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B) SECONDARY EDUCATION

Secondary education is compulsory for all up to the age of 16.There are different types of secondary schools: grammar, technical, modern and comprehensive schools.

GRAMMAR SCHOOLS take only children who have good results of the “11 plus examination (11+)”. It is an examination for children of 11 years old or a little older( eleven plus some months). It consists of an arithmetic paper, an English paper and an intelligence test.

Grammar school gave academic education for the selected pupils from the age of 11 to 18,and prepare them for higher education. The general level of education in these school is very high. The school teaches English language and literature, modern languages, Latin, Mathematics, physics, Chemistry, Biology, history, Geography and other subjects.

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TECHNICAL SCHOOLS as well as grammar schools educate selective pupils. But they are specialized in technical studies. The main subjects are science and mathematics.

Secondary modern school give a general ,non-academic education up to the minimum school leaving age of 16.After finishing this school pupils cannot enter higher educational establishments.

Comprehensive school are the most popular schools in Britain today(especially in England and Wales).These schools take all the children in a given area without selecting examination .All the same time they offer all the courses taught in the three traditional schools described above-academic and practical subjects .So comprehensive schools are much bigger then the later.

COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL take the following age ranges : from 11 to 18 (after primary schools ) from 12,13 or 14 to 18 years (after middle schools ),and from 11 to 16 years.

All state schools have a National Curriculum. It consists of 10 subjects which all the children must study at school. The subjects are English, Mathematics, Science, a modern foreign language.(for 11-16 years olds),Technics and Design ,History, Geography ,Music ,Art, Physical education .Pupils progress in subjects is measured by written and practical tests.

The National Curriculum aims to ensure all children study basic subjects and have a better all-round education.

After 5 years of secondary education pupils take principal examinations for the General certificate of secondary education(GCSE) After the GCSE advanced (A)level.

2. POST-SCHOOL EDUCATION

At the age of 16 young people can choose their further education at school or outside school. They can continue studying at school until the age of 18. They can leave school and continue their education in various colleges, polytechnics and vocationally oriented schools, such as drama schools, art schools ,ballet schools or schools of librarianship and others. The most part of those institutions are private i.e. fee-charging.

These institutions do not give higher education, they prepare a variety of professions for industry and commerce such as sewing, typing, book-keeping and many others.

The UK post school institution of higher education are universities, polytechnics and other higher education colleges.

There are different universities in the country. Admission to universities is by examination or selection (interviews).British students get grants from their local education authority.

3. Universities

A university graduate leaves with a degree. It usually takes three years to get a BACHELOR OF ARTS or BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE.

A MA or MS degree may be got in one or two additional years .

Universities are centers of research as well as teaching and many postgraduates are engaged in research for higher education. The highest academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy. British universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, size, history, traditions and general organization.

Higher education has become more available in the second half of the 20th century.

In 1960 there were less than 25 universities in Britain. By 1980 there were already more than 40,and by 1995 there were over a hundred institutions with the universities.

There are no great distinctions between different types of universities in Britain. But still there are some categories of them .First of all ,Oxbridge. Oxford and Cambridge were founded in the medieval period. These universities consist of semi- independent colleges each of them having its own staff (“Fellows”).The “Fellows” teach the college students either one-to-one or in very small groups. This system is unique in the world and known as tutorials in Oxford and supervisions in Cambridge.

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Then, Scottish universities. By 1600 Scotland had 4 universities-Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and St.Andrews resembles Oxbridge very much. In the other three most of the students live at home or find their rooms. There is less specialization than at Oxbridge.

During the 19th century various institutions of higher education(usually technical ones)were founded in the industrial towns and cities such as Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds. Their buildings were of local bricks so they got the name “redbrick” universities. They contrasted chiefly with Oxford and Cambridge. At first, they prepared students for London University degree, but later they were given the right to award their own degrees. They become universities themselves. Now they accept students from all over the country. These universities are financed by local authority.

One of the developments in education in Britain is certainly the open university .It was founded in 1971. Some people don’t have an opportunity to study full-time, and this university allows them to study for degree.

This university ‘s courses are taught through television, radio and course books. Its students work individually and with tutors ,to whom, they sound their papers. The students discuss their work at meetings or through correspondence. In summer they attend short courses.

OXBRIDGE

Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest universities in Great Britain. They are called Oxbridge to denote an elaterium education.

Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges, each self-governing and independent. Before 1970 most of all Oxbridge universities were single-sex(mostly for men).But now the majority admit both sexes. The administrative body of the university consists of the chancellor (who is elected for life),the vice-chancellor(who is in practice the head of the university, and is appointed by the Chancellor) and two people, whose job is to maintain discipline. Each college has its staff called “FELLOWS”

The largest colleges have more than 400 students, the smallest have less than 30.

