Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
только в названии
только в тексте
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
If Judaism was to be summarized or affirmed in one sentence, that sentence might very well be the first line of the Shema. The Shema is a call for com...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Imagine this, one-day everyone you know is beginning to die. The world as you know it has been completely desecrated, polluted with a plague of death…...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Theme is an essential element to any story, serving as a central message the author means to convey to the reader. In Sonny s Blues, a short story by ...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
The Crucible by Arthur Miller had taken place in the sixteen nineties during the famous but tragic witch trials. Miller uses three characters that man...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

 The sixties were turbulent times for America, both domestically and abroad. During the

sixties America witnessed the assassination of a president, the assassination of a civil rights

leader, a ?conflict? in Vietnam, and a counterculture revolution among the youth. The

counterculture would peacefully protest and rally against the government early on, but as the

decade progressed, the counterculture would split into various factions. Some of these splinter

groups would carry out violent measures to make themselves, and there opinions, known. While

the violent actions were carried out by a strict minority, they attracted much attention from the


The purpose of this paper is to establish a connection between the peace movement and

the violence perpetrated by the counterculture. I feel that it is important that we find out how a

movement that was peaceful in the beginning could end up being so violent. The fact that

Americas youth could get caught up in such a frightening and violent situation should be of

concern to all of us. The music, and music festivals, of the era are also worthy of consideration.

Did the music contribute to the violence, or was it a just reflection of the turmoil felt during the


In order to understand the violent groups and their connection with the counterculture, we

first need to understand what the counterculture was. The sixties were full of groups which lived

outside of the norm, one of the earlier and most famous groups to form were the hippies. ?In

1965, Herb Caen of the San Francisco Chronicle labeled these people ?hippies,? as if they were

apprentice hipsters. The young insurgents called themselves ?freaks? or ?heads,? and they called

their ?here and now revolution? a counterculture.? The hippies were into living a communal life,

a life of peace and tranquility and they were blowing the world?s mind. According to Stern, ?The

dazzling thing about them was that they were so happy. They did not reject the perkiness that

suffused the early sixties. They smiled and danced and got high and loved everybody. They

wore flowers in their hair and painted their bodies like freaky Easter eggs. Their program for a

better world was one where everyone was mellow.?

The hippies embraced music and drug, especially marijuana and LSD. The hippies felt

that LSD would help free their mind, and they embraced the effects of the drug. Burton Wolf, a

contemporary of the hippie scene, wrote, ?Several times, I saw barefoot hippie girls in a big pile

of dog excrement, calmly walk to the curb, and scrape it off like you would from your shoe, ?I

used to worry about things like that before I took LSD,? one of them told me. ?Now my mind has

opened, and I see that it?s all part of life: dirt, feces everything. Feces are groovy.?? The hippies

were peaceful people who were trying to make the world better, this, however, would change. A

large portion of the hippies would be brought into radical groups and unknowingly be turned

towards violence.

1967 marked a change in the way of protesting. ?After 1967, countercultural activists

followed two major paths: the revolutionary ?magic politics? of the Yippies, and the ?here and

now? revolution of rural communes.? The break from the hippies way of thinking is in part due

to the ineffectiveness of their ?here and now? revolution. They were tired of peaceful protests as

the means to their end and they were sick of the interminable theorizing of the New Left. They

wanted results. The Yippies (an acronym for the Youth International Party),?. . .were conceived

by Abbie Hoffman, Paul Krassner, Dick Gregory, Jerry Rubin and friends on New Years Eve in

1967 to coax, goose, entice and dazzle thousands of freaks to Chicago for the August Democratic

Convention, create there a ?Festival of Life? against the ?Convention of Death,? a ?blending of pot

and politics. . . a cross-fertilization of hippie and New Left philosophies.?

