Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
Abortion Essay, Research Paper
To pro-choicers, human life begins later in gestation or at birth. They view abortion as a civil rights matter-a decision that should be left up to an informed woman and her physician.(www.religioustolerance.org/abortion.htm) On the other hand, the pro-life believe that the life of a baby begins long before he or she is born. A new individual human being begins growing in the mother=s uterus at fertilization, and if the baby=s life is not interrupted, he or she will someday become an adult man or woman.(www.nrcl.org/abortion/wdlb/wdlb.html)
Worldwide, millions of unborn babies are killed each year . In the United States over 32 million unborn babies have been killed in the 21 years since abortion was legalized and more than 1.5 million are killed each year. (www.nrcl.org/abortion/wdlb/wdlb.html) Social or Abirth control@ reasons account for approximately 93 percent of all abortions. The so-called Ahard cases@ of rape, incest, health of the baby and threat to the life or health of the mother account for less then 7 percent of all abortions.(www.nrcl.org/abortion/wdlb/wdlb5.html)
In 1973 the landmark case Roe vs. Wade case occurred . A pregnant single woman (Roe) brought a class action challenging the constitutionality of the Texas criminal abortion laws, which proscribe procuring or attempting an abortion except on medical advice for the purpose of saving the mother’s life. A licensed physician (Hallford), who had two state abortion prosecutions pending against him, was permitted to intervene. A childless married couple (the Does), the wife not being pregnant, separately attacked the laws, basing alleged injury on the future possibilities of contraceptive failure, pregnancy, unpreparedness for parenthood, and impairment of the wife’s health. A three-judge District Court, which consolidated the actions, held that Roe and Hallford, and members of their classes, had standing to sue and presented justiciable controversies. Ruling that declaratory, though not injunctive, relief was warranted, the court declared the abortion statutes void as vague and over broadly infringing those plaintiffs’ Ninth and Fourteenth Amendment rights. The court ruled the Does’ complaint not justiciable. Appellants directly appealed to this Court on the injunctive rulings, and appellee cross-appealed from the District Court’s grant of declaratory relief to Roe and Hallford.(www.roevwade.org) Two of the justices, White and Rehnquist, dissented. Today, Jane Roe is now an outspoken anti-abortion, pro-life activist. (http://abortiontv.com/Index.htm) Norma McCorvey, who was ‘Jane Roe’ in the 1973 abortion case, told Ashcroft’s Constitution Subcommittee of the personal trauma she suffered at the hands of the pro-abortion lobby. She said the country’s “experiment with legal abortion is an utter failure” and that it is her “sincere prayer that there will be no 30th anniversary of Roe v. Wade.”(roevwade.org)
However the morals and beliefs of the people are what create the morals and beliefs of the government, and oftentimes these individual morals are influenced by religion. Religion shouldn’t be discounted in any political decision, because by affecting many individuals, religion affects society. Judaism, because of value placed on the family, has condemned abortion for several thousand years with a few exceptions. The Roman Catholic Church, the largest organized church in the world and possibly the most influential organization in the past two millenia, openly condemns abortion. Many Protestant groups also share this condemnation. These groups feel pro-life because of passages from their holy texts. (http://www.abortioninfo.net/facts/religion.html)
There are many reasons why woman decide to have an abortion. Most commonly is because the male will leave the woman and she will have guilt and will not want to have the child. Another reason is because the woman may be in poverty and can=t afford to raise a child and keep herself healthy.
