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(J. K. Jerome)

  • TYRONE:(Stung – angrily): Be quiet! How dare you talk of something you know nothing about! (Trying to control his temper) You must try to see my side of it, too, lad. How was I to know he was that kind of a doctor? He had a good reputation –

EDMUND: Among the souses in the hotel bar, I suppose!

TYRONE: That’s a lie! I asked the hotel proprietor to recommend the best –

EDMUND: Yes! At the same time crying poorhouse & making it plain you wanted a cheap one! I know your system! By God, I ought to after this afternoon!

TYRONE:(Guiltily defensive) What about this afternoon?

EDMUND: Never mind now. We’re talking about Mama! I’m saying no matter how you excuse yourself you know damned well your stinginess is to blame –

TYRONE: And I say you’re a liar! Shut your mouth right now, or –


JAMIE:…What’s the use coming home to get the blues over what can’t be helped. All over - finished now - not a hope!

(E. O’Neill)

  • 303

The Soul selects her own Society –

Then – shuts the Door –

To her divine Majority –

Present no more –

Unmoved - she notes the Chariots – pausing –

At her low Gate –

Unmoved – an Emperor be kneeling

Upon her Mat –

I’ve known her – from an ample nation –

Choose One –

Then – close the Valves of her attention –

Like Stone –

(E. Dickinson)

    • “Why haven’t you phoned me? I’ve been worried to – “
“I called you twice last night. Once just after – “
“Are you all right, Muriel? Tell me the truth.”
“I’m fine. Stop asking me that, please.”
“Who drove?”
“He did.”
“He drove? Muriel, you gave me your word of –‘

“Mother, I just told you. He drove very nicely.”

“Did he try any of that funny business with the trees?”

“I said he drove very nicely, Mother. He was even trying not to look at the trees. Did Daddy get the car fixed, incidentally?”

“Not yet. They want four hundred dollars, just to – “

“There’s no reason for – “

“How did he behave - in the car and all?”

“All right”, said the girl.

“Did he keep calling you that awful – “

“No. “

“Muriel, I want to know. Your father –“

“He calls me Miss Spiritual Tramp of 1948”. The girl said and giggled.

“It isn’t funny, Muriel. It’s horrible. It’s sad, actually. When I think how – “

( …….. )

“Mother”, said the girl “we’d better hang up. Seymour may come in any minute.”

“Where is he?”

“On the beach.”

“On the beach? By himself? Does he behave himself on the beach? ”

“Mother”, said the girl , “ you talk about him as thought he were a raving maniac – “

“I said nothing of the kind, Muriel.” ………

(J. D. Salinger)

    • Вижу – красиво! Русская зима – красиво! Не моя уже, чего мне…теперь…А потом приехал туда…и…а там…понятно…А обратно-то – еще хуже. Вообще кошмар.

(Е. Гришковец)

  • Task 6.

Apokoinu construction.

Apokoinu construction, characteristic of irregular oral speech, presents a blend of two clauses into one, which is achieved by omitting the connecting word; as a result one word appears to belong to two clauses and to acquire a double syntactical function. The main stylistic function of apokoinu construction is to emphasize the irregular, careless or uneducated character of the personages’ speech.

Indicate the type of complex sentences contracted into the following apokoinu constructions. Suggest conjunctions and connecting words which might have joined former clauses. Account for the effect.

  • There is nothing does irritate me more than seeing other people sitting about doing nothing when I’m working.

(J. K. Jerome)

  • You’d be surprised at the times we do get our man – sometimes after several years. It’s patience does it – patience and never letting up.

(A. Christie)

  • There was a whisper in my family that it was love drove him out, and not love of the wife he married.

(J. Steinbeck)

  • He’s the one makes the noise at night.

(E. Hemingway)

  • It was I was a father to you.

(S. Beckett)

  • Task 7.

Rhetorical questions.

Rhetorical question, which is a statement in the form of a question, may presuppose an answer, though the latter is not necessarily required. The positive form of the rhetorical question predicts a negative answer, the negative form – an affirmative answer.

Discuss the nature and function of the following rhetorical questions, account for the effect produced. Is the answer necessary? Is it possible to predict it? What is the sphere of the possible hypothesis? Does it depend on the context or the reader’s background only? Suggest the implied meaning.

  • I never see him doing any work there,” continued Harris, “whenever I go in. He sits behind a bit of glass all day, trying to look as if he was doing something. What’s the good of a man behind a bit of glass? I have to work for my living. Why can’t he work? What use is he there, and what’s the good of their banks? They take your money, and then, when you draw a cheque, they send it back smeared all over with “No effect”, “Refer to drawer”. What’s the good of that? That’s the sort of the trick they served me twice last week.”

