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Chronology Of Slavery Essay, Research Paper

The America that we know is a land found on a quest for a new life and profit. This land was created by a variety of settlers all out for very common goals. One major goal in the minds of the new settler was profit. America is a nation founded on profit. Much of the money from this new land stems primarily form crops. One predicament the settlers faced in terms of crops and plantations was lack of labor to keep these thriving ventures running. The key to this problem for many proprietors was slaves. With slaves existing crops could be maintained and a vast amount of varying new crops could be planted

Slavery has been practiced in the Americans as soon as colonization began in the New World. Contrary to popular belief the first slaves of the New World were not Africans; in fact Africans were not imported to this region for years to come. Industrious tenants to the land looked for riches through tobacco plants, maize, beans, and squash crops. The land for growing such crops offered great opportunity for settlers. The Jamestown settlers first began to enslave Indians to labor in the fields. The Indians of Virginia were not accustomed to the hard labor that they were to face as farmers to such crops. The men were used to, passive hunting during a small portion of the day . The woman of the Indian tribes job was to tend to a small field of a variety of vegetables to be used as food. The intense labor harmed the health of the Native Americans. Native Americans also began to die of from non-labor based diseases from the Europeans. To over come the problems with the Indians the Jamestown settlers resorted to African slaves.

The first African slaves were brought to America by a Dutch trades man who exchanged slaves for fleets of food in 1619. The Africans were not called slaves at first. The term was not adopted until the year 1659. Until then, the blacks were known as ?servants?. This term was used in an equivalent manner to our current day understanding of slave. At this time in history Jamestown was able to export tons of tobacco to England. As a result, more slaves were required. Blacks were imported form Africa and paid for with food. At this time women were also imported from England by a private English company and paid for with tobacco. Without slaves the tobacco based economy that grew in the region would never have grown so much. By the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, African American slaves occupied every European colony in the New World.

By the year 1625 only ten black slaves existed in Jamestown. By 1638 a public slave auction was held in Jamestown. By 1641 the population of slaves grew to 2000. African slaves were much less expensive for the colonist as they were priced at around twenty seven dollars; whereas, European workers cost on average seventy cents a day. After thirty six days the African and the European laborer would have cost the same. The difference is, the African would be seemingly forever bound to his owner and the European worker could go free at any time. To many the opportunity to own a slave was simply to good am offer to resist.

During the first days of the colony in order for poor individuals to pay for their passage to the

New World a system of indentured servitude was introduced. This system allowed an individual to come to the colonies with out paying and serve whom ever paid for their journey for a time of seven years. By 1660, many indentured servants had served their seven years. Replacement workers were very rare, so Virginia like Massachusetts and Connecticut legalized slavery in 1661. Although the practice of slavery was before this technically illegal, it was still prevalent. Following the legalization of slavery, in 1672 the Royal African Company was chartered by the king of England to bring ship loads of slaves into the great trading centers of the New World.

Beginning in the 1660s the colonies began enacting laws that defined the status of the salves. Slaves, were in fact perpetually bound to their owners for life. Before this law some black were, like the European workers only serving for a number of years before they could go free. After these laws, it was understood that slaves and their children would never be free. So, slavery would continue even after the slave imports were outlawed in 1808.

In 1664 slavery was legalized in Maryland. When this occurred laws originated about marriage between the whites and blacks in this area. Laws of the sort were passed in other areas as well. In 1663 in Maryland, the law states that all blacks imported would be given the status of a slave. The Laws of Virginia in the year 1662, developed regulations on the reproduction of salves. Of course, all offspring of a slave became the property of the mothers owner.

One terrible aspect of the slave industry is the capture and transport of Africans to the New World. Europeans during the early 1700s monopolized the slave trade. The slave trade provided a great economic boost for the Europeans. The slaves were transported on what is known as the Middle Passage. Over twenty million people were uprooted from their homes in Africa and brought to the Americas. Unlike other slave quests, the African slave trade was an economic enterprise. The mortality rate among new slaves was extremely high. Over half of the Africans died before they even served as slaves. Between the years 1650 and 1900, ?historians estimate that at least 80 million Africans were forcibly removed from, Central and Western Africa as slaves. A human catastrophe for Africa, the world African Slave Trade was truly a ?Holocaust.??(Agatucci 12)

