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  • Task 1.

Repetition ordinary.

Repetition proper is reoccurrence of the same element (word or phrase) within the sentence. To be sure, repetition (with its numerous varieties) is not confined to one sentence, but also includes recurrence of the repeated units in neighboring sentences or even recurrence of whole sentences. The function and impact of repetition depends upon the position occupied by the repeated unit. But all seemingly superfluous elements have a stylistic feature in common: additional words and more complicated constructions aim at emphasizing the thought expressed.

Classify the following cases of repetition according to the position occupied by the repeated unit. State their functions and distribution.

  • You lay down the mallet and start to go round and tell him what you think about the whole business, and, at the same time, he starts round in the same direction to come and explain his views to you. And you follow each other round and round, swearing at each other, until the tent tumbles down in a heap, and leaves you looking at each other across its ruins, then you both indignantly exclaim, in the same breath… “There you are! What did I tell you?”

(J. K. Jerome)

  • “…He’s never going to come back again. Never in the world. Never.” – “I know. I know. That’s what I can’t face.” – “Yes, you can. That word “never”. Face that and you can face life. Get beyond hope. It’s your only chance.”

(T. Rattigan)

    • We faced each other over the cold cooker with its cold saucepans, and its cold implications.

(Sh. Norton)

  • The woods are lovely, dark and deep,

But I have promises to keep,

And miles to go before I sleep,

And miles to go before I sleep.

(R. Frost)

  • itd be much better for the world to be governed by the women in it you wouldn’t see women going and killing one another and slaughtering when do you ever see women rolling around drunk like they do or gambling every penny they have and losing it on horses yes because a woman whatever she does she knows where to stop sure they wouldnt be in the world at all only for us they dont know what it is to be a woman and a mother how could they where would they all of them be…

(J. Joyce)

  • Task 2.

Anaphora and epiphora.

Anaphora is identity of the initial parts of two or more autonomous syntactical segments, adjacent or at a distance in the text, yet obviously connected semantically. This device serves the purpose of strengthening the element that recurs, helps the reader to fix it in memory and imparts a certain rhythmical regularity to the system of the text. Epiphora is the opposite of anaphora. Epiphora is recurrence of one or several elements concluding two or more syntactical units. It regularizes to a greater extent the rhythm of the text, emphasizes logical and emotional relations of the repeated patterns.

Define the possible functions of anaphora and epiphora. What common functions do they possess? What do they differ by? What extra meaning do these devices communicate to a textual message?

  • Fog everywhere. Fog up the river, where it flows among green arts and meadows; fog down the river, where it rolls defiled among the tiers of shipping, and the waterside pollutions of a great (and dirty) city. Fog on the Essex marshes, fog on the Kentish heights. Fog creeping into the cabooses of collier-brigs, fog lying out on the yards, and hovering in the rigging of great ships; fog drooping on the gunwales of barges and small boats. Fog in the eyes and throats of ancient Greenwich pensioners, wheezing by the firesides of their wards; fog in the stem and bowl of the afternoon pipe of the wrathful skipper, down in his close cabin; fog cruelly pinching the toes and fingers of his shivering little ’ prentice boy on deck. Chance people on the bridges peeping over the parapets into a nether sky of fog, with fog all round them, as if they were up in a balloon, and hanging in the misty clouds.

(Ch. Dickens)

  • I dream of rain

I dream of gardens in the desert sand

I wake in pain

I dream of love as time runs through my hand

(G. M. Sumner)

  • When you're down and they're counting

When your secrets all found out

When your troubles take to mounting

When the map you have leads you to doubt

When there's no information

and the compass turns to nowhere that you know well

Let your soul be your pilot

let your soul guide you

he'll guide you well

When the doctors failed to heal you

when no medicine chest can make you well

When no counsel leads to comfort

when there are no more lies they can tell

No more useless information

And the compass spins

the compass spins between heaven and hell

Let your soul be your pilot

Let your soul guide you

he'll guide you well

(G. M. Sumner)

  • Our hands have met,

But not our hearts

Our hearts will never meet again.

Friends, if we have ever been,

Friends we cannot now remain.

I only know, I loved you once,

I only know, I loved in vain.

Our hands have met,

But not our hearts.

Our hands will never meet again.

(Th. Hood)

  • There will always be pain in things… Pity, not for this person or that person, who is suffering, but for all thing – for the very nature of things.

(W. Saroyan)

  • Task 4.


Framing denotes the recurrence of the initial segment at the very end of a syntactical unit. It is also used for emphasis. It can render oral speech, making it more emotional.

Interpret the role of framing in the given examples. Could any other syntactical devices have been used instead? How would it change the effect?

  • Good night? ah! no; the hour is ill

Which severs those it should unite,

Let us remain together still,

Then it will be good night.

