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Well, Pooh was a Bear of Enormous Brain

(Just say it again! )

Of enormous brain –

(Of enormous what?)

Well, he ate a lot,

And I don’t know if he could swim or not,

But he managed to float

On a sort of a boat

(On a sort of what?)

Well, a sort of pot –

So now let’s give him three hearty cheers

(So now let’s give him three hearty whiches?)

And I hope he’ll be with us for years & years,

And grow in health & wisdom & riches!

3 Cheers for Pooh!

(For who?)

For Pooh -

3 Cheers for Bear!

For Pooh –

(For where?)

For Bear –

3 Cheers for the wonderful Winnie-the-Pooh!

(Just tell me, somebody – WHAT DID HE DO?)

(A.A. Milne)

  • Task 10.

Parenthetic sentences.

The usage and function of parenthetic sentences strongly corresponds with previously mentioned devices such as represented speech and detachment. One of the most important potentialities of parentheses is the creation of the second plane, or background, to the narrative, or a mingling of “voices” of different speech parties. They can also imply some additional or evaluative information. The parenthetic form of a statement makes it more conspicuous, more important, and less monotonous.

  1. Discuss the linguistic phenomena characterizing parenthetic sentences, provide parallels with detachment and represented speech.

  2. Explain the function of parenthetic sentences in: 1) creating different backgrounds; 2) providing information; 3) emphasis…

  • I begin to strike out frantically for the shore, and I wonder if I shall ever see home and friends again, and wish I’d been kinder to my little sister when a boy (when I was a boy, I mean).

(J. K. Jerome)

  • Julia gave her a glance and saw that she was looking grim. (“To hell with her. What do I care what she thinks!”)

(W.S. Maugham)

  • George said: “Begin with breakfast.” (George is so practical.) “Now for breakfast we shall want a frying-pan -” (Harris said it was indigestible; but we merely urged him not to be an ass, and George went on) – “a tea-pot and a kettle, and a methylated spirit stove.”

(J. K. Jerome)

  • He keeps that hat now (what is left of it), and, of a winter’s evening,…George brings it down and shows it round…

(J. K. Jerome)

  • There were only three days more.

(“I can stick it out now. It’ll be different when we’re back in London again. I mustn’t show how miserable I am. I must pretend it’s all right.”)

(W.S. Maugham)

  • Task 11.


Suspense, holding the reader or the listener in tense anticipation, is often realized through:

      • the separation of predicate from subject or from predicative,

      • by the deliberate introduction between them of a phrase, clause or sentence (frequently parenthetic);

      • different kinds of semantic repetition etc.

Its manner and function overlap that of climax and anticlimax, mentioned below.

Analyse the manner in which the following cases of suspense are organized.

  • Her mind only vaguely grasped what he was saying. Her physical being was for the moment predominant. She was not thinking of his words, only drinking in the tones of his voice. She wanted to reach out her hand in the darkness and touch him with the sensitive tips of her fingers upon the face or the lips. She wanted to draw close to him and whisper against his cheek – she didn’t care what –as she might have done if she had not been a respectable woman.

(K. Chopin)

  • I have been accused of bad taste. This has disturbed me, not so much for my own sake (since I am used to the slights and arrows of outrageous fortune) as for the sake of criticism in general.

(W.S. Maugham)

    • You know, proper family conversations about serious, interesting things. Politics, religion and whose turn it was to put out the rubbish.

(Sh. Norton)

  • This was a man she had heard much of but never seen. He had been her husband’s college friend; was now a journalist, and in no sense a society man or “a man about a town”, which were, perhaps, some of the reasons she had never met him. But she had unconsciously formed an image of him in her mind. She pictured him tall, slim, cynical; with eye-glasses, and his hands in his pockets; and she did not like him. Gouvernail was slim enough, but he wasn’t very tall nor very cynical; neither did he wear eye-glasses nor carry his hands in his pockets. And she rather liked him when he first presented himself.

(K. Chopin)


Love is not flowers, nor is it candy.

It is not the prom, nor is it the limousine

That takes a couple there.

It is not a Hawaiian vacation, nor a car, nor a


It has nothing to do with Christmas presents,

or varsity jackets, or rings.

It is not in any way connected to the

movies, the mall, or even Burger King.

It’s not necessarily related to physical contact,

And it’s got nothing to do with a “special song”.

Love is when you do something stupid

And she says “I’m sorry”,

And means it.

