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Kyrgyzstan Essay, Research Paper

The collapse of the Soviet Union created 15 new states. These

states over the last 5 years have all struggled with economic, ethnic,

political and territorial problems left to them by the Soviet empire.

Kyrgyzstan, is a former Soviet Republic (FSR) located in the Central

Asia. This paper will give a statistical representation of the state,

Kyrgyzstan. The statistical data will reflect the basic geography of the

subject country containing population, size and location. This

miniature report will also contain brief descriptions of current

political and economic situations. Included in the current information

section of this report, is an outlook for possible near future events

concerning both political stability and economy.

Kyrgyzstan is located in the southern area of the former Soviet

Union. Its boarders are defined by China to the east (& South),

Kazakhstan to the north (& Northwest), Uzbekistan directly west and

Tajikistan to the south (& Southwest). Kyrgyzstan features 76,641

square miles of land, which consisted of .9% of the former USSR’s

land-mass. The land is primarily used for pastoral purposes. Only 7%

of the farmable land is cultivated.

The population is approximated to be 4,258,000 people (see

Figure A). The Kyrgyzstan populace has experienced a 25.3% growth in

population during the last 12 years (Population Growth Data from

1979-1991), and a birthrate at 29.1/1000. Population distribution is

61.9% in rural areas and 38.1% in urban centers.

City & Population

The top 4 cities are: Bishkek (formally Frunze) 616,000


Osh 213,000

Przhevalsk 64,000

Naryn 26,000

In June of 1990 ethnic violence arose in the city of Oh. Kyrgyz

clashed with Uzbeks resulting in a bloody conflict which was eventually

suppressed by Soviet Interior Ministry troops. This clash outlined

political and economic problems present in Kyrgyzstan even when the USSR

was still existent. These ethnic clashes in Oh served to cement

political groups who were organizing outside of the communist party

during Perestroika. It also gave voice to the large economic problems

in central Kyrgyzstan.

The "head of state" and leader of the communist party in

Kyrgyzstan was Absamat Masaliev. Masaliev invoked policies which were

rigid and served to enhance the existing social problems. Because of

the decline present in the government’s abilities to meet the

expectations of the populace, the allowances granted by the Perestroika

police and ethnic tensions, communist authority in Kyrgyzstan was

challenged. The communist party’s rule came to an end in October of

that same year.

A liberal democratic reform movement had sweeped the country

and Askar Akaev was elected by a coalition vote in the Supreme Soviet

(Legislature of Kyrgyzstan), resulting in the removal of Masaliev from

the Presidency. Askar Akaev is a liberal politician (former head of the

Academy for Sciences) and represented reform in the form of

privatization and democracy. The transformation of government from

communism to a liberal democracy occurred smoothly without violent

uprisings or revolution. However, Akaev has opponents on both sides of

the political spectrum. Masaliev, though not the president, is still

the head of the communist party and very powerful. On the right, the

government has to deal with the potential time bomb of ethnicity and


The current political agenda for the reform government contains

these issues: economic stimulation, development of diplomatic relations

with other states, privatization of property, a language purification

issue and environmental concerns. These issues are all presently being

address and codified in the formation of the new constitution (only

economics, privatization of property and industry and language are

addressed below).

The industrial sector of the Kyrgyzstan economy is primarily

owned by residing Russians in the capital, Bishkek. This is a point of

contention in the on-going debates of land and industrial privatization

between the nationalists and liberals in Kyrgyzstan. Though Kyrgyzstan

is primarily an agrarian economy, an alarming amount of tension is

present concerning foreign owned industry.

Language purification standards are being debated in the Kyrgyz

Parliament. In the 1950’s the Duma passed a number of resolutions in

attempts of transforming Soviet Republic languages by using a Cyrillic

based alphabet. The adoption of the Cyrillic alphabet fundamentally

changed the Central Asian Turkic based languages. This served in a dual

purpose of dividing the Central Asian peoples by accenting their

language differences and interrupting communication. The debate argues

that old style Kyrgyz is to be re-instated thus assuring ethnic and

lingual identity.

Thus, statistical data has been reproduced to highlight

population allocations and ethnicity. This miniature report has also

discussed pertinent issues from both a historical analytical perspective

and a current political and economic outlook present in Kyrgyzstan.

The previously stated issues that are currently on the floor of the

Kyrgyz Legislature, describe possible outcomes which will directly

affect the stability of Kyrgyzstan.


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