The Yippies were a radical group, a group that wanted to shake up all of the ?straight?

people. Be it the way they looked or the way they spoke, they wanted to challenge the

establishment. Jerry Rubin describes the prototypical Yippie, ?a street fighting freek, a dropout,

who carries a gun at his hip. So ugly that middle class society is frightened by how he looks. A

longhaired, bearded, crazy mother*censored*er whose life is theater, every moment creating a new

society as he destroys the old.? Yippies favorite way to alienate the majority culture was by

saying ?*censored*.? Rubin explained the power of profanity by complaining that the establishment has

taken all the good words and destroyed them. ?Love, how can I say, ?I love you? after hearing

?Cars love Shell?? Fuck is the solution. It?s the last word in left in the English language.

Amerika cannot destroy it because she dare not use it. It?s illegal! Fuck is a dirty word because

you have to be naked to do it. It?s also fun.?

At the ?68 Democratic Convention, the Yippies put forth a plan, they were egging on

?Chicago with threats, such as slipping LSD into the cities water supply, setting off smoke

bombs in the convention hall, having sex in the parks and on the beaches, releasing greased pigs

in the hotels, drugging the food of the delegates, etc..? Most of these threats were hollow, but

they did carry out the smaller actions, such as the smoke and stink bombs, and the spreading of

feces on the floors of hotels. The Yippies received the response they wanted, the city delayed,

and refused permits to the Yippies and other groups, and ?Mayor Daley had the entire 12,000

man police force working in twelve hour shifts, five to six thousand National Guardsmen were

mobilized and put through special training with simulated longhair rioters. A thousand FBI

agents were said to be deployed within the city limits, along with innumerable employees of

military intelligence. Six thousand U.S. Army troops, including units of the crack 101st Airborne,

equipped with flamethrowers, bazookas, and bayonets, were stationed in the suburbs.? The

actions of the Yippies and the response by Mayor Daly and Chicago set the tone for what was to


While out on recruiting trips, Dave Dellinger, a member of the editorial board for

Liberation magazine, wrote, ?. . .the two questions I was always asked were: (1) Is there any

chance that the police won?t create a bloodbath? (2) Are you sure that Tom and Rennie don?t

want one?? Tom Hayden, the founder of the SDS, wanted exactly that, a bloodbath. David

Horowitz explains why, ?One of the conspirators, Jerry Rubin, admitted a decade later that the

organizers had lured activists to Chicago hoping to create the riot that eventually took place. This

fit with the general strategy Hayden had laid out in private discussions with me. When people’s

heads are cracked by police, he said more than once, it “radicalizes them.” The trick was to

maneuver the idealistic and unsuspecting into situations that would achieve this result.?

The move worked, ?After the convention, tens of thousands of applications for membership

poured into the ramshackle building on the West Side of Chicago that served as national SDS

headquarters.? With a dozen activist in 1962, the SDS grew to over 8000 members at it?s

height in 1968.

The SDS, or Students for a Democratic Society, also became very active at this point.

They were a leftist student organization, an offshoot of the Student League for Industrial

Democracy. The SLID was a socialist organization that dated back to 1905, after dying out in the

fifties, it was reconstituted in 1959 and then renamed the SDS in 1960. The SDS of the early

sixties were using civil disobedience, sit-ins for civil rights, demonstrations at the nations capital

that questioned military spending. As the sixties wore on the SDS began entertaining ideas of

violence and became infatuated with the Black Panthers. Both the SDS and the Panther felt a

connection with the third world revolutionary movements that were against American


While the SDS deteriorated, the most militant and destructive movement of the

counterculture emerged, the Weatherman, which later became the Weather Underground.

Roszak laments that while he is against such groups, the counterculture stands for letting people

make their own decisions, and take their own actions, no matter how muddled or ill-conceived

they may be. The New Left by what they stood for could not turn away militant members.

While the Weather Underground was known for causing general chaos, ie. fighting, disrupting

businesses, breaking windows and the such, they were better known for their terrorist actions.

Between September 1969 and May 1970, the Weather Underground could be linked to at least

250 major bombing attempts, and according to government figures the number could be as many

as six times as great. On August 24, 1970, the Weather Underground planted a bomb in the

army?s mathematic lab at the University of Wisconsin. The bomb ended up killing a graduate

student who was working late. Roszak feels that the tendency towards violence was not due to

the counterculture, but instead due to the extremist Black Powerites, he felt that the factions of

the counterculture were romanticizing the black militants guerrilla warfare.

