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The kingdom of England in the 10-11 century.

In the 10 century the united Anglo-Saxon feudal monarchy was consolidated. A much larger territory including the Dane’s land was now under the power of the kings of England.

From the end of the 10 century the Danes began to devastate the country again. And for some period in the 11 century England came under the power of the Danish kings.

Under both Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings feudal society continued to develop in England. More and more peasants lost their land and freedom.

In the second half of the 10 century under the rule of Alfred’s descendants the Saxon monarchy was further consolidated.

The Anglo-Saxons won several victories over the Danes, took away the Dane law and ruled over the whole of England.

The Danes were not driven out of the country but they were made subjects of Wessex.They submitted to the power of the Anglo-Saxon kings and never tried to make the Dane law into a separate kingdom.

The Danes influenced the development of the country greatly. They were good sailors and traders and they favored the growth of town and the development of trade in England.

Many Scandinavian words came into the English language at that time and are even used today. For example:

Adjective - happy, low, loose, ill, ugly, weak

Verbs - to take, to die, to call

Nouns - sister, husband, sky, fellow, law, window, leg, wing, harbour.

The Danes gave their own names to many of the towns they built.For example: Derby, Grimsby, Whitby Lowestoft etc.

2 .At the end of the 10 century the Danish invasions were resumed. The Anglo-Saxon kings were unable to organize any effective resistance. The Anglo-Saxon came again in great numbers the following year to demand more.

At the beginning of the 11 century England was conquered by the Danes once more. The Danish king Canute (1017-1035) became king of Denmark, Norway and England then made England the

center of his power. But he was away from England in his kingdom of Denmark and so he divided the country into four parts called earldoms. They were Wessex, Murcia, North Umbria and East Anglia. An earl was appointed by the king to rule over each great earldom. The earls ruled over great territories and gradually they became very powerful.

3. Norman Conquest of England.

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Four different peoples invaded England. First came the Celts in the 6 century B.C.; then the Romans in the 1 A.D.; they were followed by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5 century; after them came the Danes at the end of 8 century.

In the 11 century England was invaded by the Normans. This was the fifth and the last invasions of England.

In the 9 century while the Danes were plundering England another branch of North men who were related to the Danes were doing the same sailing to the Northern coasts of France. They came to be called the Normans, a variation of the word “North men”.

As we know the Danes settled down in the conquered part of England known as the Dane law. Likewise, the Normans settled down on land conquered from the French king- a territory which is still called Normandy after these Normans.

Many changes came about in the life of the Normans and the Danes after the 9 century. By the 11 century the Danes finally settled down as subject of the English kings. As time went on they gradually mixed with the Anglo-Saxon among whom they lived. Thus they retained their Germanic language and many of their customs that were very much like those of the Anglo-Saxons. But the Normans who had settled down in France had quite different manners, customs and language. They lived among the French people, who were different people, with different manners, customs and language. They had learned to speak the French language, and in many ways they had become like the French themselves.

The Normans lived under the rule of their own duke. In 1066 William, the Duke of Normandy, began to gather an army to invade Britain. The pretext for the invasions was the king who died in 1066.The king who died in 1066 had no children and Duke William cherished the hope that he would succeed to the English throne. (According to the English law it was the Witenagemot that chose the next king).But the Witenagemot choose another relative of the deceased king the Anglo-Saxon Earl, Harold, William of Normandy claimed that England belonged to him and began preparations for a war to fight for the Crown.

William landed in South of England and the battle between the Normans and the Anglo-Saxons took place in a little village in the neighborhood of the town now called Hastings.

The victory at Hastings was only the beginning of the Conquest. It took several years for William and his baron to subdue the whole of England. Soon after the victory of Hastings, the Normans encircled London and the Witenagemot had to acknowledge William as the Lawful king of England. From that time the Norman duke became king of England –William I or as he was generally known William the Conqueror. He ruled England for 21 years (1066-1087).

The Norman Conquest brought about very important changes in the life of the Anglo-Saxons. King Harold had little power after the great lords. The Anglo-Saxon earls didn’t even join their king at Hastings. After the Conquest the royal power in England strengthened greatly. The Conqueror turned into slaves many Anglo-Saxon peasants who had been free before. They brought with them their language, laws and customs. Under their rule the English language changed greatly.

