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Иностранный язык->Топик
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The Central lowlands of Scotland, sometimes known as the Midland Valley, lie between the Highlands and the Southern Uplands.

The Central lowlands are the most densely populated of the three main regions of Scotland; they occupy about 15% of it is people.

Ireland. Ireland is predominantly a rural island, with a generally low density of population and indeed few large towns other than those situated on the coast. The region’s geography of the islands is simpler than that of Great Britain, and especially than the regional geography of England.

The Central Plain of Ireland stretches west-east across the country from coast to coast.

Around the plain is a broken rim of mountains. In the extreme north-east is the Antrim Plateau or Mountains of Antrim.

Being geographically an island and a single unit, Ireland is politically divided into the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland, comprising six countries of Ulster which was one of the provinces of ancient Ireland: Antrim, Londdnol, Tyrone, Fermangh, Armagh and Down.

3. Climate and weather

Weather is not the same as climate. The weather of the British Isles is notoriously variable. The climate of a place or region, on the other hand, represents the average weather conditions through the year. In every part of the British Isles obvious changes are taking place as winter passes into spring, spring into summer, and so through autumn to winter.

Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate, which is dominated by marine influences and is rainy and equable. Britain's climate, which is much milder than that in any other country, is in the same latitudes.

This means that not only marine influences to warm the land in winter and cool it in summer, but also that the winds blowing over the Atlantic have a similar effect and at the same time carry large amounts of moisture which is deposited over the land as rain, Britain's climate is generally one of mild winters and cool summers, with rain throughout the year, although there are considerable regional changes.

Rainfall is fairly well distributed throughout the year, put on average, March to June are the driest month and October to January the wettest.

5. Бақылау сұрақтары:

1. The UK area

2. Hebrides Islands

3. England

4. Wales

5. Scotland

6. Northern Ireland

6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары:

7. Қажетті әдебиеттер:

1. Электрондық оқулық

2. Burlacova V.V. “The UK of GB and Northern Ireland”

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Лекция 4

1.Лекция тақырыбы: Political system of Britain

2. Лекция жоспары:

1. A constitutional monarchy

2. Parliament

3. Government

3. Лекция мақсаты: Британияның конститутциясы және оның ерекшеліктері туралы айтып өту.

4. Лекция мазмұны: Конституциялық монархия және оның рөлі.Лордтар палатасы,оның құрылысы және құқығы. Қауым палатасы.

1. Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy

Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. Although the power of the monarch (king or queen) is limited by Parliament, political stability owes much to the monarchy, the continuity of which has been interrupted only once (the republic of 1649- 1660) in over a thousand years. The queen (king) reigns, but she ( he) doesn’t rule. The acts on the advice of her (his) Prime Minister and doesn’t make any major political decisions. The monarch summons and dissolves the Parliament, opens the annual session of the Parliament and addresses to the MPs with the speech from the throne. The Royal residences are Buckingham Palace in London, Holy Roodhouse in Edinburgh and Windsor Castle in the suburbs of London.

In law the Queen is Head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crow and the “supreme governor” of the established Church of England. As a result of a long process of evolution, during which the monarchy’s absolute power has been progressively reduced, the Queen is impartial and acts on the advice of her ministers.

The Queen and the royal family take part in many traditional ceremonies. Their visits to different parts of Britain and to many other countries attract considerable interest and publicity, and they are also closely involved in the work of many charities.

The British Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons and the Queen as its head.

2. Parliament

Parliament is a supreme legislative body. England was the first country to have a Parliament. British Parliament consists of the monarch, the House of Lords (Upper Chamber) and the House of Commons (Lower Chamber). British Parliament holds its sittings in the Palace of Westminster. The Palace of Westminster mostly known as the House of Parliament is situated on the embankment of the Thames. It is famous for its two great towers: Big Ben and Victoria tower. Big Ben belongs to the part of Westminster Palace which comprises the House of Commons. Victoria Tower is situated in the part of Westminster Palace which belongs to the House of Lords. When Parliament has a session there is a national flag on the Tower of Victoria. Besides two main chambers the Palace of Westminster has a number of working rooms for secretariat and deputies, rooms for the meeting of parliament committees, cafes, restaurants and libraries.

The main functions of the Parliament are law-making, control of the government, granting sanctions to taxes and state expenses. but as far as the law making function is concerned , only the House of Commons can propose the law. A proposed law, which is called a bill, is introduced by ministers on behalf of the British Government. Some deputies can also bring in bills. Such bills are called private members’ bills. In order to become an Act of Parliament a bill must pass through both Houses and the Royal assent.

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3. Government

The British Parliamentary system depends on political parties. Most members of the government comprise representatives of the party which wins a majority of the seats in the House of Commons at a general election. The leader of the majority party becomes Prime Minister. The Prime Minister forms the government which usually consists of 60 or 70 ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area in the government. From these 60 or 70 ministers the Prime Minister chooses a small group of 20 representatives. This group i9s called the Cabinet of Ministers or just the Cabinet. The Cabinet is appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Cabinet Ministers are the holders of the most important offices, for example, Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Home Secretary, Foreign Secretary, the Minister of Defense, the Minister of Health.

The Cabinet defines the main trends of the British Government policy. The Cabinet works under the head of the Prime Minister. Frequent Cabinet meetings take place in the Prime Minister’s residence of (10, Downing Street). The power of the Cabinet is controlled by Parliament, for no bill which a minister prepares can become law until it is passed by an Act of Parliament.

