy children’s handwriting;

  5. to emphasize; to make the fact significant;

  6. ….

  • And he wrote on one side of the paper:



and on the other side:


(A.A. Milne)

  • Not Tibbs!’ he cried – his tone became

A shade or two less hearty –

‘Why, no’, said I. My proper name Is Tibbets – ’ ‘Tibbets?’ ‘Aye, the same’.


(L. Carroll)

  • The head Sublime, the heart Pathos, the genitals Beauty,

the hands & feet Proportion.

(W. Blake)

  • [since feeling is first]

since feeling is first

who pays any attention

to the syntax of things

will never wholly kiss you;

5 wholly to be a fool

while Spring is in the world

my blood approves

and kisses are a better fate

than wisdom

10 lady i swear by all flowers. Don’t cry

- the best gesture of my brain is less than

your eyelids’ flutter which says

we are for each other: then

laugh, leaning back in my arms

15 for life’s not a paragraph

And death i think is no parenthesis

(e. e. cummings)

  • Task 8.

  1. Read the same abstract differently putting emphasis on the parts in different types;

  2. Find the cases when graphics is accompanied by some other devices and explain them;

  3. outline the key words among italicized;

  4. Does the sense of a phrase depend on types? If yes, explain in what way?

  • ‘Who are you?’ said the Caterpillar.

This was not an encouraging opening for a conversation.

Alice replied, rather shyly, ‘I – I hardly know, sir, just at present – at least I know who I was when I got up this morning, but I think I must have been changed several times since then.’

‘What do you mean by that?’ said the Caterpillar sternly. ‘Explain yourself!’

‘I can’t explain myself, I’m afraid, sir,’ said Alice, ‘because I’m not myself, you see.’

‘I don’t see,’ said the Caterpillar.

‘I’m afraid I can’t put it more clearly,’ Alice replied very politely, ‘for I can’t understand it myself to begin with; and being so many different sizes in a day is very confusing.’

‘Not a bit,’ said the Caterpillar.

‘Well, perhaps your feelings may be different,’ said Alice; ‘all I know is, it would feel very queer to me.’

‘You!’ said the Caterpillar contemptuously. ‘Who are you?

(L. Carroll)

  • ‘You might make a joke on that’ said the little voice close to her ear: “something about “you would if you could”, you know’.

‘Don’t tease so’, said Alice, looking about in vain to see where the voice came from; if you’re so anxious to have a joke made, why don’t you make one yourself?’

‘I know you are a friend,’ the little voice went on; ‘a dear old friend, and an old friend. And you won’t hurt me, though I am an insect’.

(L. Carroll)



  • AND IT REALLY was a kitten, after all.

(L. Carroll)

  • Task 9.

Define the functions of various types and provide examples:

  1. Character description;

  2. Pause making;

  3. Providing coherence and logic;

  4. Putting emphasis;

  5. Supplying facts;

  6. Increasing significance, emotional tension;

  • Task 10.

Analyse the given verses and account for the effect produced, paying attention to the unusual usage of various elements. Provide parallels.

emptied. hills. listen.

,not, alive, trees, dream(












l o a t?)


h y t h m s












(e.e. cummings)

* a leaf falls/ loneliness




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