Between 1675 and 1676 Nathaniel Bacon and those who shared his view of the Indians grouped together in order to rise against his enemy. Fighting along side Bacon were both free blacks and black slaves. Bacon promised to free those slaves who joined him in his cause. The rebellion ended when British authorities arrested the rebels both black and white. Freedom for slaves did not occur from the rebellion. The rebellion demonstrated to many whites that, ?poor whites and poor blacks could be united in a cause. This was a great fear of the ruling class?what would prevent the poor from uniting to fight them? This fear hastened the transition to racial slavery.?(Timeline from the PBS series Africans in America)

The first formal protest against slavery in the Western Hemisphere occurred in 1688 in Pennsylvania. A group of Quakers signed an anti-slavery resolution. In 1696 any Quaker who imported slaves was then expelled from the society that signed the resolution. From here, many slave revolts occurred. The New York slave revolt happened in 1712. Slaves rose and rebelled due to their mistreatment from their masters. Twenty-three slaves stood up for themselves in rebellion. Nine whites were captured and killed before the blacks were defeated. Twenty-one of the slaves were executed by hanging or burning at the stake. In 1712 twenty-five slaves armed themselves and set fire to homes in

New York City. This event was a model for uprisings in the future; slaves began to rebel. In 1720, in South Carolina, a slave revolt resulted in the death of three whites. Later, in 1739, another slave revolt in South Carolina results in the death of twenty-five whites.

In attempts to march to Spanish, Florida to gain freedom, a group of eight slaves armed themselves to prepare for their journey. During this march, forty- four blacks were killed as they attempted to flee slavery. In the fight, twenty-one whites were killed as they tried to stop the black marchers. These marches into Spanish Florida ?were among the earliest attempts at freedom and community??(The Underground Railroad in American History by the National Park Service) If a slave made his way to Florida who was under Spanish rule, he became a free man.

Over this brief century enormous amounts of slaves were taken from Africa. Others were enslaved for a brief time, such as the Indians. If the Indians had survived as slaves perhaps they instead of the Africans would have consumed the population as slaves. European workers were tried for a while to serve as laborers. They however, were more costly than Africans as workers. Indentured servantry in time wore out and the most efficient and cost effective mean of labor for the colonist was through African slaves. Through out this time, slaves were often mistreated and overworked. However, slavery continues and many laws are formed to promote this economically booming slave trade. In time, slaves began to rebel, but the rebellion was ceased for a great many years. By the year 1750, slavery was still thriving.

The America that we know is a land found on a quest for a new life and profit. This land was created by a variety of settlers all out for very common goals. One major goal in the minds of the new settler was profit. America is a nation founded on profit. Much of the money from this new land stems primarily form crops. One predicament the settlers faced in terms of crops and plantations was lack of labor to keep these thriving ventures running. The key to this problem for many proprietors was slaves. With slaves existing crops could be maintained and a vast amount of varying new crops could be planted

Slavery has been practiced in the Americans as soon as colonization began in the New World. Contrary to popular belief the first slaves of the New World were not Africans; in fact Africans were not imported to this region for years to come. Industrious tenants to the land looked for riches through tobacco plants, maize, beans, and squash crops. The land for growing such crops offered great opportunity for settlers. The Jamestown settlers first began to enslave Indians to labor in the fields. The Indians of Virginia were not accustomed to the hard labor that they were to face as farmers to such crops. The men were used to, passive hunting during a small portion of the day . The woman of the Indian tribes job was to tend to a small field of a variety of vegetables to be used as food. The intense labor harmed the health of the Native Americans. Native Americans also began to die of from non-labor based diseases from the Europeans. To over come the problems with the Indians the Jamestown settlers resorted to African slaves.

The first African slaves were brought to America by a Dutch trades man who exchanged slaves for fleets of food in 1619. The Africans were not called slaves at first. The term was not adopted until the year 1659. Until then, the blacks were known as ?servants?. This term was used in an equivalent manner to our current day understanding of slave. At this time in history Jamestown was able to export tons of tobacco to England. As a result, more slaves were required. Blacks were imported form Africa and paid for with food. At this time women were also imported from England by a private English company and paid for with tobacco. Without slaves the tobacco based economy that grew in the region would never have grown so much. By the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, African American slaves occupied every European colony in the New World.

By the year 1625 only ten black slaves existed in Jamestown. By 1638 a public slave auction was held in Jamestown. By 1641 the population of slaves grew to 2000. African slaves were much less expensive for the colonist as they were priced at around twenty seven dollars; whereas, European workers cost on average seventy cents a day. After thirty six days the African and the European laborer would have cost the same. The difference is, the African would be seemingly forever bound to his owner and the European worker could go free at any time. To many the opportunity to own a slave was simply to good am offer to resist.