OXFORD is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It didn’t come into being all at once. Oxford had existed as a city for at last 300 years before scholars began to resort to it .

The end of the 12th century saw the real beginning of the university . The first group of scholars were from Paris and from other parts of Britain.

A characteristic feature of Oxford is that many traditions of the middle ages are still current there. One of them is that the students have to wear gowns .

5. Бақылау сұрақтары:

1. Primary Education

2. Secondary Education

3. Technical schools

4. Colleges

5. Universities

6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары:

“Oxford University”, “Cambridge University”

7. Қажетті әдебиеттер:

1. Электрондық оқулық

2. Burlacova V.V. “The UK of GB and Northern Ireland”

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Лекция 7

1.Лекция тақырыбы: The main economic regions

2. Лекция жоспары:

1. The south industrial and agricultural region

2. Midlands

3. Лекция мақсаты: Ірі порттармен таныстыру.Ауылшаруашылықтың маңызың түсіндіру.

4. Лекция мазмұны: Негізгі экономикалық аудандар және қалалармен таныстыру. Олардың географиясы.

1. The main economic regions.

Regional differences in the country’s economy are essential despite its small territory. Historically England proper is divided into the following economic regions the South industrial and Agricultural region, Central England or the Midlands, Lancashire, Yorkshire and North England. Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are also regarded as independent economic regions of the United Kingdom. Hence, the whole country consists of eight economic regions.

The South industrial and agricultural region.

This is the most important region in the country in terms of industry, agriculture and population. The region includes all the south of England, both the south-west. It’s the northern border runs from the Bristol Channel to the west. The south is the region of various industries and of the intensive agriculture. At the centre of everything is the city of London and its influence has become so widespread that the south-east has often been called The London City Region.

Today about 6.7 million people live in greater London. The outward movement of people from the inner districts of London is continuing. Its geographical position fitted London to be the chief commercial link of the UK with the outside world. One great advantage of the port, because of its high tides, was the ability of the vessels to sail up the estuary into the heart of the city. London handles the largest part of the country’s overseas trade. From 5 to 10 per cent of the exports (by tonnage) pass through the port of London and 15-20 per cent of imports. The millions of people living in Greater London and its surrounding areas provide a market for many important goods, especially food stuffs.

The importance of London as the industrial centre depends largely upon its situation at the centre of a vast national and international network of communications. The oldest industrial areas are near the city centre here industries such as clothing, furniture making and jewelry have tended to cluster in small distinct areas. The building of the docks near the city centre encouraged the development of a vast range of industries which processed imported row materials. Later the extension of the thee dock system toward the sea lead to the development of such typical port industries, as oil refining, steel-making, cement manufacture, paper making , etc.

As with most capital cities, London’s industries are extremely varied, among them electrical engineering, precision instrument production, radio engineering, aircraft production, manufacture of electronics equipment, the motorcar industry. These high technology industries are also sited in the satellite towns within Greater London. For example, just within Greater London, at Dagenham is the great Ford motor work. The chemicals and munitions industries are also developed in this region. Greater London is a major centre of pharmaceutical products. Greater London accounts for 25 per cent of the industrial goods of the country’s output in terms of value.

London has greater expansion in recent years; especially in the service industries provide employment for twice as many people as manufacturing industries. This is due to the enormous

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concentration of population in the city and the resultant need for service industries which occur there on a scale found now here else in Britain. For example, more then half of the national labor force employed in banking and insurance, the civil service and scientific research, work in London. Thousands of computers travel to central London each day to work in offices, banks, insurance, companies and shops. Add to this the work force catering for the tourist trade.

The other towns and cities, situated to the north of the Thames, and closely connected with the capital industrial specialization are Oxford, Cambridge and Luton.

Oxford has first mentioned in recorded history in the tenth century. It was a bridging point off the Themes, which made it an important trading centre in medieval times.

Oxford (98000) also became a leading educational centre, and by the end of the thirteenth century the earliest colleges of its world famous university had been founded. For centuries, however, its population drew slowly, and its more rapid development into an industrial centre waited till the twenties century. This come with the establishment of a large motor works in the suburb of Cowley in 1912, which together with other engineering works, was largely responsible for the rapid rise n its population reaching today about a hundred thousand inhabitants.

Cambridge (90000) is also best known for its ancient university. As with Oxford, the fine architecture of its colleges draws many visitors. Its industries, concerned with electronics including the manufacture of radio and television sets and scientific research instruments and printing have links with the university which has as international reputation for scientific research, facilities for high technology research and highly trade labor that can be recruited from the university.