In the U.S., the pro-life and pro-choice movements are both powerful and active. Pro-life groups are very active at the state level and have successfully influenced legislators and governors into creating many laws that restrict abortion. Many of the laws have been ineffectual; they are so broadly worded that they are usually declared unconstitutional shortly after having been signed into law. Those laws which survive are not particularly effective; they often merely deflect abortion seekers to nearby states. At this time, compromise between pro-life and pro-choice supporters appears to be impossible. (www.religioustolerance.org.com)
Many of the ultimate goals of those who favor abortion already exist. Abortion is legal in both of our nations until birth for social and economic reasons. Many areas use tax money to pay for elective abortions. What pro-abortion forces have not achieved has been to mainstream this procedure into the day to day practice of medicine. They also have not achieved a status of respectability, as the word Aabortionist@ still is one of low esteem, or even condemnation. Also, abortion is still strongly condemned by substantial segments of the cultures of both U.S. and Canada.(www.abortionfacts.com)
The ultimate pro-life goal is quite direct and very simple. Pro-lifers want an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, to the Canadian Charter of Rights that will give equal protection under the law, to all living humans from the time their biologic life begins at conception until natural death. Understanding that such a goal remains yet in the future, pro-life people have an intermediate goal. It is a Constitutional Amendment returning the right to make decisions about abortion to each individual state in the U.S. and the equivalent in Canada to each individual province. This would take federal judges out of the mix completely, and make legislating on abortion a state=s issue. States and provinces could then allow abortion, forbid it, or anything in between.(www.abortionfacts.com)
The problem in the case of abortion is that the disagreement about abortion is partially about differing moral beliefs, but also a disagreement about whose rights are being infringed. Those who are opposed to abortion claim that they are protecting the rights of the zygote/embryo/fetus from the infringement of having its life terminated .(www.wordwiz72.com/choice.html)
There is a common stereotype that all pro-lifers support radical acts of violence. This simply is not true and they are here to represent the majority of pro-lifers who do not support violence. They firmly believe that the violence and abuse have no place in the pro-life movement. The misguided extremists who take part in clinic bombings and abortionist shootings are not supported by mainstream pro-lifers and do not speak for them. Violence is contrary to what the pro-life movement stands.(www.gargaro.com)
The ant-choice argue that legalized abortion is a sign of the moral decay that is destroying America. It is imperative to pass laws to stop this trend. The pro-choice argue that legislation cannot create morality. Prohibition did not stir moral outrage against drinking; it stirred outrage against Prohibition itself, and promoted widespread disrespect for all laws. (www.wcla.org/articles/procon.html)
There are many different types of abortion methods. Most abortions are suction curettage abortions. A sharp- edged plastic tube is inserted into the uterus and cuts the unborn baby into pieces. A suction machine many times more powerful then a vacuum cleaner, sucks out the pieces of the placenta. In later abortions, sharp instruments are used to cut the unborn baby out of the uterus piece by piece, or powerful chemicals are used to induce labor and death. (www.nrcl.org/abortion/wdlb/wdlb4.html)
Post Abortion Syndrome, also known as PAS, happens to a lot of women after having an abortion. Guilt is ever present in many guises, along with regret, remorse, shame, lowered self-esteem, insomnia, dreams and nightmares, flash backs, anniversary reactions. There often is hostility, and even hatred, toward men. This can include her husband, and she may be-come sexually dysfunctional. Crying, despair and depression are usual, even at times with suicide attempts. Recourse to alcohol or drugs to mask the pain is frequent, sometimes leading to sexual promiscuity. There is also a numbing and coldness in place of more normal warmth and maternal tenderness. There is a cure but it isn=t easy. We first must note that only a few doctors are sensitized to the necessary dynamics of treatment. Specifically, most psychiatrists and psychologists aren=t much help, nor are psychotropic drugs. This requires a gradual healing process, and during it she must have ongoing close emotional support from one or several people who do not have to be trained professionals.(www.abortionfacts.com)
There are many complications you can have with having an abortion. Hemorrhaging may occur which may require a woman to have a blood transfusion . Hepatitis can occur if a woman has to have a blood transfusion after an abortion. Laceration of the cervix causes you to have a 50/50 chance of miscarrying in your next pregnancy if it is not treated properly during that pregnancy. Perforation of the uterus almost always causes peritonitis similar to having a ruptured appendix. Bowel injury may occur because if your uterus is perforated, your intestines can be perforated too.(www.ohiolife.org) Infection is one of the most common problems that occur after having an abortion. Mild fever and sometimes death occurs due to infection. You may also become sterile so that you can never get pregnant again. Ectopic Pregnancy can rupture and you could bleed to death if you do not have an emergency surgery. Failure to kill unborn babies younger than 6 weeks is relatively common.(www.ohiolife.org) DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulopathy) is extremely life threatening and difficult to treat. Breast cancer has risen by 50% in America since abortion became legal in 1973. (www.ohiolife.org)