5. Бақылау сұрақтары:

1.The Anglo –Saxons

2. Kings of Britain

6. Лекция тақырыбына сәйкес СӨЖ тапсырмалары:

1. Five invasions of the UK

7. Қажетті әдебиеттер:

1. Электрондық оқулық

2. Burlacova V.V. “The UK of GB and Northern Ireland”

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Лекция 3

1.Лекция тақырыбы: “The land and population”

2. Лекция жоспары:

1. Geographical position of the British Isles

2. Physical structure and relief

3. Climate and weather

4. Population

3. Лекция мақсаты: Географиялық жағдаймен таныстыру, рельеф, климат ерекшеліктерін анықтау.

4. Лекция мазмұны: Гебрид, Мен және басқа да аралдарға ұласып жатқан бұғаздар мен теңіздер туралы мәлімет алу. Халық құрамын анықтау.

1. Geographical position of the British Isles

The British Isles are situated off the north-west coast Europe and consist of a group of islands. The total area of the British Isles is 322 246 square km-s. They are made up of two large islands - Great Britain and Ireland - and over 5.000 smaller islands.

Britain formally known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It comprises the mаіn land of England, Wales and Scotland (Great Britain) and the Northern Ireland (part of Ireland)

The capital of England is London, the capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, the capital of Wales is Cardiff, the capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast.

As to the national emblems of the United Kingdom, one can name the red rose- the national emblem of England, the thistle- the national emblems of Scotland, the leek and the daffodils are the emblems of Wales, the shamrock (a king of clover) is the emblems of Ireland

The British Isles are of the continental origin. Once they formed part of that continent, they became islands only when they were separated from it. The separation took place thousands of years ago, after the last Ice Age, and greatly influenced the history and the geography of these islands.

The United Kingdom's area is some 244.100 sq. kilometers, of which about 99% in land and remainder island water. From south to north it stretches for over 900 km, and is just less than 500 km across in the widest part and 60 km in the narrowest.

The combined population of the British Isles-59.5 m/n people including that of the Republic Ireland makes the Islands one of the most densely populated parts of the earth's surface and the UK, at least, one of the most densely populated countries with nearly 57 million people.

The English Channel and the North Sea separate the British Isles from Europe. In the west they are washed by the Atlantic Ocean, in the east-by the North Sea. The two main islands - Great Britain and Ireland - are separated by the Irish Sea.

Off the north-western coast of Great Britain there is a group of Islands known as the Hebrides ([hebridiz] - Гебридские острова). They are divided into the Inner and Outer

Hebrides, the groups of Islands, separated from each other by the sea of Hebrides and the Little Minch.

Separated from the mainland by the stormy mile wide land there are the Orkneys Islands, comprising about a hundred Islands, though only a third are inhabited, by about 19.500 people. Most of the people are engaged in dairy and poultry farming, bacon, cheese and eggs are exported to central Scotland.

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Situated about 70 miles north of Orkneys there are the Shetland Islands which provide thin, infertile soils suitable only for rough pasture. The total population is about 18.000.The Shetland farmers during the summer months are actively engaged in herring-fishing.

In the middle of the Irish Sea there is the Isle of Man (571 sq. km).The Island is administered by its own Parliament and has a population of about 50.000.Chiefly engaged is farming, fishing and Tourist trade.

Another important Island in the Irish Sea is Anglesey contains only 52.000 people and more of working population are now engaged in industry than in fishing and agriculture.

The Isle of Wight is in the English Channel. It is diamond-shaped 40 km from west to east, and about half as much from west to south. The Isle of Wight lies across the southern end of Southampton. With its sunny beaches and pleasant varied Countryside, the Island forms the South Coast's most important tourist resorts.

Of the extreme south-western coast of Great Britain there is a tiny group the Isles of Scilly.

The Channel Islands lie to the south-west on the French side of the English Channel. They are known to the French as the Isles Normandy’s, and their position can indeed be best seen from a map of North-West France than Southern England.

2. Physical structure and relief

Britain has different physical characteristics and despite its small area, contains rocks of nearly all the main geological periods. There is a contrast between the highlands of western and northern Britain and the lowland areas of the south and east.

