Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
Terrorism Essay, Research Paper
Leon Tolstoy once said: kill one, intimidate one thousand (Wolf, 14). The common denominator of the I.R.A., the Rauel Sendic International Brigade (France), the Baader-Meinhoff (Germany), and the Symbionese Liberation Army (S.L.A) is that they are all political groups that use terror and violence to achieve their goals.
Terrorism at the global level can be divided into two sub-categories: international terrorism and transnational terrorism. International terrorism is terrorism that is carried out by sects of individuals on behalf of a sovereign state. It is state-sanctioned brutality which furthers a goal of the state without directly implicating the state in the process. For example, in the 1960s, Communist Russia trained thousands of individuals of different nationalities in terror techniques. These terrorist groups attacked much of Eastern Europe in the name of Communism. Russia, however, was able to protect itself from attack from the United States by placing the blame squarely on the terrorist groups themselves.
In contrast, transnational terrorism is terrorism that is carried out by groups of individuals acting autonomously. Whereas they may receive support from various countries, they are furthering their own goals without any state direction. An excellent example of transnational terrorism is the Hezbolah, a Palestinian organization that evokes fear in many parts of the world. It has supports from many governments in the Middle East such as South Lebanon, parts of Israel, Syria, Jordan. The Hezbolah answers only to itself and its goal is to claim the Land of Israel from the Jewish people.
Who are terrorists and what are terrorist actions? Terrorists are individuals who advocate for social reform or political change. They adopt the approach that the only way to achieve their goals is through terror tactics and violence. Terrorists force others to meet their increasing demands by raising the price of the status quo. Consider the classic example of the Palestinian terrorist groups. They bomb schoolchildren, stone cars, fire in crowds etc. until Israel gives them a piece of land. Thus, the price of maintaining the status quo, being peace, is raised by two pieces of land.
Terrorist ideology stems from a number of different sources. It follows the original Marxist doctrine that a revolution will emerge from an armed struggle. They also adopt the Maoist theory that terror can create and prolong a revolution. Lastly, they incorporate the ideas of Carlos Marighella, a Brazilian guerilla warrior who believed the end justifies the means.
Terrorist action is defined by six criteria. The acts must include violence or the threat of violence; it must be a crime under federal/state law (i.e. arson, murder); it is usually a violation of the laws of war (i.e. hostage taking, bombing civilians); there must be a political goal; the individual must be part of a group or cause; there must be an attempt to influence a group of people through the one action (i.e. bomb schoolchildren to intimidate the country s leaders into giving away land.)
Can terrorist action be justified as civil disobedience? After all, Malcolm X, a strong black rights leader, proclaimed: by any means necessary . It could, therefore, be suggested that terrorism is a logical extension of this view. This cannot be the case because terrorism is not civil disobedience due to its methodology. Terrorists seek to prove themselves in a militant manner. They feel that recognition as an army gives them and their cause more acceptance in the civilized world. During the course of their military actions, however, they break almost every rule of war as set out by the United Nations: the deliberate application of violence against civilian non-combatants, the seizure of hostages, the maltreatment of prisoners Thus, even if terrorists were given the status of combatants, they would still be committing crimes.
Secondly, the claim of the terrorists that they or another group in society is being denied fundamental human rights is false. It is a fa ade to the real goal of the terrorists: to create a tyrannical society with themselves as the leaders. Those who bomb children are not interested in freedom, and those who trample on human rights are not interested in defending those rights. Although terrorists profess to be combatants in a struggle for freedom, their methodology exposes them for what they really are: big bullies!
It is important to note the limited scope of terrorism. Most democratic societies are repulsed by terrorism. This is because most individuals who have lived in a democracy understand the hypocritical behaviour of terrorists as furthering their own agendas. The inhuman method chosen to achieve their goal disqualifies it as a matter worthy of support. It is a wonder then, that terrorism has managed to continue to exist.
With regards to transnational terrorism, there have been two very interesting and opposite approaches by the Israelis. The first approach is negotiation, known as peace talks . These have been largely ineffective, as they are merely an encouragement that terrorism is an effective means of accomplishing goals. The other approach that has been taken is fighting fire with fire. While brute force may be the only language understood by terrorists, there is a danger in lowering oneself to the level of the terrorists.
International terrorism, although more dangerous because it gives terrorists financial backing and a safe harbour for their activities, seems easier to halt. The United Nations could easily blacklist the country endorsing the terrorist actions. Trade could be limited, causing poverty; crucial resources could be withheld until the country stopped producing and endorsing brute force.
- Domestic Terrorism Essay, Research Paper Trent Kenmai 5/15/00 DOMESTIC TERRORISM Over the ... Center is the third tallest building in the world, ... 11, 1995, Terry Lynn Nichols was charged with ... federal government?s wiretapping rights once again. Should Americans ...
- Moby Dick Essay, Research Paper It is easy ... view to accept at once a drama of direness. ... terrific, because more spiritual terrors, which sometimes menace you ... the circumstances of his lone survival, we leave him ... one, seems but uncertain twilight to me.” But ...
- Russia: Catherine Ii Essay, Research Paper 1. Catherine II ... as Dostoyevsky and Tolstoi, despite the policies ... into the police. Terrorism was the next ... the policies of Lenin. Lenin established the basic ... communist governments, because once the local governments ...
- Beowulf Vs Grendel Essay, Research Paper Since the dawn of ... demoniacal monster Grendel, which terrorizes the hall that Hrothgar built ... Grendel flooded with fear (line 329) tried to free himself ... How once the light of day is swallowed by twilight, blanketing ...
- ... C. Clarke Essay, Research Paper THE GARDEN OF ... His sentences are lean and declarative, his ... and women had once comforted themselves at ... Homer, Shakespeare, Milton, Tolstoy, Melville and Proust ... Freudian therapy, clitoridectomy, terrorism, religious mania and, ...