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Within the Executive Branch, there are a number of executive departments. Currently these are departments of State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture ,Commerce ,Labour, Health & Human Resources ,Housing & Urban Development, Transportation, Energy and Education. Each department is established for a specific area. The head of each department is appointed by the President .These appointments, however ,must be approved by the Senate. None of these Secretaries ,as the departments heads are usually called ,can also be serving in Congress or in another part of the government. Each is directly responsible to the President and only serves as long as the Presidents wants him or her to. They can be best be seen ,therefore as Presidential assistant and adviser. When they meet together ,they are termed ”the President’s Cabinet “Some Presidents have relied quite a bit on their Cabinets for advice and some very little.

THE PRESIDENCY

Term of office: Elected by the people. Through the electrical college, to a four-year term; Limited to two terms.

Salary:$ 200.000 plus $ 50.000 allowance for expenses and up to $ 100.000 tax-free for travel & official entertainment.

Inauguration: January 20,following the November general election.

Qualifications: Native-born American citizen at least 35 years old and at least 14 years

a resident of the United States.

Chief Duty: to protect the Constitution and enforce the laws mode by the congress.

Other powers: To recommend legislation to the Congress; to call special sessions of the Congress; to deliver message to the Congress; to veto bills; to appoint federal judges; to appoint heads of federal departments and agencies and other principal federal officials to appoint representatives to foreign countries; to carry on official business with foreign nations; to exercise the function at Commander –in-chief of the armed forces; to grant pardons for offences against the US.

The Presidential term of four years begins on January 20 following November election. The President starts his or her official duties with an inauguration ceremony, traditionally held on the steps of the US. The President publicly takes an oath of office, which is traditionally administered by the justice of the US.

3.THE FEDERAL JUDICIARY.

The federal judiciary is the third branch of government ,in addition to the legislative (Congress) & executive(President ).

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It’s main instrument is the Supreme court, which matches over the other two branches .It determines whether or not their laws and acts are in accordance with the Constitution .

Congress has the power to the fix the number of judges sitting on the Court ,but it cannot change the powers given to the Supreme Court by the Constitution itself. The Supreme Court consist of a chief justice and eight associate justices. They are nominated by the President but must be approved by the Senate .Once approved, they hold office as Supreme Court Justices for life. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any other court. Neither the President nor Congress can change their decisions. In addition to the Supreme Court, Congress has established 11 federal courts of appeal and below them, 91 federal district courts.

The Supreme Court has direct jurisdiction in only two kinds of cases. Those involving foreign diplomats and those in which a state is a party. All other cases which reach the court are appeals from lower courts. Most of the cases involve the interpretation of the Constitution .The Supreme Court also has the “power of judicial review” that it has the right to declare laws of actions of the federal state and local governments unconstitutional .While not stated in the constitution ,this power was established over time.

4.CHECKS & BALANCES.

The Constitution provides for three main branches of government which are separate and distinct from one another. The powers given to each are carefully balanced by the powers of the other two.

Each branch serves as a check on the others. This is to keep any branch from gaining too much power or from misusing its powers. The Chart below illustrates how the equal branches of government are connected and how each is dependent on the other too .Congress has the power to make laws, but the President may veto any act of Congress. Congress in its turn ,can override a veto by two-third vote in each house. Congress can also refuse to provide funds requested by the President .The President can appoint important officials of his Administration ,but they must be approved by the Senate. The President has also the power to name all federal judges; they also must be approved by the Senate. The courts have the power to determine the constitutionality of all acts of Congress and of Presidential actions and to strike down those they find unconstitutional.

The system of checks and balances makes compromise and consensus necessary. Compromise is also a vital aspect of other levels of government in the US. This system protects against extremes. It means, for example, that new presidents cannot radically change governmental polices just as they wish. In the US. therefore, when people think of ”the government”, they usually mean the entire system, that is ,The Executive Branch and the President, Congress and The Court. In fact and in practice ,therefore ,the President (i.c. the administration ) is not as powerful as many people outside the US seem to think he is. In comparison with other leaders in system where the majority party forms ”the government” he is much less so.