(G. Strauss)

  • Небывалая осень построила купол высокий,

Был приказ облакам этот купол собой не темнить.

И дивилися люди: проходят сентябрьские сроки,

А куда провалились студеные, влажные дни?

Изумрудною стала вода замутненных каналов,

И крапива запахла, как розы, но только сильней.

Было душно от зорь, нестерпимых, бесовских и алых,

Их запомнили все мы до конца наших дней.

Было солнце таким, как вошедший в столицу мятежник,

И весенняя осень так жадно лакалась к нему,

Что казалось – сейчас забелеет прозрачный подснежник…

Вот когда подошел ты, спокойный, к крыльцу моему.

(А. Ахматова)

  • Task 11.

Climax vs. anticlimax.

In climax we observe parallelism consisting of several steps, presenting a row of relative synonyms placed in the ascending/descending validity of their denotational (which results in logical and quantitative climax) or connotational meanings. The latter type of climax is called emotive and is realized through still another pattern of a structure, based on repetition of the semantic center and the introduction of an intensifier. E.g. I am a bad man, a wicked man, but she is worse. She is really bad. She is bad, she is badness. She is Evil. She not only is evil, but she is Evil. (J. O’Hara)

Sudden reversal of expectations roused by climax (mainly non-completed), causes anticlimax. It consists in adding one weaker element to one or several strong ones, mentioned before. The main bulk of paradoxes is based on anticlimax. E.g. Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything – except the obvious. (O. Wilde)

  1. Distinguish between the logical and emotive climaxes and anticlimaxes in the following examples.

  2. Speak of the modes of organization of anticlimax.

  • “…what is the use coming home to get the blues over what can’t be helped. All over – finished now – not a hope!”

(E. O’Neill)

  • I designed them for each other; they were made for each other, sent into the world for each other, born for each other, Winkle,” said Mr. Ben Allen.

(Ch. Dickens)

  • How many sympathetic souls can you reckon on in the world? One in ten – one in a hundred – one in a thousand – in ten thousand? Ah!

(J. Conrad)

    • What are you doing over the weekend?’

Shopping, dusting, hovering, changing the beds, washing, ironing, cooking, cleaning the windows…

Nothing’, I said, smiling in anticipation, wondering, where he was going to invite me and how I was going to make my excuse at home.

(Sh. Norton)

  • That’s a nice girl; that’s a very nice girl; a promising girl!

(Ch. Dickens)

  • Mr. Tulkinghorn…should have communicated to him nothing of this painful, this distressing, this unlooked-for, this overwhelming, this incredible intelligence.”

(Ch. Dickens)

  • I don’t attach any value to money. I don’t care about it, I don’t know about it, I don’t want it, I don’t keep it – it goes away from me directly.

(Ch. Dickens)

  • In moments of utter crises my nerves act in the most extraordinary way, when utter disaster seems imminent, my whole being is simultaneously braced to avoid it. I size up the situation in a flash, set my teeth, contract my muscles, take a firm grip of myself, and without a tremor, always do the wrong thing.”

(B. Shaw)

  • I never told you about that letter Jane Crofut got from her minister when she was sick. He wrote Jane a letter and on the envelope the address was like this. It said: Jane Crofut; The Crofut farm; Grover’s Corners; Sutton County; New Hampshire; United States of America.” – “What’s funny about it?” – “But listen, it’s not finished: the United States of America; Continent of North America; Western Hemisphere; the Earth; the Solar System; the Universe; the Mind of God – that’s what it said on the envelope.”

(Th. Wilder)

  • Task 12.

As you might know, politicians have special people producing their speeches – speechwriters. Any speechwriter should be an eloquent master, possessing great command of the language and making ample use of it. Speechwriters employ the whole variety of phonetic, lexical and syntactical stylistic devices. Such “embroidery” helps them to exert considerable influence upon the listeners.

Enlarge upon the politician’s speech using all kinds of figures of speech to emphasize the important parts. Add whatever is necessary.

This country needs strong government. I worry about the present economic situation. People want public money to be spent on public services. It is important that policy decisions are made on the basis of what is right for the nation. Our policies reflect the importance we attach to education etc.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics”

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style



  1. Repetition:

  1. ordinary;

  2. anaphora;

  3. epiphora;

  4. framing;

  5. anadiplosis;

  6. prolepsis (syntactic tautology).

  1. Parallelism.

  2. Antithesis

  3. Chiasmus.

  4. Polysyndeton.

  5. Asyndeton.

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