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Spanish Verb Book Essay, Research Paper

Present Tense

The following section will be the present you are implying that the action is occurring at the present time. For example: Joseph reads the book. The “reads” in the sentence shows that Joseph is in the process of reading the book.

Regular AR Infinitives

acabar (de) to come after

acompa?ar to accompany

admirar to admire

ayudar to help

bailar to dance

bajar to go down

brillar to shine

buscar to look for

caminar to walk

cantar to sing

cenar to have supper

chupar to suck

cocinar to cook

colabarar to collaborate

coleccionar to collect

comenzar to start

comprar to buy

conservar to conserve

contestar to answer

dar to give

dejar to leave

descansar to rest

dibujar to draw

doblar to turn

ense?ar to teach

entrar to enter

escuchar to listen

esquiar to ski

estudiar to study

evitar to avoid

explicar to explain

fascinar to fascinate

formar to farm

ganar to win

gustar to like

hablar to speak

interesar to interest

lavar to wash

limpiar to clean

llegar to arrive

llevar to take

mirar to look at

neccisitar to need

observar to observe

olividar to forget

pagar to pay for

participar to participate

pasar to spend time

patinar to skate

pesear to wish

practicar to practice

preguntar to ask

preparar to prepare

prestar to lend

programar to program

quedar to be located

regresar to spend money

renunciar to renounce

respetar to respect

sacar to take out

tomar to take

trabajar to work

viajar to travel

visitar to visit

Canta muy bien. She sings very well.

Hablo espa?ol, I speak Spansh.

?Poder ayundo tu? Can I help you?

?Te viajar? Do you travel?

viajar – to travel cantar – to sing ayudar – to help hablar – to speak

viajo viajamos canto cantamos ayudo ayudamos hablo hablamos

viajas — cantas — ayudas — hablas —

viaja viajan canta cantan ayuda ayudan habla habla hablan

Regular AR’s are the most common of all verbs, to use them, remove the “ar” ending and insert the appropriate ending on the chart: o for “i ___”, as for “you ___”, a for “he/she ___”, amos for “we ___”, an for “they ___”. You can also use the following chart for the respective endings.

Singlar Plural

o amos 1st Person

as — 2nd Person

a an 3rd Person

Irregular AR’s

dar to give

estar to be

Da el perro Mike. He gives the dog to Mike.

Yo quiero a estar un abogado. I want to be a lawyer o for singular

Ella est? mi amiga. She is my friend.

Yo doy t? este carro. I give you this car.

estar – to be dar – to give

estoy estamos doy damos

estas — das —

esta estan da dan

Irregular AR’s truly have no rule, to use them you must learn the specific way each is conjugated. See the conjugations above.

AR Stem-Changers (e – ie)

cerrar to close

empezar to begin

nevar to show

pensar to think (about)

recomendar to reccomend

Pieso el dinero. I am thinking about the money.

Cierra el libro. He closes the book.

Ellos empiezan a leer. They begin to read.

Yo recomiendo el pollo. I recommend the chicken.

pensar – to think cerrar – to close nevar – to show empezar – to begin

pieso pensamos cierro cerramos nievo nevamos empiezo empezamos

piesas — cierras — nievas — empiezas —

piesa piensan cierra cierran nieva nievan empieza empiezan

The AR stem-changers (e – ie) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last e in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the “ar” ending) to an ie, then you remove the “ar” ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the e to an ie, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural

(e – ie) o (e – e) amos 1st Person

(e – ie) as — — 2nd Person

(e – ie) a (e – ie) an 3rd Person

AR Stem-Changers (o – ue)

almorzar to have lunch

costar to cost

encontrar to find

recordar to remember

volar to show

jugar* to play

* jugar is a unique verb, it is treated as the o – ue verbs are, but with a u – ue.

Muestras mi tu trabajar. Show me your work.

Cuesta muchos dinero. It costs much money.

Juego el partido. I play the game.

Encuentran un amigo. They find a friend.

mostrar – to show costar – to cost volar – to show jugar* – to play

muestro mostramos cuesto costamos vuelo volamos juego jugamos

muestras — cuestas — vuelas — juegas —

muestra muestran cuesta cuestan vuela vuelan juega juegan

The AR stem-changers (o – ue) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last o in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the “ar” ending) to an ue, then you remove the “ar” ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the o to a ue, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural

(o – ue) o (o – o) amos 1st Person

(o – ue) as — — 2nd Person

(o – ue) a (o – ue) an 3rd Person

Reflexive AR’s

acercarse to approach

acostarse to go to bed

afeitarse to shave

callarse to be quiet

cepillarse to brush

darse cuenta to realize

darse la mano to shake hands

dedicarse to devote oneself to

desayunarse to eat breakfast

despertarse to wake up

encargarse to take charge

lastimarse to hurt oneself

lavarse to wash oneself

levantarse to get up

llamarse to be named

maquillarse to put on makeup

pienarse to comb

preparse to prepare oneself

quedarse to stay

quejarse to complain

refrescarse to cool off

sentarse to to sit down

servirse to prepare for oneself

Yo me lavo las manos. I wash my hands

Yo me cepillarse los dientas. I brush my teeth.

