Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
только в названии
только в тексте
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
I believe that armor is, at base, an important, romantic medieval craft. Like all crafts, it takes technical skill and artistic merit to create a qual...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
In Beowulf the classic epic, Beowulf, the hero of the epic, and other major characters reflect heroic ideals and beliefs of courage, generosity, unque...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
On Saturday, April 15, protesters gathered in Washington DC in opposition of the IMF and World Bank. The two institutions were to have their spring me...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Victorian victoryBleak House Charles Dickens first published by Bradbury and Evans in monthly parts, March 1852-September 1853 Schools may not do part...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Cubism Essay, Research Paper

Before the twentieth century, art was recognized as an imitation of nature. Paintings and

portraits were made to look as realistic and three-dimensional as possible, as if seen

through a window. Artists were painting in a flamboyant style. French postimpressionist

Paul C?zannes flattened still lives, and African sculptures gained in popularity in Western

Europe when artists went looking for a new way of showing their ideas and expressing

their views. In 1907 Pablo Picasso created the painting Les Damsoilles d?Avignon,

depicting five women whose bodies are constructed of geometric shapes and heads of

African masks rather then faces. This new image grew to be known as ?cubism?. The

name originating from the critic Louis Vauxcelles, who after reviewing French artist and

fellow Cubist Georges Braque exhibition wrote of ?Bizzeries Cubiques?, and that objects

?had been reduced to cubes (Arnheim, 1984). Cubism changed the way art was

represented and viewed.

Cubism was divided into two categories. Analytical Cubism, beginning in 1907,

visually laid out what the artist thought was important about the subject rather then just

mimicking it. Body parts and objects within the picture were broken down into geometric

shapes that were barley recognizable as the original image. Braque wrote that ?senses

deform and the spirit forms?. Analytical Cubism restricted the use of color to simple and

dull hues so the emphasis would lie more on the structure. C?zanne said, ?nature should

be handled with the cylinder, spear and cone? (Miki, 1976). The shapes painted were to

be dissected, separately analyzed and then reconstructed to form a new whole. The


outcome was to be of intellectual vision rather then spontaneous. ?The aim of Analytical

Cubism was to produce a conceptual image of an object, as opposed to an optical one?

(Harden, 1999).

Picasso, together with Braque, presented a new style of painting that showed the

subject from several different angles simultaneously. The result was intended to show the

object in a more complete and realistic view than traditional art, to convey a feeling of

being able to move around within the painting. ?Cubism abandoned traditional notions of

perception, foreshadowing and modeling and aimed to represent solidarity and volume in

a three-dimensional plane without converting the two-dimensional canvas illusionaly

into a three-dimensional picture space? (Miki, 1976). Picasso and Braque pioneered the

movement and worked so closely together that they had difficulty telling their own work

apart. They referred to each other as Orville and Wilbur, knowing that their contributions

to art were every bit as revolutionary as the first flight (Hoving, 1999).

Cubism gained the interest of critics who had mixed views. One critic viewed a

Picasso painting of a violin and said he considered it an insult to the viewers? intelligence

to be expected to believe that a violin would look like that. Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, a

Paris art dealer and friend of Picasso and Braque who supported Cubism, distributed

pamphlets advertising the ?new look? of reality and art (Arnheim,1984). After viewing a

portrait done of her by Picasso, Gertrude Stein told him: ?I don?t look like that?. He

answered, ?you will?. She later wrote, ?it is the only reproduction of me which is always

I, for me? (Arnheim, 1984). Other artists soon adopted the style. Juan Gris was one of

the first to copy cubism and brought it beyond France to his native Spain and other

countries. In the spring of 1911, the Paris salon Des Independence began collecting the


works of local Cubist painters and held an exhibit featuring Jean Metzinger, Fernand

Leger and Robert Delaunay. It was the first large Cubism exhibit. During 1913 and 1914

so many artists in Paris had turned to Cubism that it had temporarily became the universal

language of avant-garde painting (Arnheim, 1984). Artist in China, Russia and South

America caught on and began experimenting with different forms of Cubism. Aaron

Douglas and Stuart Davis brought the style to America in 1912, although their

interpretation was not as abstract as what was being done in Europe at the time. In 1913

the Midtown Armory in New York hosted an exhibit that drew large crowds. Cubism

became the dominating influence in the art world of New York until 1918.

