Поиск

Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
везде
только в названии
только в тексте
Выводить:
описание
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
In my opinion the poet which best exemplifies modernism is Walt Whitman. Walt Whitman?s stylistic preference is not exactly mine, but it is definitely...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Confucius , an ancient Chinese phylosopher was one of the most influential people in Chinese history, because of his wisdom and fair mind. Confucius w...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
George Walker is a Canadian playwright who has achieved a sort of underdog-like success. Walker’s sharpened sense of comedic irony along with his uniq...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Since the Second New Deal and the Social Security Act of 1935 the elderly and disabled of the United States have relied upon their monthly checks from...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Genomics Essay, Research Paper

The Impact of Genomics on the World s Economy

Genomics, the science of manipulating, building, studying, and designing molecules, is going to change the face of the world s economy as we know it. Companies are rushing to adapt to the rapidly changing economic environment as new discoveries are being made in this field. Genomics has the potential to affect all aspects of every sort of industry. Since genomics deals with things on a molecular level, its technology can be applied to everything, most notably computers, energy, environmental, cosmetics, chemical, food, agricultural, biotech, and pharmaceuticals. The change genomics has made to the economy has already created a whole new economic sector, the life sciences.

Genomics technology is developing so rapidly that it appears to be on course to overwhelm current knowledge bases and research and development budgets. To compensate for this some of the world s largest companies are working out the details for gigantic megamergers. Some of the recent mergers are an example of the things to come. Two pharmaceutical companies, Sandoz and Ciba-Geigy, merged to create a new company, Novartis. The largest pharmaceutical merger in history, this new company is valued at over $100 billion. A near merger between Glaxo and SmithKline would have created the world s third largest company, with a budget large enough to fund the estimated cost of sequencing the human genome. Its capitalization would have been larger than the annual gross national product of some 143 of the world s nations (Enriquez 925).

These mergers also allow the companies to combine their knowledge pools to gain an edge in the race to acquire licensing agreements and patents. In 1991 the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office got 4000 requests for patents on gene sequences. In 1996 the requests for patents on gene sequences shot up to 500,000 (Enriquez 925).

It seems impossible not to go with life sciences. DuPont tried to remain primarily an energy and chemical company. However, DuPont later announced a restructuring, with life sciences at the head. The changes in companies go even deeper than that. Many companies are competing in several fields instead of just one. Agriculture and biotech are merging to create foods that prevent illness and fight aging, or animals that produce medicines. This alone has created a new economic sector, agriceuticals. Cosmetics and biotech could merge to create make-ups that fight the aging process.

This rapid growth is by no means all good, however. In Iceland, DeCode has a monopoly on the genetic data of the Icelandic population. Iceland, having the clearest blood lines, is the most logical choice for genetic research. It seems apparent that DeCode will soon get the support of Iceland s government. It already has the support of its people (Moukheiber 203). But is it ethical to have a monopoly on someone s genes? The explosive growth of genomics may also have other potentially dangerous side effects. The rush to release new foods and drugs may cause them to not be subjected to the same rigorous testing normally applied by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. There is also the problem of the huge expectations placed on the genomics industry. If the industry doesn t rapidly produce quick results and products it may lose funding. Conversely, if the industry rushes too much it may put out unready or dangerous products out on the market. This would cause a temporary boom in economy, but it would soon be followed by an economic crash as faulty products are recalled, lawsuits are made, and companies are shut down.

This controversial technology has the potential to be the greatest thing that has ever happened to mankind. Measures should be taken to be sure the public is well informed, the proper safety precautions are taken, the industry continues to gain support, and that clear lines of communication are maintained. A technology this important must be carefully protected by the government as well as individual corporations. The importance of federal backing became apparent when Canada pulled the plug on its genomics project. As a result, the country fell behind on genomics research and is now scrambling to catch up by creating the $175 million genomics initiative called Genome Canada (Kendro 20). Provided that the proper precautions are taken, genomics can greatly improve the standard of living worldwide. We may soon see cures to cancer, AIDS, and many other illnesses, and the world s economy could potentially flourish like never before.

Works Cited

Enriquez, Juan. “Genomics and the World’s Economy.” Science v281 n5379. August 14, 1998. 925-926.

Kendro, Wayne. “Canada Proposes $175 Million Effort.” Science v281 n5373. July 3, 1998. 20.

Marshall, Eliot. “Iceland s Blond Ambition.” Mother Jones v22 n3. May-June 1998. 53.

Moukheiber, Zina. “Genes for Sale.” Forbes v162 n2. July 27, 1998. 203-204.


Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. Genetics Essay Research Paper Genetics Issues of

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Essay, Research Paper Genetics: Issues of IVF, screening, pre-selection, genetic testing, cloning and the ... a massive impact on family life. Due to the Human Genome Project, many ... (1991) Ethical issues in human genome research. The FASEB Journal, 5, 55-60. ...
  2. Genome Project Essay Research Paper Adam and

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Genome Project Essay, Research Paper Adam and Eve were doomed ... that mapping and sequencing the human genome would impact everyone s life. They ... genes and the environment. When biologists compare the human genome with the genomes of other organisms ...
  3. Genome Sequencing Essay Research Paper Genome SequencingMicrobiology

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Genome Sequencing Essay, Research Paper Genome Sequencing Microbiology has entered the realm of genome sequencing. This biological revolution is ... . The impact that genome sequencing has had, and will have, on our view of ...
  4. HIV And Its Effects Essay Research

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Effects Essay, Research Paper The Immunology of Aids ... infect more T-helper cells. The course of the disease results in the production of massive numbers of ... the host cell genome, the presence of HIV has become a permanent part of the lymphocyte (Helper T). The ...
  5. The Political Scientist Essay Research Paper The

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... of rocks and slogans was to have a lasting impact ... places and they keep educating each other.” Midgley, a ... the universe, and a genome much less well understood than the worm’s, our understanding of the ... are pursuing this line of research, rather than looking ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0018570423126221