5.POLITICAL PARTIES.

The constitution says nothing about political parties, but over time the US has in fact developed a two-party system. The two leading parties are the Democrats and the Republicans .There are other parties besides these two, and foreign observes are often surprised to learn that among these there are also a Communist party and several Socialist parties. Minor parties have occasionally won offices at lower levels of government but they do not play a role in national politics. In fact, one does not need to be a member at a political party too run in any election at any level of government .Also, people can simply declare themselves to be members of one of the two major parties when they registered to vote in a district. Sometimes the Democrats are thought of as associated with

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labour and the Republicans with business and industry. Republicans also tend to oppose the greater involvement of the federal government in some areas of public life which they consider to be the responsibility of the states and communities .Democrats ,on the other hand tend to favor a more active role of the central government in social matters.

To distinguish between the parties is often difficult. Further more, the traditional European terms of “right” and “left” or “ conservative” and ”liberal” do not quite fit the American system. Someone from the “conservative right” for instance, would be against a strong central government. Or a Democrat from one part of the country could be very “liberal», and one from another part quite ”conservative. While some voters will vote a “straight ticket», in other words, for all of the Republican or Democratic candidates in an election ,many do not. They vote for one party’s candidate for one office, and another’s for another. As a result ,the political parties have much less actual power than they do in other nations. In the US the parties cannot win.

In about 70% of legislative decision, congressman will vote with the specific wishes of their constituencies in mind, even if they go against what their own parties might want as national policy.

It’s quite common, in fact, to find Democrats in Congress voting for a Republican President’s legislation, quite a few Republicans voting against it and so on.

5. Бақылау сұрақтары:

1. The judicial branch

2. Checks and balances

3. political parties

6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары:

Elections in the USA

7. Қажетті әдебиеттер:

1. Stevenson D.K American Life and Institutions

2. Tomakhin Y. Across the USA

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Лекция 14

1.Лекция тақырыбы: The educational system of the USA

2. Лекция жоспары:

1. History of education

2. Elementary and Secondary Education

3. Лекция мақсаты:

Тәуелсіз немесе “паблик скулз” туралы әңгіме өткізу

4. Лекция мазмұны:

1. History

Americans have shown a great concern for education since early colonial times. Among the first settlers, in fact, there were an unusually high proportion of educated men. In the Massachusetts Bay colony in the early 1600-s, as the British historian Rowse has pointed out, “there was an average of one university man to every 40 or 50 families much higher than in Old England”. Some of these men, many of them graduates of Cambridge, came together and in 1636 founded Harvard College, 140 years before American independence. Other early institutions of higher learning were the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, established in 1693, and Jate, founded in 1701.

Before the revolution in 1776, nine colleges had already opened in the colonies; most of them later became universities.

From the1640’s on, Massachusetts required all towns with more than 50 families to provide a schoolmaster at public expense. In the course of the 17th century, for instance free schools had been established in a number of places such as New Haven, New London, and Fairfield. Many academies (schools, offering a classical education, as well as practical training) opened throughout the next century, including the one established by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1775.

The importance of education in American life was also reflected in Ordinance of 1785 and 1787 which guidelines for organizing the new lands to the west. They provided for one square mile of land in each township to be reserved for public schools. The movement for free public schools gained its greatest moment in the 1830s, however. By 1850, every state had provided for a system of free public schools open to all and paid for by public taxes.

By the same year, state-supported colleges and universities had already been established in many states. These included recently settled states such as Florida, Iowa, and Wisconsin which were admitted to the Union in the late 1840s. In 1862, Congress passed a law which provided states with public (federal) lands to be used for higher education, especially for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical-arts College. As a result, many “land-grant colleges “ were established. These new state-supported institutions joined the large number of older, well-to-do private universities. They were important in the democratization of higher education in the United States.

By 1900, there were almost a thousand institutions of higher education in the U.S. Among them were law and medical “schools” and hundreds of small, four year Liberal Arts College. There were many other institutions of higher learning which emphasized everything from the training of teacher to the pulling of teeth.

