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UNIT 11

Section A (Grammar reference)

THE PASSIVE VOICE (СТРАДАТЕЛЬНЫЙ ЗАЛОГ)

В английском языке имеются два залога: действительный залог (The Active Voice) и страдательный залог (The Passive Voice).

Формы залога показывают, является ли подлежащее лицом / предметом, совершающим действие, или лицом / предметом, подвергающимся действию.

Когда подлежащее является лицом / предметом, совершающим действие, глагол употребляется в форме действительного залога:

They will sign the contract next week. Они подпишут контракт на следующей неделе.

Когда подлежащее является лицом / предметом, подвергающимся действию со стороны другого лица / предмета, глагол употребляется в форме страдательного залога:

The contract will be signed next week. Контракт будет подписан на следующей неделе.

Времена страдательного залога образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени и формы причастия прошедшего времени (Past Participle) смыслового глагола. Таким образом, при спряжении глагола в страдательном залоге изменяется только глагол to be, а смысловой глагол имеет во всех временах одну и ту же форму - Past Participle.

Present Simple: The contract is signed. Контракт подписан.

Is the contract signed? – Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t.

The contract is not (isn’t) signed.

Past Simple: The contact was signed last week. Контракт подписали (был подписан) на прошлой неделе.

Was the contract signed last week? – Yes, it was. / No, it wasn’t.

The contract was not (wasn’t) signed last week.

Future Simple: The contract will be signed next week. Контракт подпишут (будет подписан)

на следующей неделе.

Will the contract be signed next week? – Yes it will. / No it won’t.

The contract will not (won’t) be signed next week.

В английском языке в страдательном залоге часто не указывается лицо (предмет), которое производит действие. При необходимости указания данного лица или предмета употребляется предлог by или with. Предлог by употребляется при обозначении действующих лиц, предлог with - для неодушевленных предметов.

This novel was written by my friend.

The contract was signed by Mr. Brown.

The picture was drawn with a piece of chalk.

The bread was cut with this knife.

Глаголы, которые употребляются с предлогами, в страдательном залоге эти предлоги сохраняют. Например:

The Active Voice The Passive Voice

They speak much about this film. This film is much spoken about.

Об этом фильме много говорят.

They listened to her with great interest. She was listened to with great interest.

Ee слушали с большим интересом.

Exercises

I. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в нужной форме в Passive Voice (Present, Past, Future Simple Passive)

  1. A lot of mail (receive) yesterday.

  2. The products of our firm (export) to many countries.

  3. The construction of the plant (complete) next year.

  4. Electronic equipment (produce) at our plant 6 months ago.

  5. A lot of models (modify) every year.

  6. The invitations (send) 2 weeks ago.

  7. Letters usually (type) by our secretary.

  8. The goods (deliver) in four months.

  9. The price problem (settle) the day before yesterday.

  10. I can’t drive to work today. The car (fix) only on Friday.

  11. The managing director always (assist) by executives.

II. Образуйте специальный вопрос в Passive Voice

  1. The company was founded in 1993. (When?)

  2. The contracts are signed in the conference room. (Where?)

  3. The discount was offered to him because he was a regular customer. (Why?)

  4. The goods will be delivered next week. (When?)

  5. English language is spoken by many people. (What?)

  6. The talks will be held on Tuesday (What? When?)

  7. The sales department was headed by Mr. Flake a few years ago. (What?)

  8. The catalogues were looked through yesterday. (When?)

  9. The tests of the machines were carried out at the plant. (Where?)

  10. All the terms were discussed because it was a trial order. (Why?)

III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Active Voice или в Passive Voice.

  1. The factory is big, five hundred people (employ) there.

  2. The letter (post) a week ago but it (arrive) yesterday.

  3. The office (lock) at 7 p.m. every evening.

  4. The catalogues (receive) a week ago.

  5. The customers (increase) the order.

  6. The new model (offer) for sale next year.

  7. When the manager was on holiday the documents (disappear) from the office.

  8. When the manager was on holiday the documents (steal) from the office.

  9. The offer (receive) 2 days ago.

  10. They (invite) the businessmen to the restaurant.

  11. We (tell) to discuss the matter in detail.

  12. The sellers (deliver) the machines last month.

IV. Преобразуйте предложения из активного залога в пассивный.

  1. We sign contracts every year.

  2. People don’t refer to this website very often.

  3. Somebody cleans the office every day.

  4. How do people learn languages?

  5. They painted the office two weeks ago.

  6. He advised us not to buy these products.

  7. They cancelled the flights because of fog.

  8. The director promoted a new employee.

  9. They will design a new model next year.

  10. They bought new computers in June.

Section B

Text

ORGANISATION STUCTURE

Here is the organization structure of Rossomon. The Managing Director is responsible for running the company and is accountable to the Board.