The Panthers were supported by white radicals, and their motto was ?By any means

necessary,? this included riots, fights, and murder. They modeled themselves after the Green

Berets, their bylaws were strict and required that all Panthers be well educated in the ever

changing political structure under which they live and be fair and polite to their fellow black

man. ?Big Bob, a Squad member in the Black Panthers, confided to a former Panther that in

the three years he had been in Oakland, the Squad had killed a dozen people.? Bobby Seale,

former leader of the Black Panthers, had close ties with Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman as well as

the other leaders of the left. They were all tried together during the Chicago Seven Trial after the

Chicago riots. It was this connection that saved Seale?s life when he disappeared; his friends

would not disclose where he hiding.

The music of the era, along with the music festivals played a heavy part in the shaping of

the counterculture. The Monterey International Pop Festival, held in 1967 was one of the first

major music festivals held, it marked an end of top 40 music and the beginnings of underground

?acid? rock. Monterey along with Woodstock, which followed two years later, created a

mythical society, as Abbie Hoffman would call it, a Woodstock nation. The Woodstock nation

was a state of mind, an anarchy realizing itself in the act of anarchic rebellion. Shortly after

Woodstock, Hoffman?s dream was badly wounded if not destroyed by the Rolling Stones and the

Hells Angels at Altamont. The Stones had hired the Hells Angels as security for the show, and

from the start the vibes were bad. Gitlin recalls that the majority of the crowd was on acid and

having bad trips. This along with the Angels fighting and shoving anyone who got to close to

them or the stage caused a riot to break out during the Stones set. During the riot, a black man

was stabbed and killed, all because the Angels took offense to him being there with a white girl.

In response to the Altamont disaster, Jefferson Airplane released ?Somebody to Love,? a plea to

the people to bring back the love and peace.

Jerry Hopkins tells of Jim Morrison, of The Doors, inciting riots during their shows. In

Chicago, Morrison wanted to conduct an experiment with the crowd, he wanted to see if he could

invoke them to riot. The Doors performed all of their ?violent? music at the show, playing songs

such as Unknown Soldier, The End, Five to One and others. Morrison?s experiment was a

success, he had caused a riot in Chicago.

In the lyrics to Five to One, released in 1968, the message of rebellion is clear, Five to

one, baby/ One in five/ No one here/ gets out alive/ Now You get yours baby/ I’ll get mine/ Gonna

make it, baby/ If we try. The old get old and the young get stronger/ May take a week and it may

take longer/ They got the guns but / We got the numbers/ Gonna win/ Yeah, we’re takin’

over/Come on. This song demonstrates the idea behind the youth movement, it clearly states

that while the establishment has the power to oppress the youth, the youth have the sheer

numbers to overcome. Morrison also uses this song in The Doors infamous Miami concert of

1969, where Morrison is arrested for inciting a riot among other things. The Doors Box Set has a

recording of this performance where Morrison egged the crowd on, he mixes statements like this

with in the already militant song, ?Your all a bunch of slaves! You?re a bunch of *censored*in? idiots!

Letting people tell you what to do! What are you gonna do about it?! What are you gonna do

about it?! What are you gonna do about it?!.? Morrison is calling for the people to rebel, he

wants them to become violent in their ways, and that is just what they did. While most music

was a social commentary, a few songs were inciting. It is these few inciting songs that the

radicals in the New Left adopt as their themes.

As Roszak stated, the violent radical groups, no matter how much you were against them,

were still a part of the counterculture. They may not be representative, but they must be

included. I would like to continue my study of this fascinating era by going through transcripts

of speeches given by the leaders of the counterculture movement and reading articles written

about them at the time. I am searching for diaries of members of the counterculture, so I may

take a look into what they were thinking and feeling at the time. I also plan to meet with some of

the musicians of the time, and interview them in regards of how they feel their music effected the

youth movement and whether or not they had regrets over what their music did or did not do.

