Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы
National Missile Defense (NMD) is once again a growing concern in America.
There have been many new developments since the post-Cold War elimination of
nuclear warfare. This diminishing of arms however, is a very fine line. The
United States cannot afford to have less capability then the rest of the world,
but it does want to encourage unilateral non-proliferation of nuclear arms. In
addition, there is a new awareness of ?rogue? nations that are completely
unpredictable. Since the post-Cold War the United States has been able to rely
on the major nations and more or less predict if they are a threatening
adversary or not. In any case, this doubt has caused the new investigation of a
possible deployment of a National Missile Defense. This movement is a huge
strategic, technical, and political decision. The consequences of such a
decision will indeed effect the next generations. In the recent decades many
treaties have come to rise, all of which have played an important part in the
growing concern of nuclear arms and the defense of American soil.
The history of ballistic missile defense is much involved and began shortly
after World War II. In the 1950?s the Soviet Union was able to deploy
submarine-based missiles capable of hitting the United States. In the 1960?s
this same arsenal appeared and expanded rapidly to land based systems. These
moves by the Soviet Union spurred a huge need for ballistic missile defense
programs in the U.S. In 1972 President Nixon and General Secretary Brezhnev
signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty. This forbids a nationwide
missile defense between the United States and Russia. The treaty called for each
country to build two sites that could attempt to protect limited areas. In 1974,
it was amended allowing for:
? Each may only have on missile defense deployment site with that site
prohibited from providing a nationwide missile defense system or becoming the
basis for developing one
? At the allowed site, no more than 100 launchers/missiles may be deployed
and guidance radars must be within a circle with a diameter of 150 kilometers
? New early warning radars may only be deployed on the periphery of national
territory and oriented outward
? Non-nationwide missile defense systems may not be given nationwide
capability or tested in a nationwide mode
? The transfer of missile defense components to and deployment in foreign
countries is prohibited
? Development, testing, or deployment of sea-based, air-based, mobile
land-based, or space-based missile defense systems and their components is
During the Cold War, this treaty proved effective because both nations
understood that a building of missile defense encourages offensive force. As
long as the capability of defending oneself against nuclear attack was
preserved, each would be deterred from attacking the other. Limited national
defense programs such as President Johnson?s ?Sentinel? system followed
the previous Presidential systems of the ?Nike X? and ?Nike Zeus?
programs. All of these were redesigned by Nixon?s ?Safeguard? initiative.
On October 1, 1975, the Safeguard System using interceptors with nuclear warhead
tips were deployed. However in January of the following year, the House of
Representatives and the Senate voted to close it down because the nuclear-tipped
interceptors would blind Safeguard?s own radar systems for navigation. These
systems repeatedly failed to develop a missile defense that could cope with
long-range missile attacks. The security of the American people was at stake.
Because each was lacking a capable defense, a race started in the build-up of
tens of thousands of nuclear warheads.
The United States and Russia maintained large nuclear arsenals of strategic
and tactical nuclear weapons. In the late 1970?s the Intermediate-Range
Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty arose between the United States and Russia. For over
ten years there was debate over the specifics of what the treaty was to include.
Each nation was reluctant to give up their new technologies that they had given
so much time and money in developing. However after years of confusion and
frustration, President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev signed the treaty
at a summit meeting in Washington on December 8, 1987. At the time of its
signature, the Treaty?s verification regime was the most detailed and
stringent in the history of nuclear arms control, designed both to eliminate all
declared INF systems entirely within three years of the Treaty?s entry into
force and to ensure compliance with the total ban of possession and use of these
missiles. This included the required destruction of the Parties?
ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with ranges of between 500 and
5,500 kilometers, their launchers and associated support structures and support
equipment. The Treaty entered into force upon the exchange of instruments of
ratification in Moscow on June 1, 1988. On December 25, 1991, the Soviet Union
was disbanded and therefore the treaty needed to be reaffirmed. The United
States sought to secure continuation of full implementation of the INF Treaty
regime and to multilateralize the INF Treaty with twelve former Soviet
republics. Of the twelve, six including Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan have INF facilities and are participants
of the Treaty. Of important mention is the inspection process by which these
countries adhere. All members of the INF Treaty have agreed to on-site
inspections, short-notice inspections of declared and formerly declared
facilities, and elimination inspections to confirm elimination of INF systems in
accordance with agreed procedures.
Although the United States? and the former Soviet Union?s arsenals have
declined substantially from their Cold War peaks, both still remain at levels
far in excess of any reasonable current military requirement. The United States
is helping Russian military safely dismantle much of its nuclear arsenal. From a
peak of nearly 70,000 nuclear warheads in the late 1980?s the total number of
U.S. and Russian warheads has declined to about 30,500 today. The Strategic Arms
Reduction Treaty (START) was drafted in 1991 and entered into force in 1994;
this treaty reduced strategic nuclear arsenals including land-based long-range
missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, heavy bombers, warheads for
strategic land and sea-based missiles, and heavy bombers built up during the
Cold War. The START process has substantially reduced the Russian nuclear threat
to the United States. Because of START I, the United States and Russia are each
dismantling approximately 2,000 nuclear warheads every year. START II was then
proposed and signed in 1993 and entered into US force in 1997. Russia ratified
it this past year. It cut arsenals to 3,500 or fewer deployed strategic weapons
on each side. At the same time the United States and Russia are discussing a
START III, which could lead to even further cuts. In that treaty, Russia and the
United States may agree that warheads cut will be accompanied by the verified
dismantlement of the decommissioned weapons and the transfer of their fissile
material to monitored storage to prevent reuse in other weapons. After START
III, China, the United Kingdom, and France, as well as India, Pakistan and
Israel, may also be brought into the nuclear arms control process. Far more
missiles have been destroyed through diplomacy in recent years than any missile
defense system could ever hope to intercept.
Another political movement to curb nuclear warfare is the Missile Technology
Control Regime (MTCR). This is a voluntary agreement that seeks to stop the
transfer of the delivery systems of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). These
systems include missiles, unmanned air vehicles, and related technology capable
of carrying a 500-kilogram payload a distance of at least 300 kilometers.
Currently 32 countries participate in the MTCR including Ukraine, Russia,
Argentina, Brazil, South Africa, China and Japan.
Currently the United States does not seem to have a firm assessment of where
it want to take its National Missile Defense program. There are huge factors to
weigh in the decision. Looking back for the Cold War days, the United States
knows that any National Missile Defense program deployed could result in a
Chinese Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) build-up, a nuclear arms race
in South Asia, and pressure on countries like Japan and South Korea to build
their own nuclear weapons. Many of the treaties and understandings that have
kept the nuclear peace for forty-five years may be lost forever. Thus, this
decision is of the utmost importance.
On September 1st of this year President Clinton declined the United States?
move toward a deployment of the proposed ?limited? national missile defense.
The Clinton Administration had previously proposed to have a working system by
late 2005. His decision was based on four main criteria: the readiness of
technology, the impact of deployment on arms control and relations with Russia,
the cost of the system, and the threat.
The readiness of technology played a huge role in President Clinton?s
decision. Effective missile defense can be compared with hitting a bullet with a
bullet. Warheads of long-range missiles travel at speeds of up to 15000mph. The
US proposal calls for a ?kinetic kill? in which the interceptor must hit the
warhead. In February 1998 the Pentagon appointed a panel to review the national
missile defense programs. This panel found ?a rush to failure? approach was
being undertaken. In 1999 that same panel was asked to reassess the program.
Once again the program found the Pentagon?s approach to be extremely risky
stating, ?the DRR should be regarded more as feasibility decision with some
long-term deployment actions rather than a readiness decision.? In February
2000 the Pentagon?s Director of Operational Testing and Evaluation express
similar concerns. Namely that ?unrealistic pressure? is being placed on this
defense system because it is ?schedule driven? rather than event driven. It
called for more time and a more thorough analysis.
