Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
только в названии
только в тексте
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
The graveyard at the start of the book is typical example of how the setting contributes so well to the story and the atmosphere, this is just one of ...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
alcoholism ALCOHOLISM Alcoholism is perhaps the most common form of drug abuse in America today. In 1995, in the United States 67% of all the populati...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
It is now a lot harder to get a criminal put in jail for his or her full sentence, and even if the criminal is put in jail for his or her sentence, th...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
The Prussian Baron von Steuben, being a newcomer to the Revolutionary cause in America, was in a position to see many of the deficiencies in military ...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Utopian Communities Essay, Research Paper

Rachel Arbeit

December 5, 1999

Utopian Communities

The word utopia, in its simplest form means a “perfect world.” In other words it is a society in which man has reached such perfection that he is able to build a social system based on justice, reason and unity. Since the beginning of history, people have dreamed of creating utopian societies and many are still trying. In the history of Utopian Communities, three of the most known utopian communities are the Shakers, Brook Farm, and New Harmony.

One of the most well known utopian communities is the Shakers (The United Society of Believers). The community was organized by Ann Lee and founded in 1772. Ann Lee and others founded this community because they were so unhappy with the beliefs and values of those around them. The ever-growing complexity of society was not close to perfection for Ann Lee and others, provoking them to begin this community.

?The best-known Shaker beliefs are an emphasis on celibacy, and simplicity in their daily lives. These beliefs were key to the Shaker theology and lifestyle in the sense that they were seen as vital to the building of a truly selfless and spiritual community (Horgan 1982; Humez 1993; Robinson 1975)?. The Shakers practiced a religion that was also a lifestyle. The members lived in gender segregated, dormitory-like housing, but came together to work, and pray.

?The Shakers are America’s oldest and most successful experiment in communal living.? A century ago, nearly 6,000 Shaker brothers and sisters lived together in nineteen communities scattered from Maine to Kentucky. Soon thereafter, with the decline in attraction and society’s inability to be celibate, it became difficult to create a new generation of believers. The communities steadily declined and disbanded.

Another community known as Brook Farm also desired a better way of life than the complex government and growing diversity around them. Brook Farm was designed to be a place where those with similar beliefs could succeed. Some say Brook Farm was, ?the best-known utopian experimental community in America?, was founded by George and Sophia Ripley in the spring of 1841.

The master plan was to create a place where thought would preside over the operations of labor, and labor would contribute to the expansion of thought. ?to insure a more natural union between intellectual and manual labor than now exists, to combine the thinker and the worker as far as possible in the same individual . . . (George Ripley)?.

Membership in the community was granted by the vote of established members after the purchase of shares. In return, individuals received free tuition in the community’s school or five percent annual interest and one year’s board in return for 300 days of labor. The work of members was centered around the six major activities of teaching, farming, working in the manufacturing shops, domestic endeavors, work on the buildings and grounds, and the planning of cooperative recreation projects. Social activities included picnics, lectures, boating parties, music, and dancing.

Throughout 1842 and 1843, the community prospered and in one year was visited by as many as 4,000 guests, many simply curious Boston residents. Due to financial struggles, the community broke apart in 1847.

New Harmony in Indiana is a community that began almost two hundred years ahead of its time. New Harmony was first a sanctuary for a spiritual utopia, yet later became a haven for international scientists, scholars and educators who desired equality in communal living. It was originally created for a place to have social justice, spiritual union of believers, which the founder Owens could not achieve in society. He desired to spread their beliefs and way of life to other believers and, eventually, non-believers in order to establish a peaceful world.

The beliefs were strong and the community desired as many members as possible to make people with similar beliefs have their own perfect place. They believed that the established church was corrupt and that man should communicate directly with God.

They believed that the “Harmony”, which they were effecting in all worldly and spiritual affairs would help usher in the millennium. The Harmonists gradually adopted celibacy. Many of the Harmonists were married, but lived a chaste life. The community also believed in imitating the lifestyle of the first Christians as related in Acts 2:44-45 and 4:32.

Harmonists also embraced the policy of complete absence of violence and maintaining universal peace which they hoped would spread from their community.

Although the community started with a different purpose than what became, the community had a relative amount of success. They provide some reasons?

Reasons for the success of the Society:

 Excellent and inspired spiritual and economic leaders.

 A faithful, obedient, well-trained, and hard-working group of followers.

 A homogeneous group consisting mostly of families which had undergone the same religious experience.

 A common goal and incentive which was kept fresh by moving the group and building a new town three times.

Hopefully one day society will be so beneficial to everyone that people will not feel the desire to go off and create there own communities. Do these communities even work? Between Shakers, Brook Farm, and New Harmony, two failed due to lack of interest and financial strain, and one succeeded, but with results different from the original ideas. It is apparent that the success of a utopian community is extremely difficult to accomplish.


Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. Utopian Society Essay Research Paper According to

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Utopian Society Essay, Research Paper According to the curriculum of ... of the greatest thinkers and racial leaders in the world ... leaders. Today we lack strong racial leaders like Dr. Martin ... manner in which individuals and communities respond to differences in ...
  2. African Culture Essay Research Paper When WEB

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    African Culture Essay, Research Paper When W.E.B. Du Bois announced in ... was the “imagined community” (Anderson 1983) of white racial nationalism (Walters 1987 ... as substantively egalitarian, seems almost utopian. Yet I submit that it is ...
  3. Maxine Hong Kingston Essay Research Paper Maxine

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Maxine Hong Kingston Essay, Research Paper Maxine Hong Kingston (27 ... ” who battles social and racial injustice. It is perhaps ... mental hospital into a quasi-utopian community of women. For the ... Chinese Americans faced with racial discrimination in the American ...
  4. The Chrysalids 2 Essay Research Paper Define

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    The Chrysalids 2 Essay, Research Paper Define the terms UTOPIA ... The Chrysalids can be considered a Utopian or a Dystopian novel. One ... treatment for all. David, Rachel, Michael and Rosalind are not ... , as though artificial. She communicates on a higher level as ...
  5. Communism Essay Research Paper Communism is a

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... that time communism was the basis for a number of Utopian settlements. ... process. Later the term communism was reserved for the philosophy ... an editor of the paper Rheinische Zeitung and as ... had been attained and communism was near. (Riskal) The relationship of ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0026650428771973