I have not yet been able to find interviews with Abbie Hoffman or Jerry Rubin as I had

hoped, but I plan to continue searching for them. I would also like to read more into the history

of the militant groups, such as The Black Panthers and the Weather Underground. My father

went to high school with a member of the Weather Underground who was involved in some of

the bombings that took place, I intend on locating her and interviewing her to find out what kind

of influences caused them to become violent.



Bessman, Jim. ?Rhino Compilation Recalls Monterey Fest? Billboard. vol. 104 August 29, 1992.


Bromell, Nicholas. ?Both Sides of Bob Dylan; Public Memory, the Sixties, and the Politics of

Meaning,? Tikkun (July-August 1995): 13-21.

Burner, David. Making Peace With The 60’s. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996. This

book allows the reader easily find out about radical movements of the sixties. It traces

the path of the movement of the silent majority and the counterculture.

Collier, Peter and Horowitz, David. Destructive Generation: Second Thoughts About the Sixties.

New York: Summit Books, 1989. This book provides valuable information on the

extreme radical parties, Horowitz was a member of various factions and helps the reader

to understand the mind frame of the people at the time. One also needs to keep in mind

that Horowitz is now a right wing believer, so his views may be biased.

Diggins, John P. The American Left in the Twentieth Century. New York: Harcourt Brace

Jovanovich, Inc., 1973. Diggins provides an up close look at the history of the Leftist

movement throughout the 20th century.

Dowling, Claudia. ?Kent State,? Life (May 1990): 137-143.

Farrell, James. Spirit of the Sixties: Making Postwar Radicalism. New York: Routledge, 1997.

I have used the extensive bibliography in this book to help find additional sources.

Farrell also investigates the counterculture lifestyle in a thoughtful and effective manner.

Foner, Philip S. The Black Panthers Speak. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1970.

The Black Panthers Speak tells the Panther story in their own words, it tells you their

beliefs and their actions from their point of view.

Garofalo, Reebee. Rockin the Boat: Mass Music & Mass Movements. Boston: South End Press,

1992. Traces the path of music in revolution, does not cover sixties very well, makes this

a weak source.

Ginsberg, Allen. ?Testimony of Allen Ginsberg in Chicago Seven Trial?

www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Chicago7/Ginsberg.html. This allows the

reader to better understand the riots at the 68′ Convention.

Gitlin, Todd. The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the

New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. Shows how the media helped

shape the counterculture, and how they were viewed

Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York: Bantam Books, 1987. This

book provides vast information on the sixties, Gitlin focuses on all of the factions

throughout the decade. His views seem unbiased, and he provides a number of footnotes

and sources.

Harrison, Benjamin T. ?Roots of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement,? Studies in Conflict and

Terrorism (April-June 1993): 99-110.

Hayden, Tom. Trial. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1970.

Herman, Ellen. ?Being and Doing: Humanistic Psychology and the Spirit of the 1960.? In Barbra

L. Tischler, ed., Sights on the Sixties New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,


Hoffman, Abbie. Revolution for the Hell of It. New York: Dial Press, 1968.

——————— Steal This Book. Worcester, Mass: Jack Hoffman Presents, n.d.

———————. ?Abbie Hoffman on the Chicago 7.? Woodstock 69 Program Guide.

A printing of Hoffman on riots/conspiracy to riot taken from the Woodstock Program.

——————— ?Testimony of Abbie Hoffman in Chicago Seven Trial?

www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Chicago7/Hoffman.html. This allows the

reader to better understand the riots at the 68′ Convention.

Hopkins, Jerry. No One Here Gets Out Alive. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1997. Jerry

Hopkins provides a look into the life of Jim Morrison, in this look he demonstrates the

power that music holds over the people.

Horowitz, David. Radical Son: A Generational Odyssey. New York: Free Press, 1997.

Horowitz, David. ?Scenes From the 60’s: One Radical?s Story,? The American Enterprise (May-

June 1997): 28-37. In this article, Horowitz discusses some of the more controversial

events of the sixties, he discusses the Chicago riots, the Black Panthers, and more. This

article provides a look into the radical movement not normally seen. Must be read with

caution, Horowitz may be biased.

