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Protein Synthesis Essay, Research Paper

Protein Synthesis

Protein synthesis is the process by which genetic information from the DNA stored in the nucleus is transferred to the ribosomes where it is used to arrange amino acids into proteins.

The DNA molecule in the nucleus is unzipped by an enzyme called polymerase. From one of these single strands of a DNA molecule, a mRNA molecule is built. This is accomplished by an enzyme which travels along a portion of DNA between two exons and attaches the opposing base pairs to the backbone of the mRNA (a structure composed of phosphates and ribose). The nitrogen bases of this new molecule are identical to that of the opposite side of the original DNA molecule except that the thymine has been replaced with uracil. The formation of this molecule allows for the construction of proteins in the ribosome without risking the DNA in the cytoplasm.

The mRNA travels through the cell to a ribosome. Here tRNA which contain the appropriate anti-codon collect the amino acids coded for in the mRNA. Each amino acid is connected to the next amino acid. The mRNA thus transverses the ribosome with each three nitrogen base condon selecting an amino acid. This continues until the ribosome encounters a stop condon. When this happens the amino acid chain is released from the tRNA and is a protein.

This process allows for the genetic information stored in the DNA to be expressed in the physical and functional makeup of the cell.

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