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Byers 1

Jesse P. Byers

Mrs. Sear

English 3

Period 4

13 February 1998

Programming The Future of The World

Computers have advanced remarkably. It started with first

generation computers such as the ENIAC which used vacuum tubes.

This computer was huge and eventually out dated (Litterick 29). Next

were computers that used transistors. They were more reliable, they

used one thirteenth of the space of a tube, one twentieth the

electricity, and one fifteenth less heat than tubes (31). Integrated

circuits were next, these were smaller, faster, and more powerful than

anything before. Now microchips are in computers making it able for

the computer addict to program. One of the available fields is

application programming (33-34) Application programming is a very

detailed field that is very rewarding and high in demand.

Application programmers often work long odd hours. Some may

even work up to eighty hours per week. Individuals in this field are

also required to stay current on programming languages (Eberts 28).

One of the advantages of this career is you may be able to work at

home (Southworth 56). If you choose to be an application

programmer be specific. Computers follow the program exactly which

Byers 2

includes any errors. Breaking and analyzing problems into a series of

steps and debugging is a major part of programming (46). Some

programmers are high school students with little or no training but

most programmers have college degrees. Bachelor degrees in

computer science or engineering are adequate for this career (Eberts


If programming is your chosen career there are two fields,

application programming and system programming (28). The

difference between the two is that systems programmers program

actual systems while application programmers program tasks that

need to be done. Programmers use technical manuals when

customizing programs to interface with their system (35). This is

called documenting. Programmers also must test the software

repeatedly to make sure the program is able to handle the

information provided correctly and that there are no weaknesses (33).

Computer programming is a career field that is very high in

demand. This means that there are many jobs available. Business,

scientific, and general purpose programming are the three main fields

(Southworth 54). Business programming is the field of programming

dealing with business programs. This type of programming may be

used in banks or any business. Scientific programming deals with

scientific applications for problem solving (54).

Byers 3

Along with these fields there are many advantages. The salary

is one advantage. Beginning programmers start out between twenty

to thirty-five thousand dollars per year (14). This isn?t a large

amount but there is a chance for advancement. If a programmer is

experienced he or she can make forty to eighty thousand per year

(14). This field is expanding very rapidly. Because of this there is

also a good chance for advancement. Opportunities are open for

individuals to become project leaders, supervisors, and

systems analysts. Each of these holding higher salaries respectively


With each of the careers, programmers have more

responsibility. Systems analysts have to actually find the problem

and find a remedy for it. One responsibility is knowing fourth and

fifth generation languages. Fourth generation languages are

languages similar to English. Fifth generation languages are very

detailed and are for use on expert systems (Stair 21).

As the programmer advances they find themselves working in a

team. Programmers are frequently in teams made up of sales and

marketing associates, people who do documenting, and training and

quality control people to create a product (Eberts 30). If a

prospective programmer wants to get experience programming they

can program at home to get started. Taking courses at a technical

school is a good chance to learn programming. If advanced

programming is what a person desires it is possible to take courses at

Byers 4

a college. For more experience talk to your boss into letting you do

some programming for the company (Southworth 52-53). Online

getting help is easy. In any chat room or any other place it is

possible to get help. To make it easier to get help it is recommended

to use a popular model computer (53).

Different programming languages are used to perform certain

tasks. When a programmer writes a program, which is a detailed set

of instruction, the computer interprets them as one?s and zero?s. An

example would be 1011 (Litterick 16). Even though instructions are

interpreted this way this isn?t how you program the languages. Some

of the languages used are similar to English (Stair 21). Some

languages, such as Visual Basic are simple and easy to learn.

Languages such as C are more detailed and harder to learn. All of

these are fourth generation languages (21). One of these languages

is FORTRAN (Radlauer 27). This language is used for scientific and

engineering programming. Common Business Oriented Language or

COBOL is used for business applications (Radlauer 14).

Not only do computers have roles in the adult world, they are

also at work in the juvenile world. Computers are used at a growing

rate in schools. Classes such a Industrial Technology offer hands on

experience with computers (Wagner 83). Computers can also help

disabled children (88). Children with special need can be reached

through interactive software. This software is programmed to help

Byers 5

these children develop motor skills. High tech businesses will bring in

four billion dollars per year from schools (83).

Computers are beginning to be programmed to teach people. If

you are educated that reduces the risk of unemployment, so

computers help create jobs (Litterick 28). Now computers are

excellent at teaching facts and techniques. In the future we will be

able to react more with software to learn social skills (29).

The high demand for application programmers is remarkable.

With the chance for excellent salary and freedom to work at home it is

clearly a great career choice. Even though the hours are odd and long

this career proves very rewarding. Computers are advancing so

much, so rapidly the need for application programmers will only rise.

Eberts, Marjorie. Careers for Computer Buffs. Lincolnwood:

VGM Career Horizons, 1994.

Evans, Christopher. The Micro Millennium. New York:

Viking, 1980.

Litterick, Ian. Computers and You. New York:

Brightwood, 1984.

Litterick, Ian. Programming Computers. New York:

Brightwood, 1984.

Litterick, Ian. The Story of Computers. New York:

Brightwood, 1984.

Radlauer, Ed, and Bob Mather. Computer Tech Talk. Chicago:

Childrens Press, 1984.

Southworth, Scott. Exploring High Tech Careers. New York:

Rosen, 1993.

Stair, Lila B. Careers in Computers. Chicago:

VGM Career Horizons, 1996.

Wagner, Betsy. ?Where Computers Do Work.? U.S. News:

December 1996, 80-88.

Williams, Linda. Computers: Careers Without College.

Princeton: Peterson?s, 1992.


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