(J. K. Jerome)

  • What courage can withstand the everduring and all besetting terrors of a woman’s tongue?

(W. Irving)

  • What is the force that binds the stars?

I wore this mask to hide my scars

What is the power that pulls the tide?

Never could find a place to hide

What moves the earth around the sun?

What could I do but run and run and run?

Afraid to love, afraid to fail

A mast without a sail

(G.M. Sumner)

Wouldn’t we all do better not trying to understand, accepting the fact that no human being will ever understand another, not a wife a husband, a lover a mistress, nor a parent a child?

(Gr. Green)

  • Task 8.


Through detachment secondary members of the sentence acquire independent stress and intonation which leads to their emphatic intensification. The effect is the strongest if detached members are isolated from the rest of the sentence.

Formulate what additional meaning the below-given phrases acquire through detached elements.

  • It’s a fine summer morning – sunny, soft and still.

(J. K. Jerome)

  • He is alert to his fingertips. Little muffs, silver garters, fringed gloves draw his attention; he observes with a keen quick glance, not unkindly, and full rather of amusement than of censure.

(V. Woolf)

  • And life would move slowly and excitingly. With much laughter and much shouting and talking and much drinking and much fighting.

(P. Abrahams)

  • But the river – chill and weary, with the ceaseless rain drops falling on its brown and sluggish waters, with the sound as of a woman, weeping low in some dark chamber; while the woods, all dark and silent, shrouded in their mists of vapour, stand like ghosts upon the margin; silent ghosts with eyes reproachful, like the ghosts of evil actions, like the ghosts of friends neglected – is a spirit-haunted water through the land of vain regrets.

(J. K. Jerome)

  • Task 9.

Represented speech.

Represented speech, which combines lexical and syntactical peculiarities of colloquial and literary speech, allows the writer in a condensed and seemingly objective manner to lead the reader into the inner workings of the human mind. It combines the author’s narrative and the character’s speech. The reader perceives reality both through the author’s and the character’s eyes. The author’s narrative acquires the speech characteristics of his personage.

Represented speech borrows a lot from direct speech: its irregularity, its colloquialisms (slang, interjections, exclamatory elements). But it also bears features of indirect speech: the usage of the 3d person instead of the 1st person, the preservation of sequence of tenses.

  1. Try to distinguish the speaker(s) and explain how different planes are created.

  • It turned out to be difficult. He had to stop near a street light. His pencil worked quickly; he was nervous because he felt her presence at his side; he wrote several elliptical sentences. Emotional situation deepened by notebook, he wrote. Young writer, girlfriend. Writer accused of being cold and selfish. Gets idea he must put in notebook. Does so, and brings the quarrel to a head. Girl breaks relationship over this….Perhaps the point of the story should be that the young man takes out his notebook because he senses that this will be the best way to destroy what was left of the relationship. It was a nice idea.

(N. Mailer)

  • …my God after that long kiss I near lost my breath yes he said I was a flower of the mountain yes so we are flowers all a womans body yes that was one true thing he said in his life and the sun shines for you today yes that was why I liked him because I saw he understood or felt what a woman is and I knew I could always get round him and gave him all the pleasure I could leading him on till he asked me to say yes and I wouldnt answer first only looked out over the sea and the sky I was thinking of so many things…

(J. Joyce)

  • The Invisible Adversary is fleeting across a field.

Gretchen, walking slowly, deliberately, watches with her keen unblinking eyes the figure of the Invisible Adver­sary some distance ahead. The Adversary has run boldly in front of all that traffic -— on long spiky legs brisk as colt's legs — and jumped up onto a curb of new concrete, and now is running across a vacant field. The Adversary -glances over his shoulder at Gretchen.

Bastard, Gretchen thinks.

Saturday afternoon. November. A cold gritty day. Gret­chen is out stalking. She has hours for her game. Hours. She is dressed for the hunt, her solid legs crammed into old blue jeans, her big, square, strong feet jammed into white leather boots that cost her mother forty dollars not long ago, but are now scuffed and filthy with mud. Hopeless to get them clean again, Gretchen doesn't give a damn. She is wearing a dark green corduroy jacket that is worn out at the elbows and the rear, with a zipper that can be zipped swiftly up or down, attached to a fringed leather strip. On her head nothing, though it is windy today.

She has hours ahead.

(J. C. Oates)

  • 3 Cheers for Pooh!

(For Who ?)

For Pooh –

(Why what did he do?)

I thought you knew;

He saved his friend from a wetting!

3 Cheers for Bear!

(For where?)

For Bear –

He couldn’t swim,

But he rescued him!

(He rescued who?)

Oh, listen, do!

I’m talking of Pooh –

(Of who?)

Of Pooh!

(I’m sorry I keep forgetting).

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