Today, there are some 43 million pupils and students in public schools at the elementary and secondary levels and another 6 million at private schools throughout the country. In other words, 88 percent of American children attend public schools and 12 percent go to private schools. Four out of five of the private schools are run by churches, synagogues, or the religious groups. Any year, about 12 million Americans are enrolled in the over 3.000 colleges and

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universities of every type: Private, public, church-related, small and large, in cities, and states. Close to 80 percent of the college students attend public institutions, while a little over 50 percents of all high schools graduates enter colleges and universities. The early emphasis given to education remains today. United Nations figures (1980) show that in the amount spent on education per capita, the U.S. is in ninth place in the world (behind Qatar, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Switzerland and Canada). Most historians agree that a great deal of the economic, political, scientific, and cultural progress America has made in its relatively short history is due to it’s commitment to the ideal of educating as many Americans as possible, to the best of their abilities. From the early times on, especially in the northern and western states, the public policy was to produce and educated people. In these States, the large majority of adults were literate at a time when an education was still bended to most Europeans. There can be little doubt that American education in its aim to provide equality of opportunity as well as excellence has raised the overall level of educations of Americans. It has encouraged more Americans than ever before to study for advanced degrees and to become involved in specialized research. The belief that the future of society depends on the quantity and quality of its educated citizens is widely held. It explains why a great many Americans are still willing to give more money to education, even during times of economic difficulty.

2. Elementary and Secondary Education

Because of the great variety of schools and colleges, and the many differences among them, none of the institutions can be singled out as enough basic similarities in structure among the various schools and system to permit some general comments.

Most schools start at the kindergarten level. There are some school districts that do not have this beginning phase, and others which have an additional “pre-school” one. There are almost always required subjects at each level. In some areas and more advanced levels, students can choose some subjects. Pupil who do not do well often have to repeat courses, or have to have special tutoring usually done in and by the schools. Many schools also support summer classes, where students can make up for failed courses or even take extra courses.

In addition to bilingual and bicultural education programs, many schools have reading difficulties. These and other programs repeat the emphasis of American education on trying to increase equality of opportunity. They also attempt to integrate students with varying abilities and backgrounds into an educational system shared by all. At the same time, high school student are given special advanced coursework in mathematics and the sciences. Nationwide talent searches for minority group children with special abilities and academic promise began on a large scale in the 1960 s. These programs have helped to bring more minority children into advanced levels of university education and into the professions.

Like schools in Britain and other English-speaking countries, those in the U.S. have also always stressed “character” or “social skills” through extracurricular activities, including organized sports. Because most schools start at around 8 o’clock every morning and classes often do not finish until 3 or 4 o’clock in the afternoon, such activities mean that many students do not return home until the early evening. There is usually a very broad range of extracurricular activities available. Most schools, for instance publish their own student newspapers, and some have their own radio stations. Almost all have student’s orchestras, bands, and choirs, which give public performances. Spanish, or Germans clubs, groups which meet after school to discuss computers, or chemistry, or amateur radio, or the raising of prize horses and cows. Students can learn flying, skydiving, and mountain-climbing. They can act as volunteers in hospitals and homes for aged and do other public service work.

Many different sports are also available and most schools share their facilities-swimming pools, tennis courts, tracks and stadiums- with the public. Many sports that in other countries are normally offered by private clubs are available to students at no cost in American schools. Often

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the students themselves organize and support school activities and raise money through “car washes”, baby-sitting, bake sales, or by mowing lawns. Parents and local businesses often also

help a group that, for example, has a chance to go to a state music competition, to compute in some sports championship, or take a camping trip. Such activities not only give peoples a chance to be together outside of normal classes, they also help develop a feeling of “school spirit” among the students and in the community.

5. Бақылау сұрақтары:

1.The importance of education

2. Legal influence

3. Cultural influence

6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары:

Public schools

7. Қажетті әдебиеттер:

1. Stevenson D.K American Life and Institutions

2. Tomakhin Y. Across the USA

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Лекция 15

1.Лекция тақырыбы: The educational system of the USA

2. Лекция жоспары:

1. Higher education

2. Adult and continuing education

3. Лекция мақсаты:

Тәуелсіз немесе “паблик скулз” туралы әңгіме өткізу

4. Лекция мазмұны:

1. Higher Education

The American ideal of mass education for all is matched by awareness that America also needs highly trained specialists. In higher education, therefore, and especially at the graduate schools (those following the first 4 years of college), the U.S. has an extremely competitive and highly selective system. This advanced university system has become widely imitated internationally and it is also the one most sought after the foreign students.36 % of more than 34.000 foreign students in the US in the academic year in 1984/85 were enrolled in graduate programs.

