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III. The four goals of psychological research are to describe, explain, predict, and control the issue. The first goal of psychological research is the method to describe each behavior and the circumstances it brings about. The goal following describe is the goal to explain. The need to know why the behavior occurs is essential. Another psychological research is to predict. Comprehending a behavior is to know when it will happen or what are the results. The final goal of psychological research is the goal to control behavior (Heiman, 1999).
IIIB. Heiman (1999) discussed that scientific evidence is obtained through empirical, objective, systematic, and control research. Empirical is types of evidence that can be obtained by observation. Observing of events will bring upon knowledge of this evidence. Everyone will partake is having the same beliefs regarding these observations. Objectivity is type of scientific evidence is obtained through the observation of the same event but still have different impression. Observations must be free from bias. Systematic is the ideas that research observation are obtained in a methodical, step-by-step fashion. The use of systematic determines the role of each factor and combination of factors as they apply to a behavior. Controlled research is another way to simplify the situation by eliminating any extraneous factors that might influence the observed behaviors, which in turn, creates confusion. Create a clearly defined situation in which to observe only the specific behavior and the relevant factors that interest them are the main importance (Heiman. 1999).
VI. Scientific hypothesis must be testable, falsifiable, precise, rational, and parsimonious.
Testable, which means that the test can show that the hypothesis is false. Precise is the requirements that a scientific hypothesis should hold terms that are distinctly defined. Rational is the necessity that a scientific hypothesis should reasonably fit already understood as the laws of behavior. Falsifiable is the obligation that the test of a scientific hypothesis can maybe show that the hypothesis is false. Parsimonious is the requirement that a scientific hypothesis must be as easy as it can (Heiman, 1999).
VI. According to Heiman (1999, p.15), “Descriptive hypothesis is a hypothesis that tentatively describes a behavior in terms of its characteristics or the situation in which it occurs. Casual hypothesis is a hypothesis that tentatively explains particular influences, or cause of, a behavior”.
VIIII. Proving a hypothesis false is a valuable part of the process and is considered a successful endeavor. If the hypothesis is proven wrong, it can be modified and further tested. A hypothesis can really never be proven right if the measure is not valid then the information it purports to convey is not only inaccurate but also misleading. No measurement is better than inaccurate measurement. When the results of a study confirm a hypothesis, this does not prove that the hypothesis is true, because the results may only coincidentally fit in. Disconfirmation also provides greater confidence because it eliminates the previous confirming hypothesis and all experiments prior are no longer beneficial (Heiman, 1999).
XII. The questions the would be asked toward the panelist are as followed:
Can this be objectively measured and/or manipulated?
Can the hypothesis be tested without violating any of ethical standards?
Can you produce good reasons why the hypothesis might be supported?
Are you predicting that changing one type of music will cause an effect on another?
Did you ever repeat the study with a different group of participants?
Did you ever look at long term and short-term effects?
What exactly is the behavior?
When is the behavior most likely to occur?
What events occur before the behavior?
What exactly are the characteristics of a devil worship, a homicidal maniac, or a suicide victim?
XIII. I would claim that my observations about my “brother” would definitely out weigh any psychology text. What may have been observed by these psychologist may also indeed of been misinterpreted. The very presence of the observation can alter the behavior being observed. My “brother” will certainly ask himself more though than to a psychologist. Research expectations about my “brother” cause them to see what they expect to see or to make incorrect inferences about the behavior they observe. I also would believe my observation for the reason that researchers usually study a behavior in a laboratory, rather than a natural setting.
Heiman, G (1999). Research methods in Psychology (2nd ed.).
Boston: Houghton –Mifflin.
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