During the first days of the colony in order for poor individuals to pay for their passage to the

New World a system of indentured servitude was introduced. This system allowed an individual to come to the colonies with out paying and serve whom ever paid for their journey for a time of seven years. By 1660, many indentured servants had served their seven years. Replacement workers were very rare, so Virginia like Massachusetts and Connecticut legalized slavery in 1661. Although the practice of slavery was before this technically illegal, it was still prevalent. Following the legalization of slavery, in 1672 the Royal African Company was chartered by the king of England to bring ship loads of slaves into the great trading centers of the New World.

Beginning in the 1660s the colonies began enacting laws that defined the status of the salves. Slaves, were in fact perpetually bound to their owners for life. Before this law some black were, like the European workers only serving for a number of years before they could go free. After these laws, it was understood that slaves and their children would never be free. So, slavery would continue even after the slave imports were outlawed in 1808.

In 1664 slavery was legalized in Maryland. When this occurred laws originated about marriage between the whites and blacks in this area. Laws of the sort were passed in other areas as well. In 1663 in Maryland, the law states that all blacks imported would be given the status of a slave. The Laws of Virginia in the year 1662, developed regulations on the reproduction of salves. Of course, all offspring of a slave became the property of the mothers owner.

One terrible aspect of the slave industry is the capture and transport of Africans to the New World. Europeans during the early 1700s monopolized the slave trade. The slave trade provided a great economic boost for the Europeans. The slaves were transported on what is known as the Middle Passage. Over twenty million people were uprooted from their homes in Africa and brought to the Americas. Unlike other slave quests, the African slave trade was an economic enterprise. The mortality rate among new slaves was extremely high. Over half of the Africans died before they even served as slaves. Between the years 1650 and 1900, ?historians estimate that at least 80 million Africans were forcibly removed from, Central and Western Africa as slaves. A human catastrophe for Africa, the world African Slave Trade was truly a ?Holocaust.??(Agatucci 12)

Between 1675 and 1676 Nathaniel Bacon and those who shared his view of the Indians grouped together in order to rise against his enemy. Fighting along side Bacon were both free blacks and black slaves. Bacon promised to free those slaves who joined him in his cause. The rebellion ended when British authorities arrested the rebels both black and white. Freedom for slaves did not occur from the rebellion. The rebellion demonstrated to many whites that, ?poor whites and poor blacks could be united in a cause. This was a great fear of the ruling class?what would prevent the poor from uniting to fight them? This fear hastened the transition to racial slavery.?(Timeline from the PBS series Africans in America)

The first formal protest against slavery in the Western Hemisphere occurred in 1688 in Pennsylvania. A group of Quakers signed an anti-slavery resolution. In 1696 any Quaker who imported slaves was then expelled from the society that signed the resolution. From here, many slave revolts occurred. The New York slave revolt happened in 1712. Slaves rose and rebelled due to their mistreatment from their masters. Twenty-three slaves stood up for themselves in rebellion. Nine whites were captured and killed before the blacks were defeated. Twenty-one of the slaves were executed by hanging or burning at the stake. In 1712 twenty-five slaves armed themselves and set fire to homes in

New York City. This event was a model for uprisings in the future; slaves began to rebel. In 1720, in South Carolina, a slave revolt resulted in the death of three whites. Later, in 1739, another slave revolt in South Carolina results in the death of twenty-five whites.

In attempts to march to Spanish, Florida to gain freedom, a group of eight slaves armed themselves to prepare for their journey. During this march, forty- four blacks were killed as they attempted to flee slavery. In the fight, twenty-one whites were killed as they tried to stop the black marchers. These marches into Spanish Florida ?were among the earliest attempts at freedom and community??(The Underground Railroad in American History by the National Park Service) If a slave made his way to Florida who was under Spanish rule, he became a free man.

Over this brief century enormous amounts of slaves were taken from Africa. Others were enslaved for a brief time, such as the Indians. If the Indians had survived as slaves perhaps they instead of the Africans would have consumed the population as slaves. European workers were tried for a while to serve as laborers. They however, were more costly than Africans as workers. Indentured servantry in time wore out and the most efficient and cost effective mean of labor for the colonist was through African slaves. Through out this time, slaves were often mistreated and overworked. However, slavery continues and many laws are formed to promote this economically booming slave trade. In time, slaves began to rebel, but the rebellion was ceased for a great many years. By the year 1750, slavery was still thriving.


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