5. Бақылау сұрақтары:

1. British constitution

2. Parliament

3. House of Commons.

4. House of Lords.

6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары:

“Great Britain is a constitutional country”

7. Қажетті әдебиеттер:

1. Электрондық оқулық

2. Burlacova V.V. “The UK of GB and Northern Ireland”

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Лекция 5

1.Лекция тақырыбы: Political system of Britain

2. Лекция жоспары:

1. House of Commons

2. House of Lords

3. Political parties

3. Лекция мақсаты: Үкіметтің министрлер кабинетімен таныстыру. Сайлау жүйесі

4. Лекция мазмұны: Үкіметтің маңыздылығын және ролін анықтау. Сайлау жүйесінің ерекшеліктерін түсіндіру.

1. House of Commons

The House of Commons comprises 650 elected members, who are known as Members of Parliament (MPs). Members of the Parliament are the representatives of local communities. At a general election held every five years, ordinary people elect one person from their constituency to be their Member of Parliament. That is why Lower Chamber of Parliament is called the House of Commons. The House of Commons hold sessions which last for 160-170 days. MPs are paid for their parliamentary work and they have to attend the sittings.

The House of Commons is presided by the Speaker. The speaker is elected by the House of Commons. Although the Speaker belongs to one of the parties he has to be unprejudiced. His function is to keep order. He controls who speaks and for how long. The speaker wears a long wig and sits in the Speaker’s Chair in the Hall of the House of Commons.

Speaker’s Chair stands at the North end. In front of it there stands the Table of the House which is occupied by the Clerk of the House and two Clerk assistants. There are benches for the Government and its supporters to the right of the Speaker. To the left of the Speaker there are benches occupied by the Opposition. There are also Cross benches at the South end of the Hall which is occupied by the members of any other parties. The front bench of the Government is called the Treasury Bench and used by the Prime Minister and other ministers. The front benches of the Opposition are occupied by its leaders. Those who sit on the front benches of both parties are called front benchers. The back benches belong to the rank-and-file MPs (back benchers).

The House of Commons plays the major part in law making. A Bill may be introduced by any MP, in practice it is generally introduced by a Minister. In order to become a law a bill has to go through three stages of reading in the House of Commons, then have the Agreement of the House of Lords and the Royal assent.

The first reading is just publication and distribution of the proposal among the MPs. There is no debate or discussion. The second reading includes debate, discussion and criticizing. The Speaker asks the House to vote. If bill passes the second reading it goes to a committee. The third reading is called a report stage. The Bill is discussed in detail and many alterations may be made. Then the Speaker receives the report of the Committee and asks the House to vote again. If

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the Bill gets a majority vote, it goes to the House of Lords.

2. House of Lords

The House of Lords consists of more than 1000 members, but only 250 take an active part in the work of the House. The members of the House are the Lords “Temporal” (i.e. Barons, Earls, Marquises and Dukes) and the Lords “Spiritual”(i.e. the Archbishops of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York, and twenty- four Bishops).

The Lords “Temporal” can be hereditary peers and peeresses and life peers and peeresses. Life peers and peeresses receive their peerages as a reward for service and their children do not inherit the title.

Members of the House of Lords are not elected. They sit there because of their rank. The Chairman of the Upper Chamber is the Lord Chancellor. He sits on a special picturesque seat which is called the Woolsack. It is a large bag of wool covered with red cloth. This tradition goes back to the period of the reign of Edward III (XIYc.). The Woolsack is a reminder of the time when England’s commercial prosperity was founded on her wool exports.

The Lords debate a bill if it has passed by the House of Commons. They only have power to delay a bill ( if it isn’t a financial one). They can throw it out once, but if the bill is presented a second time they must pass it.

5. Бақылау сұрақтары:

1. Conservative party

2. Labour party

6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары:

“The distinguishing feature of the British parliamentary system”

7. Қажетті әдебиеттер:

1. Электрондық оқулық

2. Burlacova V.V. “The UK of GB and Northern Ireland”

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Лекция 6

1.Лекция тақырыбы: Educational system

2. Лекция жоспары:

1. School education

2. Post-school education

3. Universities

3. Лекция мақсаты: Бастауыш білім беру. Орта білім мектептерінің түрлері, олардың сипаттамасы.Университет және колледжердің системасымен танысу.

4. Лекция мазмұны: Халық білім беру жүйесін ұйымдастыру негіздерін, халыққа білім беру ісін басқару. Емтихан мен тесттер туралы.

There are 3 stages of education in GREAT BRITAIN: primary, secondary and further education. Primary and secondary stages are school education. Further education means post-school education. Compulsory school education lasts 11 years, from the age of 5 to 16.

After the age of 16 young people can take further education. They can leave school but continue their education in a further education college, or they can continue studying at school until 18 years and then enter institutions of higher education or universities.

1. SCHOOL EDUCATION

There is compulsory secondary education in Great Britain. All children must, by law ,begin their school education at the age of 5 the minimum age for leaving school is 16.

There are schools maintained by state and private. Maintained schools in Great Britain are free. In private (or independent) schools parents have to pay for their children’s education. Education in the maintained schools usually consists of two-stages-primary and secondary or three stages – first schools, middle schools and upper schools. In most schools boys and girls are taught together. Pre-schools education can be taken from three to five in nursery schools or nursery classes of primary schools.

Great Britain has a great number of various types of schools, primary schools, middle schools, grammar, technical ,secondary modern schools, comprehensive schools and other.

A) PRIMARY EDUCATION

On the first stage of school education – primary stage children study in primary school from the age of 5 to 11.The primary school may be divided into two parts: infant and junior.

The infant school takes children from 5 to 7,after which they continue studying in the junior school from 7 to 11.

At infant school children learn reading, writing and arithmetic. They also sing, draw, do physical exercises. At junior school children have arithmetic, reading, composition, history, geography, nature study, art and music, physical education.

At 11, after finishing primary school course, children go to second stage of school education-secondary school.

Middle school teach children between 8 and 14 (8-12,9-13,9-14)after which pupils go to comprehensive school.



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