The start of World War I marked the decline in Cubism in Europe. Braque and

many other artists were called off to fight. After being injured by shrapnel; Braques

painting was never the same. The war killed many of the friends Picasso collaborated

with. The community that surrounded Cubism was over. Cubism led the way for other

new radical ideas in painting. Dada, Surrealism and Art Deco followed after 1918.

These still showed objects in a symbolic manner but in a realistic, more traditional

semblance. Picasso experimented with new styles of painting he tried his hand with

Surrealism but turned to a classical style in 1920. Picasso also took up designing theater

sets and costumes.

In 1937 the Spanish Civil War broke out between the Republicans and the

Fascists under General Francos rule. Picasso was asked by the Republicans to paint a

mural for the Spanish Pavilion at the World Exposition in Paris. He wanted the work to

express the horrors man can carry out on his fellow man. In April of that year German

planes under Francos? orders bombed the small village of Guernica in the southern

French Braque countryside (Hoving, 1999). After hearing of the total destruction caused


by the attack, Picasso returned to Cubism and completed piece Guernica. Taking

influence from Goya, the painting showed the townspeople in agony over their loss. Of

to the side a mother cries over her dead child while in the center a horse is painfully

dying. This would become his most famous painting.

Cubism redefined art in the twentieth century. It succeeded in giving people a

different perspective with which to look at reality and evoked new emotions. Cubism set

a new standard for what is accepted as a work of art. ?Art no longer had to be

aesthetically right or nice to be a masterpiece?(Hoving, 1999). It also set the stage for

other artists to test new styles that would have been considered too unorthodox before.

Cubism truly embodied the phrase, ?art is in the eye of the beholder.?


Arnheim, Rudolf. Visual Thinking.

Los Angelas: University of California Press, 1984.

Hoving, Thomas. Art for Dummies.

Foster City California: IDG Books Worldwide, 1999.

Miki, Tamon. What is Cubism? The National Museum of Modern Art.


Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. Cubism Essay Research Paper Heather GuginDecember 131999CubismBefore

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Cubism Essay, Research Paper Heather Gugin December 13,1999 Cubism Before the twentieth century, art was recognized as ... his most famous painting. Cubism redefined art in the twentieth century. It succeeded ...
  2. Dada Essay Research Paper In the second

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Dada Essay, Research Paper In the second and third ... in the first half of the twentieth century, Dada is the ... the continent since the turn of the century–Cubism, Expressionism, Futurism–with the ... the material which the libraries do not yet own. Even before the ...
  3. About Louise Erdrich Essay Research Paper Louise

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Louise Erdrich Essay, Research Paper Louise Erdrich The earth was ... of the changes and loss involved in the twentieth-century ... 1912 and 1924, before the settings of Erdrich’s ... the River, Farrar, Straus,1989. (With Allan Richard Chavkin and Nancy Feyl Chavkin ...
  4. Carol Duncan Essay Research Paper Carol Duncans

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    Carol Duncan Essay, Research Paper Carol Duncan?s article “Virility and Domination in Early Twentieth Century ... . She believes the female nudes were used in the decade before World War ... form is a new style called Cubism.The figures as well as their ...
  5. George Wesley Bellows Essay Research Paper Have

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... Bellows Essay, Research Paper Have you ever seen a painting of two fighters ... the weekends in New York, which was how he supported himself before ... the American art scene by introducing Cubism and the ... be the most famous American print of the twentieth century ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0022759437561035