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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«Санкт-Петербургский государственный

инженерно-экономический университет»

Кафедра экономики и менеджмента в туризме и гостиничном хозяйстве

РЕФЕРАТ

По дисциплине «Информационно-экскурсионная деятельность»

По теме «Михайловский Дворец»

Выполнили: Группа:

Величинская К. А. 5/5072

Фрич. Ю. П. 5/5072

Хованская М. А. 5/5074

студентки II курса 3г. 10 мес. специальность 080502/8

(срок обучения)

Преподаватель: Тен Е. С.

Оценка: _____________Дата: __________

Подпись:

Санкт-Петербург

2009

Maintenance:

Introduction………………………………………………………………………3

Mikhailovsky palace. History…………..………………………………………..4

Architect Carlo Rossi…………………………………………………………….5

The Mihajlovsky palace building………………………………………………..8

Architectural style of Saint-Petersburg: Classicism («Ampire» Style)……….....9

Architectural elements of the Mikhailovsky palace…………………………….18

Historical persons………………………………………………………………23

Historical events, connected with the Mikhailovsky palace……………………25

Current state…………………………………………………………………….27

The conclusion………………………………………………………………….28

The list of the used literature…………………………………………………...29

Introduction

Saint Petersburg is the Northern capital of Russia. Saint-Petersburg is one of the main cultural, historical and architectural centers of Russia. It was named in the honor of Peter the Great, who founded St. Petersburg in 1703. St. Petersburg, Russia is world known for its channels and bridges and is often called "Northern Venice". The city possesses a perfect architectural style and intense cultural life. There are more than 100 theaters and 200 museums in our city. The best architects worked for several centuries to create this irresistible visage of St. Petersburg which each guest enjoys now. Many outstanding monuments are situated here, most known are: St. Isaac's Cathedral, Kazan's Cathedral, Peter and Paul's Fortress, Admiralty, Hermitage, Smolniy Cathedral and Mikhailovsky palace.

Mikhailovsky palace. History.

In the 1719 on then empty site of Mikhailovsky palace and a garden surrounding it, Peter I has established big fruit garden named « Third Summery ». It settled down from Fontanka up to the river Krivushi .To the south from the garden down to the Nevsky prospect the swamp and a small wood was kept. After the construction to the east of the Elizabeth Petrovny’ Holiday apartment, and then Mikhailovsky castle, numerous service constructions and sheds here were placed. Around them there was a waste ground, overgrown burdock and a nettle.

The idea of construction of a residence for grand duke Michael Pavlovich belongs to its father, Emperor Paul I. In 1798 Paul has ordered to put away a few thousands rubles every year for the construction of the palace for his youngest son Michael. Emperor did not see an embodiment of his idea; he has died as a result of palace revolution. However, the will of sovereign was carried out. When Michael Pavlovich has turned 21 year old, Emperor Alexander I have decided to begin the construction of the palace.

Architect Carlo di Giovanni Rossi.

In choosing the builder of the palace, Alexander I stopped at the architect Carlo Rossi. Carlo di Giovanni Rossi, (Russian: Carl Ivanovich Rossi18 December 1775 - 18 April 1849) was a Russian architect, of Italian origin, who worked the major portion of his life in Russia. He was the author of many classical buildings and architectural ensembles in Saint Petersburg and its environments.

Biography

Carlo di Giovanni Rossi was born on the 18th of December 1775, and is of Italian origin. His mother, a world famous ballerina, brought Rossi to Russia from his birthplace, Venice, on an invitation to perform. Through his mother Carlo Rossi was born into a world surrounded by art. In his early years, he started his training in the studio of the architect Vincenzo Brenna and entered into the architectural admiralty as an assistant to Brenna. His first project with Brenna was the construction of the St Petersburg Saint Micheal’s Palace.

Carlo di Giovanni Rossi traveled to Italy to further his studies during the years 1802 until 1803, and gained his architectural title in 1806. Rossi opened up his own office and was requested to return to Russia in 1808 to work on the Kremlin’s archaeological expedition. Here, in Moscow, Carlo Rossi built the St Catherine’s Church of Ascension Convent and a theatre at the Arbat Square. Unfortunately, the theatre was destroyed by fire in 1812 during the invasion of Russia by Napoleon. Carlo Rossi obtained the Order of St Vladimir of IV Degree and the rank of Collegiate Councilor followed in 1814. Returning to Saint Petersburg in 1816, Carlo Rossi was appointed a position on the committee that supervises and decides on structures and hydraulic works.