Ellas se miran. They look at each other.

Yo me lavo. I wash myself.

lavarse – to wash (oneself) prepararse – to prepare (oneself)

me lavo nos lavamos me preparo nos preparamos

te lavas — te preparas —

se lava se lavan se prepara se preparamos

levantarse – to get up afeitarse – to shave

me levanto nos levantamos me afeito nos afeitamos

te levantas — te afeitas —

se levanta se levantan se afeita se afeitan

Reflexive verbs reflect the action of the subject back to the subject. For example a person brushes his hair, or a person shaves himself. These reflexive verbs are conjugated the same way as their non-reflexive counterparts except that to show that the action reflects you must place me, te, se, nos, or se depending upon who is the action is being done to. Reflexive verbs can also be used to express an action in which two or more people do the action to each other, for example, Ellas se miran, or they look at each other.

Regular ER Infinitives

aprender to learn

beber to drink

comer to eat

comprender to understand

correr to run

creer to think

deber to have to

leer to read

prometer to promise

responder to answer

vender to sell

comer – to eat vender – to sell

como momemos vendo vendemos

comes — vendes —

come comen vende venden

leer – to read aprender – to learn

leo lemos aprendo aprendemos

lees — aprendes —

Me gusta nadar. I like to swim.

El lee. He is reading.

Yo debo ir. I have to go.

Janet corre. Janet runs.

Regular ER’s are very common verbs, to use them, remove the “er” ending and insert the appropriate ending on the chart: o for “i ___”, es for “you ___”, e for “he/she ___”, emos for “we ___”, en for “they ___”. You can also use the following chart for the respective endings.

Singlar Plural

o emos 1st Person

es — 2nd Person

e en 3rd Person

Irregular ER’s (oddballs)

ser to be

tener to have

Soy inteligente. I am Intelligent.

Tu eres estupido. You are stupid.

Yo tengo un libro. I have a book.

Ellos tienen dinero. They have some money.

ser – to be tener – to have

soy somos tengo tenemos

eres — tienes —

es son tiene tienen

Irregular ER’s (oddballs) really have no pattern at all, each one is different. And each one you must learn on your own.

Irregular ER’s (First Person)

conocer to know

desaparecer to disappear

hacer to do, make

parecer to seem

poner to put, place, set

saber to know

traer to bring

ver to see

Yo conozco esa. I know that.

Pones la mesa. Set the table.

Lo veo. I see it.

Nosotros traemos dinero. We bring money.

conocer – to know hacer – to do, make

conozco conocemos hago hacemos

conoces — haces —

conoce conocen hace hacen

poner – to put, place, set saber – to know

pongo ponemos s? sabemos

pones — sabes —

pone ponen sabe saben

traer – to bring ver – to see

traigo traemos veo vemos

traes — ves —

trae traen ve ven

Irregular ER’s (First Person) follow the same rule regular “er”s except that the first person singular is changed. You must find the way that each is changed.

ER Stem Changers (e – ie)

perder to lose

entender to understand

querer to want

encender to turn on, light up

defender to defend

Yo pierdo mi cabeza. I am losing my head.

El pierde el partido. He is losing the game.

Entiendo el mathematico. I understand the math.

El entiende la palabra. He understands the word.

perder – to lose entender – to understand

pierdo perdemos entiendo entendemos

pierdes — entiendes —

pierde pierden entiende entienden

querer – to want encender – to turn on, light up

quiero queremos enciendo encendemos

quieres — enciendes —

quiere quieren enciende encienden

The ER stem-changers (e – ie) are a type of verb. To conjugate them you simply change the last e in the stem (which means all the parts of the verb but the “er” ending) to an ie, then you remove the “er” ending and add the appropriate ending. However there is one exception, in first person plural you do not change the e to an ie, you leave the stem as it is before changing. You can follow the rule below.

Singlar Plural

(e – ie) o (e – e) emos 1st Person

(e – ie) es — — 2nd Person

(e – ie) e (e – ie) en 3rd Person



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