Luton ((164000) provides an example of a town which became famous for one industry but prospered and expanded because of another. Luton became the countries leading hat-making town, straw from the local crop furnishing the raw material. But the demand has shrunk greatly in recent years.

Early this century a motor car firm built its principal factory at Luton. The motor works is the chief employer. It also attracted other engineering industries

such as the manufacture of electrical appliances roller, bearing, etc. Nearby there is also one of the largest brickworks in Western Europe. The basic raw material, clay is extracted locally.

The Thames valley in general, between London and Bristol is an area of concentration of high technology industries of the future.

Bristol (384400) dominated south-west England, both as the region’s chief as its largest city. Bristol is a historic inland port situated in the seaport and Bristol Channel. If we look into the history of the port, we find that it once held a far more important position than it does today. Today it accounts for about 2 per cent of the country’s trade. One reason for the decline of Bristol as the seaport as its unfavorable location about 13 km above mouth of the Avon. This meant in course o time its clocks could no longer accommodate the larger vessels that were constantly being built. Outposts to Bristol were built at Avon-mouth and Potsherd: an out port is one that belongs to the main port, but is nearer the open sea and therefore has deeper water and can accommodate larger vessels. Avon-mouth has been specially equipped to handle various goods, such as imported frozen meat, butter, bananas. Import exceeds export. Different ores make a considerable percentage of the import as well as timber, grain, fodder. Automobile, tractors, locomotives, aircraft, cement from the export trade. Imports influence the character of local industries. This is very well seen in the manufacture of tobacco products and chocolate n Bristol is a major centre of non-ferrous metallurgy hardware is also produced in this city. The British version of the supersonic ‘Concor-Norwich Cathedral de ‘was assembled at an aircraft plant in Bristol. The chemical and petrochemical industries are also developing in rapid place.

Of the towns situated on the southern fringe of England the largest ones are Plymouth (244,000), Southampton (204000) Portsmouth (179000), Brighton (146000) and Bournemouth (145000).

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Plymouth, situated at the head of Plymouth Sound, has a magnificent natural harbor, and it is well placed to guard the western approaches to the English Channel. Nearly 300 years ago work began on a dockyard nearby and from then on wards the great naval base of the British navy. The city has no major traditional industry and the naval dockyard remains the leading employers of labor. However, in recent years it has attracted a variety of light engineering industries such as the manufacture of television sets. The food industry has also developed due to its role as an importer of fruit and vegetables from France and the Mediterranean area.

Southampton is primarily a seaport, the most important one on the south coast. For a long time it was the leading passenger port in the British Isles, with special significance for its services to North America and South Africa. It was from here on April 12, 1912 that the famous Titanic made its first and last voyage to New York. The distinction belongs to the past, however, for most travelers now cross the Atlantic by air. Southampton continues to serve as a port chiefly because of the development of its freight traffic. Many of the vessels which enter Southampton port are oil tankers carrying petroleum to the great oil refinery at Fawley. Petroleum in fact is the most valuable single item in the imports. This

refinery supplies fuel to power stations, raw material to chemical works, and aviation spirit to London Airport (Heathrow). Its expanding petrochemical industry has contributed much to the prosperity of Southampton.

Brighton and Bournemouth are the leading and most popular seaside resorts of the southern fringe of Britain. Brighton offers every kind of holiday accommodation, a generally brisk sunny climate, a variety of amusements. Brighton is a favorite site for the annual congresses of the leading political parties of Great Britain. The town has grown steadily and has acquired a number of light engineering industries. Brighton is also a dormitory town of London, for its houses many commuters. Bournemouth too attracts a lot of holiday-makers in the summer. As a matter of fact, F.Engels frequented this seaside resort in the later years of his life. There are the other numerous resorts on the southern shore very popular with holiday-makers because of the mild climate, warm seas and wonderful beaches.

The south is major agricultural region of Great Britain. However agricultural specialization is different in the south west and south east and east. Owing to the mild, moist climate of the south west, grass grows for a long period in the year, and farming chiefly consists of rearing livestock. On the fertile lowland soils cattle are the principal farm animals, especially dairy breeds which thrive on the lush pastures. Hence, dairying is the main farming activity here. Oats are barley make up the principal cereal. The farmer are grown for fodder for thee cattle. In the very south-west horticulture is developed^ the growing of early vegetables and flowers. In the very south of the country barley is the most important grain crop grown in rotation.

2. The Midlands

The Midlands is situated in the center of Great Britain between the South Industrial Agricultural region in the south and Lancashire and Yorkshire in the north. For the past two hundred years the Midlands has been one of Britain’s leading industrial regions.



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