(P. B. Shelley)

  • You would get a scaffolding pole entangled, you would…You’ve made a nice mess, you have.

(J. K. Jerome)

  • Task 5.


In anadiplosis or coupling the final element (or elements) of a sentence (paragraph, stanza, etc) recur at the very beginning of the next sentence (paragraph, stanza, etc). The concluding part of the proceeding syntactic unit is repeated as the starting point of the next. It lays emphasis on certain parts of the sentence and establishes relations within various parts of the pattern.

Analyse the given quotations. What kinds of relations are established by means of anadiplosis?

  • We were…talking about how bad we were – bad from a medical point of view I mean, of course.

(J. K. Jerome)

  • In those days I hadn’t thought that her kind of love – the love she requires and which I was unable to give her – was so important that its absence would drive out the other kind of love – the love that I require and which I thought, in my folly, was by far the greatest part of love.

(T. Rattigan)

The love of wicked men converts to fear,
That fear to
hate, and hate turns one or both
To worthy danger and deserved death.
(W. Shakespeare)

    • Back and forth he went from garden to shed, from shed to kitchen, from kitchen to garage, carrying boxes of tools and bits of wire, frowning at flower beds and window-sills, scratching his head and looking like there were serious decisions to be made.

(Sh. Norton)

  • Task 6.


Prolepsis, or syntactic tautology implies recurrence of the noun subject in the form of the corresponding personal pronoun. The stylistic function of this construction is communicative emphasis of the “theme”. It is also a typical feature of the oral and “uneducated speech”.

Name the repeated elements and their possible forms and explain their function. How can such a tautology be extended or removed? How would it influence the image?

  • It was unheard of that she, Julia Lambert, should go behind and congratulate a small-part actress.

(W.S. Maugham)

  • She had often felt that her talent…was not really herself, not even part of her, but something outside that used her, Julia Lambert the woman, in order to express itself. (W.S. Maugham)

  • Widow Douglas she adopted me…

(Ch. Dickens)

  • My husband he never notices me, whatever I’m doing…

(Sh. Norton)

  • Task 7.


Repetition, involving the whole structure of the sentence is called parallelism and is differentiated into complete parallelism, presenting identical structures of two or more successive clauses or sentences, and partial parallelism, in which the repeated sentence-pattern may vary.

  1. Classify the following parallel constructions into complete and partial parallelism.

  2. State what other stylistic means are used alongside syntactic parallelism in the following examples.

  • If it’s sad, nobly or foolishly, the man himself will make it so. If it’s richly sad and full of beauty, it’s man himself so…if it’s bad, ugly or pathetic – it’s always the man himself…

(W. Saroyan)

  • I don’t know,” she said. “Nobody ever knows. They haven’t known for thousands of years, and I don’t think they ever will. People either like each other or don’t, and sometimes two people like each other who shouldn’t. I can’t explain myself, and certainly you can’t explain you.”

(R. Bradbury)

  • They will know that you will not betray them or hurt them. They will know that you will not despise them after the whole world has despised them. They will know that you will see in them what the whole world has failed to see.

(W. Saroyan)

  • Everyone remembered Ann Taylor, for she was that teacher for whom all the children wanted to bring huge oranges or pink flowers, and for whom they rolled up the rustling green and yellow maps of the world without being asked. She was that woman who always seemed to be passing by on days when the shade was green under the tunnels of oaks and elms in the old town, her face shifting with the bright shadows as she walked, until it was all things to all people. She was the fine peaches of summer in the snow of winter, and she was cool milk for cereal on a hot early-June morning. Whenever you needed an opposite, Ann Taylor was there. And those rare few days in the world when the climate was balanced as fine as a maple leaf between winds that blew just right, those were the days like Ann Taylor, and should have been so named on the calendar.

(R. Bradbury)

  • Task 8.


Chiasmus is also called reversed parallelism, for into its pattern two sentences are included, of which the second necessarily repeats the structure of the first, only in reversed manner. The segments that change places enter opposite logical relations thus producing various stylistic effects (depending on the meanings of the words and the forms of chiasmatic members). Certain witticisms are based upon chiasmus.

  • When we are happy we are always good, but when we are good we are not always happy.

(O. Wilde)

  • Nothing can cure the soul but the senses, just as nothing can cure the senses but the soul.

(O. Wilde)

  • Как говорится, мы тратим молодость на приобретение богатства, а богатство – на покупку молодости.

(Д. Коупленд/пер. Ярцева В. С.)

Look through the given pairs of words and try to provide your own witticisms with a chiasmatic structure.

(teachers – students; time – money; happiness – career – health – family (any two) etc.)

  • Task 9.