Kimball, ?The Project of Rejuvenilization,? New Criterion (May 1998): 4-12.

Kuwahara, Yasue. ?Apocalypse Now!: Jim Morrison?s Vision of America,? Popular Music and

Society (Summer 1992): 55-67.

Maratta, Pete. Counter Culture. New York: Topper Books, 1989.

McClellan, Grant S. American Youth in a Changing Culture. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1972.

Morrison, Jim. ?Five to One.? Waiting for the Sun LP. Released July, 1968.

Morrison, Jim. ?Peace Frog.? Morrison Hotel LP. Released 1970.

Morrison, Jim. ?Five to One.? Without a Safety Net-The Doors Box Set, Track #1. Recorded

1969, Released 1998.

Pratt, Ray. Rhythm and Resistance: Explorations in the Political Uses of Popular Music. New

York: Praeger, 1990.

Prochnicky, Jerry and Riordan, James. Break on Through: The Life and Death of Jim Morrison.

New York: Quill, 1991.

Roszak, Theodor. The Making of a Counterculture: Reflections of the Technocratic Society and

its Youthful Opposition. New York: Double Day, 1969. Roszak provide a definitive look

at the counterculture and that it came to be. Doesn?t include black parties as part of the

counterculture though, keep that in mind.

Rubin, Jerry. Do It; Scenarios of the Revolution. New York: Schocken Books, 1970.

Sargent, Lyman T. New Left Thought: An Introduction. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1972.

Stern, Jane and Stern Michael. Sixties People. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. Jane and

Michael Stern give brief looks into the movements of the sixties. They cover everything

from pop culture to counterculture and try explain what exactly was happening in

America at the time.

Stoper, Emily. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee: The Growth of Radicalism in

the Civil Rights Organization. Brooklyn, New York: Carlson, 1989.

Szatmary, David P. Rockin? in Time: A Social History of Rock and Roll. Englewood Cliffs, New

Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991

Thompson, Hunter S. Hells Angels: A strange and Terrible Saga. New York, New York:

Random House, 1966.

Tillinghast, Richard. ?The Grateful Dead: Questions of Survival,? Michigan Quarterly Review

(Fall 1991): 686-700.

Voirst, Milton. Fire in the Streets: America in the 1960’s. New York, New York: Simon and

Schuster, 1980.

Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. Далше

    Реферат >> История
    ... исследователи отмечают иную цифру - $ 1250[9])[10]. Модель автобуса — International Harvester 1939 ... стр. 240 // Runaways: how the sixties counterculture shaped today's practices and policies ... Новости кино. video.ru (28.10.2008). Источник: http://ru.wikipedia ...
  2. A Biographical Essay On Zukofsky By Mark

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... one of familial love. "A"-10, a very public poem elegizing ... friends, nor, as the Sixties progressed, without admirers among ... the further reaches of late-Sixties countercultural hipness; at others, it ... so many other words" (P 10). Celia Zukofsky persuaded him ...
  3. Untitled Essay Research Paper Massive black rebellions

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... soldiers in Vietnam suffered unfairly: “10% of the population of the ... . Bibliography Archer, Jales. The Incredible Sixties. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987 ... : Penny Publishing, 1987. Yinger, Milton. Countercultures: The Promise and Peril of ...
  4. Hippies Essay Research Paper HippiesThe 1950s gave

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Drugs were an escape.?#10 One of the few ... on Mainstream Culture and the Counterculture; ?Teachers? Curriculum Institute, ... on… Page 7 #6 Fugerez, Leslie Sixty Images of the 60?s ?Collins ... 42 #9 Wolf, Page 133 #10 Gallagher, Charles Visions of Vietnam ...
  5. Slang, youth subcultures and rock music

    Реферат >> Иностранный язык
    ... a politically outspoken, antiwar, artistically prolific counterculture in North America and Europe ... British youth of the mid-sixties. The popular perception of the ... an exotic novelty by designers. 10. ALTERNATIVE Main Entry: 1al·ter·na·tivePronunciation: ol ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0044560432434082