So the question arises, ?What makes a national missile defense system
technically ready?? The Clinton Administration said that it must:
? The involved technology must be mature; it must work on a basic level
? It must operate effectively in the real world and work against several
missile equipped with readily-available countermeasures
? It must be fully reliable and work consistently
The Pentagon plans to conduct 19 intercept tests prior to completing
deployment of the national missile defense in 2005. However, only three were
conducted prior to Clinton?s decision. The first on October 2, 1999, test only
the exoatmospheric kill vehicle. This is the part that actually hits the
incoming warhead. No ground-based radars, satellite-based infrared sensors, and
communications systems were integrated into the test. Instead, a global
positioning transmitter was attached to the booster to pinpoint it own location.
In addition a balloon decoy was launched with the mock warhead. The test results
conclude that the interceptor found the balloon from space and thus was able to
find the mock warhead. However, the balloon was much larger than the warhead and
many testers doubt that the interceptor would have been able to find the warhead
had the balloon decoy not be launched as well.
The second test on January 18, 2000 provided terrible results. The kill
vehicle failed to hit the mock warhead. In this test, the ground-based radars
were used, along with the battle management system. According to the Pentagon, a
malfunction in the infrared sensors caused the miss. The third test, was yet
another failure. The diagram below explains what should have occurred versus
what actually occurred.
1) A modified Minuteman II intercontinental ballistic missile carrying a mock
warhead and a decoy was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., around
9:15 p.m. Pacific Time.
2) Space-based and ground-based radar attempt to detect, identify and track
the simulated threat.
3) Some 20 minutes later, the intercepting "kill vehicle" was
launched on a missile from Kwajelein Atoll, about 4,300 miles away in the
southern Pacific Ocean. The kill vehicle was supposed to separate from the
missile, but failed to do so.
4) Sensors on the kill vehicle were to have guided it toward the target
warhead, rather than the decoy. The two objects were supposed to collide at
12,000 miles per hour, 140 miles above the Pacific Ocean.
This apparent technological insufficiency helped lead Clinton to the decision
to decline the implementation of the national missile defense.
The second criterion that was evaluated was the impact of development of arms
control. Since the Cold War, many treaties have been signed and understandings
have been made. With the US possibly developing a national missile defense, the
stable balance that has been yearned for will again be interrupted. To build
such a defense, the United States must get either Russian agreement to modify
the ABM Treaty, or withdraw from it. Currently, the United States wants to
preserve the Treaty because the US Administration feels it is the ?cornerstone
of strategic stability.?
Yet the initial phase of the Clinton?s Administration?s propose national
missile defense would violate the ABM Treaty in three ways:
1) The system attempts to protect the entire territory of either country
2) It will deploy interceptors in Alaska besides the one in North Dakota
3) Upgrading and deployment of radar systems around the globe to strengthen
- Sea Power Essay, Research Paper INTRODUCTION Among the ... attack the perceived naval center of gravity, the ... antishipping missile, and forced planners to take extraordinary measures to ... sophisticated weapons among smaller nations in unstable regions offers ...
- Cuba/Cuban Missile Crisis Essay, Research Paper Devi Hausman History Term Paper: Cuba ... of the United Nations organization charter. Reiterating ... urgency of taking measures to assure mutual ... and sent aid to counter revolutionary organizations. (Brenner ...
- ... Cold War Era Essay, Research Paper The Cold War ... would interfere with national security and economic ... letting Russia create a missile gap. According to ... , war threats and counter-threats were becoming bluffs ... of command-and-control measures that would, in ...
- Airport Security Essay, Research Paper Introduction ... international and one national. Internationally security standards ... the World Trade Center in New York ... witness accounts suggest, missile attacks have downed ... , and such security measures would not e sector ...
- Iraq Essay, Research Paper Analysis of International Law ... not impose measures on those Latin American states that nationalized privately ... world’s moral policeman and counter the US view of the ... ’s isolation in launching the missile attacks on Baghdad. The ...