You will not find very high mountains or large plains here. Everything occupies little place. (Nature, it seems, has carefully adapted things-mountains, valleys, plains, rivers and lakes-to the size of the island itself.)

The highest mountain in the British Isles is Ben Nevis in Scotland, 1.347 meters high. The longest river is the Severn in England, 390 km long. The largest lake in Great Britain is Loch Lomond in Scotland, covering a surface area of 70 sq. kilometers.

England. Though England cannot be considered as a very hilly country still it far from being flat everywhere. The most important range of mountains is the Pennine range. Some rivers flowing from the central Pennines have cut long open valleys, (known as dales which attract tourist because of their picturesque scenery.) Rainfall in the Pennines is heavy and their flowing streams provide power for woolen mills. Today the area is used for water storage; reservoirs in the uplands supply water to the industrial towns on each side of the Pennines.

Across the north end of the Pennine Range there are the grassy Cheviot Hills. They serve as a natural borderland between England and Scotland.

The valleys, which separate the various mountains from each other, contain some beautiful lakes. This is so-called Lake District. They are Windermere, Crasmere, Coniston Water, Ennerdale water, Ullswater, Hawswater. This is the celebrated Lake District, where many tourists resort every year and where the famous poets Wordsworth, Coleridge, Quincy lived and wrote.

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In north-west England, separated from the Pennine by the valley of the river Eden lie the Cumbrian Mountains. These mountains form a ring round the peak of Helvellyn (950).Other peaks Scafell (978 m) and Skiddaw (931 m)

Thirlmere and News Water are in use as reservoirs for the Manchester area and permission has been granted for Manchester to take water from Ullswater and Windermere.

The region is scarcely populated and sheep rearing is the main occupation of the farmers. A typical farmhouse is built of stone, quarried locally, and roofed with slate, also obtained in the region. Around it are a number of small fields, separated from one another by dry stone walls.

The south-west region is essentially agricultural area. The areas of best soil occur around the southern borders of Dart moor, in northern Devon and Vale of Taunton. On the lower land between the moors, both in Cornwall and Devon are fertile river valleys.

The south-west Peninsula presents numerous attractions for the holiday-makes and the artists, and tourism is of the most important activities of the region.

Wales. Wales is the largest of the peninsula on the western side of Britain. It consists of a complex of worn down mountain ranges representing high. They are called Cambrian Mountains. The highest and most glaciated area occurs in the north, especially around Snowdon (1.085 m) and often the mountains approach close to the sea.

The Cambrians largely comprise the upland areas, generally and collectively described as the Welsh Massif. In the south the massif includes an important coal­field, on which an industrial area has grown. It is the most densely populated of 208 m/n inhabiting about one-eight of the area.

Two relief divisions may be distinguished in South-Wales;

1. A coastal plain which in the south-eastern part around Cardiff becomes up
to 16 km wide, and

2. The upland areas of the coal-field proper, which rise between 245 and 380

Much of the land of Wales consists of bare rock, it produce not good enough crops. There are barren moorland and rough pasture, with only a few' people to the square kilometers. But this region constitutes the heartland of Wales, for centered upon the massif in the Welsh culture where the traditions and language of a Celtic people are best preserved in the upland areas.

Scotland. Scotland may be divided into three major physical regions; the Highlands, the Southern Uplands and the Central Lowlands.

The Scotland highlands lie west of a line from Aberdeen to the mouth of the Clyde. They form the most extensive and the most scarcely populated of the three regions, the mountains are separated into two parts by Glen More, or the Great Glen, a long crack in the earth's crust, running from north-west. To the south are the Grampians, which are generally higher than the North-West highlands, and contain loftiest summits, including Ben Nevis (1.347m) the highest peak in the British Isles. Glen More contains three lakes: Lock Ness, Lock Oich, and Lock Lochy. Climatically the region has some of the most severe weather experienced in Britain.

The Southern Uplands extend from the Central Valley of Scotland in the north to the Pennine Hills and Lake District in the South. Upland areas extend into the Central Valley, just as the Cheviots merge into the Pennines and the lowlands on both east and west coasts into the lowlands of North Umbria and those that surround the Lake District.

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