He is assisted by four executive departments. Human Resources Department which is responsible for personnel, training and management development. Then there is the Finance Department which takes care of corporate finance and accounting. Next is the Management Services Department. It is led by Peter Jenkins who is in charge of rationalisation throughout the company. And finally there is the R&D Department – research and development – which works closely with the five regions on new product development.

Directly under the Managing Director, there are five Regional Managers. Each of them is responsible for the day-to-day management of a territory – these are geographically split into North, South, East, West and Central Regions.

In addition to the parent company, Rossomon has three subsidiaries, they are Rossomon France, Germany and Japan. The subsidiaries report to the Export Sales Department, which in turn is accountable to the board.

Vocabulary

accountable a – подотчетный, ответственный перед к.-л.

accounting n – бухгалтерский учет

assist v – помогать, оказывать помощь

be in charge of v – отвечать за ч.-л., руководить

board n – совет, комитет

closely adv зд. в тесном контакте

corporate finance – корпоративные финансы, финансы корпорации

day-to-day management – оперативное управление

executive a – исполнительный

Export Sales Department – отдел экспортных продаж

Finance Department – финансовый отдел

Human Resourses Department – отдел кадров

lead v – вести, руководить, возглавлять

management development – повышение квалификации руководящих кадров

Management Services Department – административный, административно-управленческий отдел

organization structure – организационная структура

parent company - материнская компания, компания, владеющая контрольным пакетом акций другой компании

personnel n – кадры, штат, персонал

rationalization n – рационализация

report to v– давать отчет, отчитываться

Research and Development Department – отдел исследований и разработок

responsible for a – ответственный за

split v – разделять

subsidiary n – дочерняя компания

take care of v – смотреть, заниматься (чем-л.), следить за (чем-л.)

throughout prep – через, по всему

throughout the company – во всей компании

training n – подготовка, обучение

in turn – в свою очередь

Exercises

I. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту.

  1. Who is responsible for running the company?

  2. Who is he accountable to?

  3. What departments assist the Managing Director?

  4. What is Human Resources responsible for?

  5. Which department is in charge of finance and accounting?

  6. Which department does Peter Jenkins lead?

  7. What does R&D work on?

  8. How many regional managers does the company have?

  9. Where does the company have subsidiaries?

  10. Who are the subsidiaries accountable to?

II. Согласитесь с данными утверждениями или опровергните их.

  1. The company is run by the Managing Director.

  2. Both the Managing Director and the Export Sales Department are accountable to the Board.

  3. The executive departments of Rossomon are Human Resources, Management Service and Research and Development.

  4. The Management service Department is responsible for rationalization in the company.

  5. New product development is the responsibility of Human Resources.

  6. Regional Managers are accountable to the Managing Director.

  7. Rossomon has two subsidiaries abroad.

  8. The subsidiaries are accountable to the Export Sales Department.

III. Составьте словосочетания, используя слова из двух столбцов.

  1. day-to-day

  2. executive

  3. Human

  4. Management

  5. organization

  6. parent

  7. Research and

  8. to be accountable

  9. to be responsible

  10. to take

care

company

departments

Development

for running the company

management

Resources

Service Department

structure

to the Board

IV. Заполните пропуски предлогами, где это необходимо.

  1. Let me say a few words ____ our company.

  2. This chart shows the structure ___ the company.

  3. The Export Sales Department is responsible ____ the subsidiaries and is accountable ___ the Board.

  4. The Managing Director is assisted ___ five executive departments.

  5. The Human Resources Department is in charge ___ personnel and training.

  6. The R&D Department takes care ___ research and works ___ product development.

  7. There are four departments_____ the Managing Director.

  8. ____ addition ____ managers responsible ____ the executive departments, there are five regional managers.

  9. Regional managers report ___ the Managing Director.

V. Заполните пропуски, используя приведенные ниже слова.

accountable accounting assisted Board charge personnel report responsible subsidiaries

  1. Our firm is based in the USA, and we have three _______ in Europe.

  2. What do you do? – I’m a Sales Manager and I’m _________ for the distribution of our goods.

  3. I’m accountable to the Production Manager, so I __________ to him every week.

  4. The major service industries should be _______ to their customers.

  5. Who ________ you in the preparation of this report?

  6. We have improved our ________ policy lately. Now our employees are more experienced.

  7. Mr. Brown is our Sales Manager. He is in ________ of the Sales Department.

  8. The ________ of Directors is responsible for taking decisions.

  9. Michael has always been good at mathematics and he has decided to study ________.

UNIT 12

Section A (Grammar reference)

The Past Perfect Tense (Предпрошедшее время)

Past Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to have в форме прошедшего времени (had) и Past Participle смыслового глагола.



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