While the American education system might put off selecting students until much later than do other systems, it does nonetheless select. And it becomes increasingly selective at the higher level. Moreover, because each university generally sets its oven admission standards, the best universities are also most difficult to get into.

Some universities are very selective even at the undergraduate or beginning levels. In 1984 for example, some 15.600 individuals sought admission to Sandford University, a private University, in southern California.

Because these individuals must pay a fee to even apply for admission, these were “serious” applications. Of that number, only 2.500 (about 16 percent) were admitted for the first year of study. It’s interesting to note that 70 percent of those who were accepted had attended public-not private-schools. Many state-supported universities also have fairly rigid admission requirements. The University of California at Berkeley, for example, admitted about 65 percent of all “qualified” applicants in 1984.

For Harvard, the figure is 17% (1984). Admission to Law or Medical schools and other graduate programs has always been highly selective. It is true, as often stated, that children who wish someday to go to one of the better universities start working for this goal in elementary school.

Needless to say, those children who have attended better schools, or who come from families with better educated parents, often have an advantage over those who don’t. This remains a problem in the U.S, where equality of opportunity is a central cultural goal. Not surprisingly, the members of racial monitories are the most deprived in this respect. Yet, it is still a fact today, as the BBC commentator Alistair Cooke pointed out in 1972, that
”a black bay has a better chance of going to college here than practically any boy in Western Europe”.

In 1985, for instance, 19.4 percent of all Americans 25 years and older had completed four years of college or more. However, the figure for blacks was 11.1 percent and for Hispanics 8.5 percent. Compared with the figures from 1970, when the national average was only 10.7 percent (with 11.3 percent for whites, 4.4 percent for blacks, and 7.6 percent for students of Spanish origin), this does reveal a considerable improvement within just 14 years. Yet, the educational level is still relatively lower for some groups, including women. While 23.1 percent

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of male Americans had four years of college or more in 1985, only 16 percent of women had. The number of students who fail to complete high school, too, is much larger among minority groups. The national average of all 18 to 24-years-olds who did not graduate from high school was 22.1 percent in 1985. For white students it was 20.9 percent, for blacks 28.7 percent, and for Hispanics the figure was as much as 45.8 percent. Many different programs aimed at improving educational opportunities among minority groups exits at all levels-local, state, and federal.

2. Adult and continuing education

The concept of continuing (or lifelong) education is of great to Americans. Every year, over 20 million Americans (that is about 10% of all adults) further their education through participation in part-time instruction. Some estimate that as many as 45 million adult Americans are currently taking courses in universities, colleges, professional associations, government organizations or even churches and synagogues. Most participants in continuing or adult education have a practical goal: they want to update and upgrade their job skills. As a result of economic changes and a rapid advance of the “information age”, the necessity to acquire new occupational skills has increased. Adult education thus fills a need of many Americans who want to improve their chances in a changing job market. This is one explanation for the continuing growth of adult education classes over the past several years. Of course, not all people take courses in adult education do this for job-related purposes. Many simply want to broaden their knowledge or learn something they wood enjoy doing such as printmaking, dancing, or photography.

Continuing education courses are provided mainly by community or junior colleges and mostly take place in the evenings. Over 80 percent of all companies today conduct their own training programs. Many large corporations offer complete degree programs, and some even support their own technical and business colleges and universities. In 1984, close to 6 million students were enrolled in industry- sponged degree programs It is estimated that some 8 million Americans are involved in corporate education of some kind.

6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары:

Public schools

Adult and continuing education

7. Қажетті әдебиеттер:

1. Stevenson D.K American Life and Institutions

2. Tomakhin Y. Across the USA



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