Rossi’s buildings were simple, and yet had a look of grandeur and nobility rolled into one. This classic empire style can be seen in the Yelagin Palace that was built by Rossi during the years of 1816 to 1818 and the Senate and Synod buildings in the years 1829 to 1833. Other buildings that Carlo Rossi built are the Saint Micheal’s Palace, Alexander Theatre, the pavilions of the Anichkov Palace and the palace library in Pavlovsk.

Carlo di Giovanni Rossi had spent most of his life in Russia, and the last building of his spectacular career was the Belfry of the Yurevski Monastary that is located near Velikiy Novgorod. Carlo Rossi died of Cholera on 18 April 1849 in St Petersburg and was laid to rest in the Volkov Lutheran Cemetery as one of Russia’s most celebrated architects. He was reburied in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery during the Soviet reign.

Works

  • Mikhailovsky Palace and the ensemble of Mikhailovskaya Square

  • The ensemble of Alexandrinskaya Square and Alexandrinsky Theater

  • Theater’s Street (today this street bears the name of Rossi)

  • The ensemble of Chernisheva Square

  • Palace Square (building of the General Staff)

  • Senate area (buildings of the Senate and Synod)

  • Marsov’s field

  • "Coffee House" pavilion in the Summer Garden

  • Pavilion-pier in the Mikhailovsky garden

  • Pavilions in the garden of Anichkov Palace

  • St. Catherine Church of the Ascension Convent and Nikolskaya Tower in Kremlin

  • Military Gallery of the Winter Palace

  • Yelagin Palace

  • The façade of the Russian National Library, which faces Alexandrinskaya Square.

The Mihailovsky palace building.

Carlo Rossi becomes the architect of the construction of Mikhailovsky palace. He has started work on the project in 1817 when it was supposed to be a residence of Grand Duke replacing Vorontsov’s palace, and then in place of the Tchernyshev’s house. After the decision to build the palace on this waste ground, Rossi has started work on the project; it was not just a construction of existing buildings, but a new city architectural ensemble. Here the architect has planned not simply a palace, but the area before it (Mikhailovskaya, nowadays - the area of Arts, new streets (Engineering and Mikhailovskaya). In April, 1819 the Commission for construction of a palace to grand duke Michael Pavlovich has been created. The solemn bookmark of a building took place on July, 14th, and construction has begun on July, 26th. Mihalkovskiy palace Rossi has connected with the Nevskiy prospect the new Mikhajlovskaya street passing in Mikhailovskaya the area directly ahead of the palace. The street Mikhajlovskaya opens up a view on the main case of a building which two service cases on each side adjoin. In one of them kitchens, in other - an arena and stables were placed. From Marsov’s fields side there was a garden next to a palace called Mikhailovsky. Construction of a building by 1825 has been finished, by this time there were only some works outstanding in a garden.

Consecration of a palace took place on August, 30th, 1825. That day the celebratory dinner took place. On the eve before the event Carlo Rossi has been awarded Vladimir's award of 3-rd degree. And next day, 1st September, Emperor Alexander I has left St.-Petersburg, he has never returned back there.

Architectural style of Saint-Petersburg: Classicism («Ampire» Style).

Mikhailovsky palace has been built in "ampire" Style or high classicism.
На смену барокко с 60-х годов XVIII века приходит новый стиль - классицизм. In place of the Baroque to the 60-ies of the XVIII century, comes a new style - classicism. Развитие классицизма происходило в три этапа: ранний классицизм, зрелый классицизм и высокий классицизм. The development of classicism occurred in three stages: early classicism, classicism, and mature high classicism.

Художественной системе классицизма были свойственны монументальная простота и ясная гармония, рационалистическая упорядоченность.Art Classicism system were characterized by monumental simplicity and clear harmony, rationalistic ordering. Была основана на наследии античности и Ренессанса. It was based on the heritage of antiquity and the Renaissance.

Определяющие качества раннего классицизма (1760-1770 гг.) - чёткость объёмной композиции, уплощённость фасадов, сдержанность убранства, строгий ритм ордерных элементов.The clarity of bulk composition, flattened facades, decorations restraint, strict rhythm to order items are defining the quality of early Classicism (1760-1770 gg.)