Antithesis is a figure of speech in which sharply contrasting ideas are juxtaposed in a balanced or parallel phrase or grammatical structure. E.g. Man proposes, God disposes.

a) Study the given examples of antithesis and say what effect it adds to an utterance.

  • the surface appears to be very…fine-grained when you get close to it. It’s almost like powder…Okay, I’m going to step off the LEM now. That’s one small step for man; one giant leap for mankind.

(N. Armstrong)

  • He for God only, she for God in him.

(J. Milton)

  • We find ourselves rich in goods but ragged in spirit, reaching with magnificent precision for the moon but falling in a raucous discord on earth.

(R. Nixon)

b) Try to reconstruct the utterances below based on antithesis:

eg It was the best of times,….. (it was the worst of times)

(Ch. Dickens)

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but …

(M. L. King)

  • Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice, moderation in the pursuit of justice is… ….

(B. Goldwater)

  • Brutus: Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome….

(W. Shakespeare)

  • The vases of the classical period are but the reflection of classical beauty; the vases of the archaic period are…

( J. Beazley )

  • Task 10

Polysyndeton is also a kind of repetition – here conjunctions or connecting words are repeated. It can create the atmosphere of bustling activity, stress equal importance of enumerated factors or emphasize the validity of the indicated phenomena regardless of varying denominations by various parties concerned, etc.

a) State the function of the following examples of polysyndeton. Pay attention to the repeated conjunctions and the number of repetitions.

  • It is soaked and heavy, and it flops about, and tumbles down on you, and clings round your head, and makes you mad.

(J. K. Jerome)

  • no thats no way for him has he no manners nor no refinement nor no nothing in his nature slapping us behind like that…

(J. Joyce)

  • As for Bob Spaulding, he was the cousin who walked alone through town on any October evening with a pack of leaves after him like a horde of Hallowe’en mice, or you would see him, like a slow white fish in spring in the tart waters of the Fox Hill Creek, baking brown with the shine of a chestnut to his face by autumn. Or you might hear his voice in those treetops where the wind entertained; dropping down hand by hand, there would come Bob Spaulding to sit alone and look at the world, and later you might see him on the lawn with the ants crawling over his books as he read through the long afternoons alone, or played himself a game of chess on Grandmother’s porch, or picked out a solitary tune upon the black piano in the bay window. You never saw him with any other child.

(R. Bradbury)

  • Drunken with what? With wine, with poetry, or with virtue, as you will. But be drunken.

(E. O’Neill)

  • what a pair of paws and pots and pans and kettles to mend any broken bottles for a poor man today and no visitors or post ever except his cheques or some advertisement they sent him addressed dear Madame…

(J. Joyce)

  • The miracle of turning inklings into thoughts and thoughts into words and words into metal and print and ink never palls for me; the technical aspects of bookmaking, from type font to binding glue, all interest me. The distinction between a thing well done and a thing done ill obtains everywhere – in all circles of Paradise and Inferno.

(J. Updike)

  • Task 10.

Asyndeton, like polysyndeton, is a type of syntactical connection but, unlike polysyndeton, offers no conjunctions or connecting words for this purpose. Hence the difference in functions: asyndeton is used mostly to indicate tense, energetic, organized activities or to show a succession of minute actions, immediately following each other. Asyndeton helps to give a laconic and yet detailed introduction into the action proper.

Analyse the following cases of asyndeton, indicating their functions and paying attention to the quality of units, connected asyndetically.

  • Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital myself.

(J. K. Jerome)

  • That was about all there was to the meeting of Ann Taylor and Bob Spaulding, two or three monarch butterflies, a copy of Dickens, a dozen crayfish, four sandwiches, and two bottles of Orange Crush.

(R. Bradbury)

  • You can’t tell whether you are eating apple-pie or German sausage, or strawberries and cream. It all seems cheese. There is too much odour about cheese.

(J. K. Jerome)

  • Writing sweetie may be letters

Or just guarding for his papers

Lines are running after letters

Wind escaping so hurrying

Licking sticky envelope

Bending sealing dropping it

In the nearest postbox.

  • Monday, I could wait till Tuesday

If I make up my mind

Wednesday would be fine, Thursday's on my mind

Friday'd give me time, Saturday could wait

But Sunday'd be too late

(G. M. Sumner)


Sights, smells, sounds, city.

Pulsating to a violent beat.

The attraction can’t be denied.

The temptation can’t be suppressed.

Full of substance.

Driven by desire.

Drawn in by thousands.

Why do they feel so alone?

(A. Boese)

  • Task 11.

Suppose you were to take part in a conference devoted to one of the urgent global issues. Chose one of the speeches and change the given text inserting various kinds of syntactical means of expression in order to render certain ideas or create a certain effect. You are free to enlarge upon it.

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