If you have an abortion there will be effects on the next pregnancy. You will be more likely to bleed in each of the first three months of the following pregnancies. You will need more manual removal of placenta and other third stage interventions in the following pregnancies. The next child will be two times as likely to die in the first few months of life. Your next child will be three to four times as likely to die in the last months of his first year of life. The likelihood of your next baby having a low birth weight will be increased. The next baby is more likely to be born prematurely with all the dangerous and costly problems that entail.(www.ohiolife.org)
The terms APartial Birth Abortion@ and AD&X@ (dilate and extract) were recently created by pro-life groups when the procedure became actively discussed at a political and religious level. Of the approximately 30 state laws that have banned D&X procedures, the 1997 Nebraska law is the first to have made it to the U.S. Supreme Court. It criminalizes all D&Xs on live fetuses, including situations in which a normal delivery would cause disabling injuries to the woman. The law was suspended by a court injunction shortly after the Nebraska governor signed it into law.(www.religioustolerance.org/abo_pba.htm)
Interestingly enough, legalized abortion was supposed to dramatically reduce child abuse. AEvery child a wanted child!@ abortion proponents cried. AUnwanted children are abused! Abortion will help end child abuse!@ Aside from the fact that killing someone because they might be abused isn=t very logical, child abuse has increased since the legislation of abortion. The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect indicates that the prevalence of child abuse is increasing, and the increases are Asignificant.@ (www.gargaro.com)
The crime rate in the United States was lower in the 30s, 40s, and 50s, when abortion was illegal. Crime then started increasing prior to the legislation of abortion. If abortion prevents crime by reducing the number of potential criminals, as the study suggests, then why was the crime rate lower many years prior to the legislation of abortion? (www.gargaro.com)
The pro-life believe the child conceived in rape is one of us, merely smaller and less developed, and not in full view, but equally a person. Killing her is wrong, just as killing any child is wrong. We must remember that the child absolutely innocent of the crime of her father. She is not a part of her mother=s body, and she is not a part of her father=s character. She inherits character traits from both her parents, but in her individual being as a person , she is absolutely distinct from both of them. Even the character traits that are received from a parent are now her own traits. The child is totally her own person. She is not responsible for the crime that led to her conception, and she is untainted by it. It is argued: AEvery child should be a wanted child. We should not bring an unwanted child into the world. It is not fair to him; he is better off if he is not born. He will have a miserable life, rejected by his parents , unloved. For his own sake , he should be spared such a life. Abortion, in such cases, is the merciful termination of a pregnancy that, if continued, will result in an unloved, miserably unhappy child. Abortion is the only humane thing to do in such a case.@(www.religioustolerance.org/abo_pba.htm)
On April 6, 2000 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill that would ban a controversial procedure in which a fetus is extracted and aborted during the latter part of a woman=s pregnancy. The bill offers one exception for partial-birth abortion.(www.onhealth.com) This measure can only be taken place if the woman=s life is in danger. The Democratic opponents tried unsuccessfully to include a measure that would allow partial-birth abortion if the woman=s physical health was also jeopardized.(www.onhealth.com)
Access to abortion services is going to continue disappearing in the next five years. While providers are aging, few newcomers are learning the technique. Harassment and vigilante action, along with new restrictions, also contribute to the growing unavailability of the procedure. Even new technologies remain unavailable or difficult to obtain under these conditions.(www.barf.com)
Now that I have completed this term paper and have learned more about abortion I have found myself to be a pro-lifer. I don=t believe it is right to kill an innocent unborn child for a mistake the mother has taken. The mother should take the responsibility of her own actions. If she doesn=t want the child she can easily give it up for adoption. The only case I can see someone having an abortion for is if she was raped. I am sure she wouldn=t want to see the rapist in her baby=s eyes and have to live with that for the rest of her life. But then again, She too could also put the baby up for adoption. Yes, woman have the say of what goes on in their own body, but they don=t have the right to kill an unborn child for their own mistakes.
- Abortion Essay, Research Paper Abortion In order to discuss an important issue such as abortion, we must ... woman has to decide to continue to work or to stay at home. That s ... unborn child and to follow th ideology of the prochoice is to betray a fundamental ...
- Abortion Facts Essay, Research Paper Abortion, the ending of pregnancy, has ... kills an innocent human being who has yet to be born. He ... is medical abortion. (1995). National Abortion Federation [online] available: Http://www.prochoice.org ...
- Abortion Prochoice Vs. Prolife Essay, Research Paper Abortion: Pro-Choice/Pro-Life The ... view abortion as killing an individual human, but as a legal right to terminate ... each seek to affect the hearts and minds of renewing generations. Though abortion ...
- Abortion: Pro-Choice Or Pro-Life Essay, Research Paper Daniels 1 Kimberly Daniels Ms. Clara ... of a human being (133). Is abortion moral or immoral? According to pro-life ... it kills human life, abortion is in fact, the moral choice to make ...
- Abortion Essay Essay, Research Paper Religion Ethics Essay Today abortion is one of the options available to woman ... and attributes of a human? Therefore leading to an abortion causing pain and ... fw/9407/myths.html (3) Medical Abortion HTTP://www.prochoice.net