Одни из лучших и выдающихся строений эпохи раннего классицизма - это Гостиный двор, Малый Эрмитаж, арка Новой Голландии (все Ж.Б.Валлен-Деламот), Академия художеств (арх. А.Ф.Коридоров и Ж. Б. Валлен-Деламот), Мраморный дворец (арх. А.Ринальди) и др.Gostiny yard, Small Hermitage, the arch of New Holland (all Zh.B.Vallen-Delamot), the Academy of Fine Arts (architect AF corridors and JB Wallen-Delamot) , Marble Palace (architect A. Rinaldi) are Some of the best and prominent buildings early classical era.

1780-1800 гг.1780-1800 biennium. - период строгого, зрелого классицизма. - The period of strict, a mature classicism. В его становлении важную роль сыграло обращение к творческому наследию великого зодчего итальянского Возрождения А.Палладио. It is becoming the important role played by an appeal to the creative heritage of the great Italian Renaissance architect Palladio A.

Эталоном русской строгой классики стал Таврический дворец, возведённый архитектором И. Е. Старовым. Reference strict Russian classics became Tauride Palace, built by architect I. Starov.

Джакомо Кваренги был в Петербурге величайшим мастером строгого классицизма.Giacomo Quarenghi was the greatest master of the strict classicism in St. Petersburg. Его сооружения проникнуты несколько холодной монументальностью, спокойным величием. Its facilities are permeated a few cold monumentality, calm majesty. Примеры его работ - здания Эрмитажного театра и Ассигнационного банка. Example of his work is building the Hermitage Theater.

В здании Академии наук лаконичному объёму, обнажённой глади стен контрастно противопоставлен вынесенный вперёд колонный портик с фронтоном.At the Academy of Sciences concise volume, the exposed surface of walls contrasting opposed pronounced forward patrol portico with pediment. Этот приём использован и в композиции Смольного института, ставший главным выразительным средством строгого стиля. This method is used in the composition and the Smolny Institute, which became the main expressive means of the strict style.

In the beginning XIX в. XIX centuryклассицизм в России вступил в свою наивысшую стадию развития, называемую высоким классицизмом или русским ампиром. classicism in Russia has entered its highest stage of development, called high-classicism or the Russian Empire. Этот его последний период расцвета, продолжавшийся примерно до сер. This last period of its heyday, lasted until about the mid. 1830-х, открывали архитекторы А.Д.Захаров, А.Н.Воронихин и Ж.-Ф.Тома де Томон, наиболее успешно развивали В.П.Стасов и К.И.Росси и достойно завершил О.Монферран. 1830's, opened architects A. Zakharov, A. Voronikhin and Jean-F.Toma de Tomon, the most successfully developing VP Stasov and Rossi completed the dignity and A. Montferrand.

Если представители строгого классицизма (И.Е.Старое, Д.Кваренги, Ч.Камерон) мыслили свои сооружения вне зависимости от характера ранее сложившейся застройки, то архитекторы следующего поколения выдвинули на первый план проблему планировочной и художественной связи своих произведений с уже существующими и вновь возводимыми архитектурными сооружениями. If the strict classicism (IE old, Quarenghi, Cameron) thought their facility, regardless of the nature of pre-existing buildings, the architects of the next generation brought to the fore the issue of planning and artistic context of his works with existing and newly built architectural structures. Захаров и Воронихин создали первые ансамблевые здания в широком градостроительном смысле - Адмиралтейство и Казанский собор, а Тома де Томон явился автором первого развернутого классического ансамбля С.-Петербурга: здания Биржи с Ростральными колоннами и набережной Стрелки Васильевского острова. Zakharov Voronikhin and created the first ensemble building in the broad sense of urban - The Admiralty and the Kazan Cathedral, and Tom de Tomon was the first author of a classical ensemble of St. Petersburg: the building of the Stock Exchange and the Rostral Columns embankment Arrows Vasilyevsky island. Вслед за ними Стасов, сооружая Павловские казармы, сформировал застройку вдоль западной границы Марсова поля, а Росси создал величественные ансамбли центральных улиц и площадей. Following them Stasov formed the building along the western border of the field of Mars, and Rossi has created magnificent ensembles of the central streets and squares. Существенный вклад в преобразование центра С.-Петербурга внес и Монферран. A substantial contribution to the transformation of the center of St. Petersburg, there introduced and Montferrand.



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