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Holocaust Timeline


January 30 Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany

March 22 Dachau concentration camp opens

April 1 Boycott of Jewish shops and businesses

April 7 Laws for Reestablishment of the Civil Service barred Jews from holding civil service

April 26 Gestapo established

May 10 Public burning of books written by Jews, political dissidents, and others not approved by the state

July 14 Law stripping East European Jewish immigrants of German citizenship 1934


August 2 Hitler proclaims himself F hrer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Reich Chancellor). Armed forces must now swear allegiance to him


May 31 Jews barred from serving in the German armed forces

September 15 “Nuremberg Laws”: anti-Jewish considered German citizens; Jews could not marry Aryans; nor could they fly the German flag

November 15 Germany defines a “Jew”: anyone with three Jewish grandparents; someone with two Jewish grandparents who identifies as a Jew racial laws enacted; Jews no longer


March 3 Jewish doctors barred from practicing medicine in German institutions

March 7 Germans march into the Rhineland, previously demilitarized by the Versailles Treaty

June 17 Himmler appointed the Chief of German Police July Sachsenhausen concentration camp opens

October 25 Hitler and Mussolini form Rome-Berlin Axis


July 15 Buchenwald concentration camp opens


March 13 Anschluss (incorporation of Austria): all antisemitic decrees immediately applied in Austria

April 26 Mandatory registration of all property held by Jews inside the Reich

July 6 Evian Conference held in Evian, France on the problem of Jewish refugees

August 1 Adolf Eichmann establishes the Office of Jewish Emigration in Vienna to increase the pace of forced emigration

August 3 Italy enacts sweeping antisemitic laws

September 30 Munich Conference: Great Britain and France agree to German occupation of the Sudetenland, previously western Czechoslovakia

October 5 Following request by Swiss authorities, Germans mark all Jewish passports with a large letter “J” to restrict Jews from immigrating to Switzerland

October 28 17,000 Polish Jews living in Germany expelled; Poles refused to admit them; 8,000 are stranded in the frontier village of Zbaszyn

November 7 Assassination in Paris of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan

November 9-10 Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass): anti-Jewish pogrom in Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland; 200 synagogues destroyed; 7,500 Jewish shops looted; 30,000 male Jews sent to conc (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen)entration camps

November 12 Decree forcing all Jews to transfer retail businesses to Aryan hands

November 15 All Jewish pupils expelled from German schools

December 12 One billion mark fine levied against German Jews for the destruction of property during Kristallnacht (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen)


January 30 Hitler in Reichstag speech: if war erupts it will mean the Vernichtung (extermination) of European Jews

March 15 Germans occupy Czechoslovakia

August 23 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact signed: non-aggression pact between Soviet Union and Germany

September 1 Beginning of World War II: Germany invades Poland

September 21 Heydrich issues directives to establish ghettos in German-occupied Poland October 12 Germany begins deportation of Austrian and Czech Jews to Poland

October 28 First Polish ghetto established in Piotrk w

November 23 Jews in German-occupied Poland forced to wear an arm band or yellow star


April 9 Germans occupy Denmark and southern Norway

May 7 Lodz Ghetto (Litzmannstadt) sealed: 165,000 people in 1.6 square miles

May 10 Germany invades the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France

May 20 Concentration camp established at Auschwitz

June 22 France surrenders

August 8 Battle of Britain begins

September 27 Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis

November 16 Warsaw Ghetto sealed: ultimately contained 500,000 people


January 21-26 Anti-Jewish riots in Romania, hundreds of Jews butchered

February 1 German authorities begin rounding up Polish Jews for transfer to Warsaw Ghetto March Adolf Eichmann appointed head of the department for Jewish affairs of the Reich Security Main Office, Section IV B 4.

April 6 Germany attacks Yugoslavia and Greece; occupation follows

June 22 Germany invades the Soviet Union

July 31 Heydrich appointed by G ring to implement the “Final Solution”

September 28-29 34,000 Jews massacred at Babi Yar outside Kiev October Establishment of Auschwitz II (Birkenau) for the extermination of Jews; Gypsies, Poles, Russians, and others were also murdered at the camp

December 7 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor

December 8 Chelmno (Kulmhof) extermination camp begins operations: 340,000 Jews, 20,000 Poles and Czechs murdered by April 1943

December 11 United States declares war on Japan and Germany


January 20 Wannsee Conference in Berlin: Heydrich outlines plan to murder Europe’s Jews

March 17 Extermination begins in Belzec; by end of 1942 600,000 Jews murdered May Extermination by gas begins in Sobibor killing center; by October 1943, 250,000 Jews murdered

July 22 Germans establish Treblinka concentration camp Summer Deportation of Jews to killing centers from Belgium, Croatia, France, the Netherlands, and Poland; armed resistance by Jews in ghettos of Kletzk, Kremenets, Lachva, Mir, Deportation of Jews from Germany, Greece and Norway to killing centers; Jewish partisan movement organized in forests near Lublin and Tuchin Winter


January German 6th Army surrenders at Stalingrad

March Liquidation of Krak w ghetto

April 19 Warsaw Ghetto revolt begins as Germans attempt to liquidate 70,000 inhabitants; Jewish underground fights Nazis until early June

June Himmler orders the liquidation of all ghettos in Poland and the Soviet Union Summer Armed resistance by Jews in Bedzin, Bialystok, Czestochowa, Lvov, and Tarn w ghettos

Fall Liquidation of large ghettos in Minsk, Vilna, and Riga

October 14 Armed revolt in Sobibor extermination camp October-November Rescue of the Danish Jewry


March 19 Germany occupies Hungary

May 15 Nazis begin deporting Hungarian Jews; by June 27, 380,000 sent to Auschwitz

June 6 D-Day: Allied invasion at Normandy Spring/Summer Red Army repels Nazi forces July 20 Group of German officers attempt to assassinate Hitler

uly 24 Russians liberate Majdanek killing center

October 7 Revolt by inmates at Auschwitz; one crematorium blown up November Last Jews deported from Terezin to Auschwitz

November 8 Beginning of death march of approximately 40,000 Jews from Budapest to Austria


January 17 Evacuation of Auschwitz; beginning of death march

January 25 Beginning of death march for inmates of Stutthof

April 6-10 Death march of inmates of Buchenwald

April 30 Hitler commits suicide

May 8 V-E Day: Germany surrenders; end of Third Reich

August 6 Bombing of Hiroshima

August 9 Bombing of Nagasaki August 15 V-J Day: Victory over Japan proclaimed. September 2 Japan surrenders; end of World War II

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