Полнотекстовый поиск:
Где искать:
только в названии
только в тексте
слова в тексте
только заголовок

Рекомендуем ознакомиться

Остальные работы->Реферат
The influence and legacy of the Promethean myth can be traced through history. From Hesiod to Shakespeare, Marlowe to the Coen Brothers, the Promethea...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
“The fundamental principle upon which relationship marketing is founded is that the greater the level of customer satisfaction with the relationship –...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Land of the free, and home of the brave. Nearly every American at one time or another echoes these words, found in our National Anthem. Unfortunately,...полностью>>
Остальные работы->Реферат
Where were you November 22, 1963? Any and every American old enough to mourn, to feel sorrow remember where they were and what they were doing when th...полностью>>

Главная > Реферат >Остальные работы

Сохрани ссылку в одной из сетей:

Audre Lorde’s Life And Career Essay, Research Paper

Beverly Threatt Kulii (BK), Ann E. Reuman (AR),

and Ann Trapasso (AT)

American writer Audre Lorde names herself as "a black

feminist lesbian mother poet" because her identity is based on the relationship of

many divergent perspectives once perceived as incompatible. Thematically, she expresses or

explores pride, love, anger, fear, racial and sexual oppression, urban neglect, and

personal survival. Moreover, she eschews a hope for a better humanity by revealing truth

in her poetry. She states, "I feel have a duty to speak the truth as I see it and to

share not just my triumphs, not just the things that felt good, but the pain, the intense,

often unmitigating pain." Lorde was a prolific writer who continually explored the

marginalizations experienced by individuals in a society fearful of differences. (BK)

Recognizing that "imposed silence about any area of our lives is a tool for

separation and powerlessness" (The Cancer Journals, 1980), Audre Lorde

claimed and celebrated all of her selves in order that others could come to find their own

voices. Her poetry and prose demonstrate that we need not be afraid of difference, that

difference can be a creative force for change. At the forefront of black feminist thought,

her work has contributed to an analysis of the interlocking nature of all oppression. As

activist and poet, she worked to challenge and transform power relations. (AT)

Audrey Geraldine Lorde was born in New York City to laborer Frederic Byron and Linda

Belmar Lorde, immigrants from the West Indies who had hoped to return until the depression

dashed their plans. (BK)

The third and youngest daughter of Linda Gertrude Belmar and Frederic Byron Lorde,

Audre Geraldine was born tongue-tied and so nearsighted that she was considered legally

blind. She grew up in Harlem during the Depression, hearing her mother’s stories about the

West Indies. She learned to talk while she learned to read, at the age of four. Her mother

taught her to write during this time and Audre "did not like the tail of the Y

hanging down below the line in Audrey" and so would omit it; she "love[d] the

evenness of AUDRELORDE" (Zami, 1982). This early incident reveals the importance of

naming and self-definition to Lorde, themes that she develops in her later writings.

Influenced by her mother’s "special and secret relationship with words"

(Zami), Audre appreciated poetry and used it to communicate with others. She said:

"Words had an energy and power and I came to respect that power early. Pronouns,

nouns, and verbs were citizens of different countries, who really got together to make a

new world" (Karla M. Hammond, Denver Quarterly, Spring 1981). If asked how she

was feeling, Audre would reply by reciting a poem. When the poems could no longer express

what she wanted to say, at about age twelve or thirteen, she began to write her own. Her

poetry was "very important to [her] in terms of survival, in terms of living"

(Hammond, Denver Quarterly). She explained, "I loved poetry, and I loved

words. But what was beautiful had to serve the purpose of changing my life, or I would

have died. If I cannot air this pain and alter it, I will surely die of it. That’s the

beginning of social protest" (Claudia Tate, Black Women Writers at Work, 1983).

She saw this tradition of confronting pain and learning from it as particularly African

and manifest in the best African-American literature.

Educated at Catholic grammar schools, she faced "patronizing" racism at St.

Mark’s School and "downright hostile" racism at St. Catherine’s School (Zami).

At Hunter High School she found a "lifeline" in a "sisterhood of

rebels" who were also poets. (AT)

She wrote her first poem when she was in the eighth grade. Rebelling at the isolation

and strict rules of her parents, she befriended others at Hunter High School who were also

viewed as outcasts. (BK)

Writing poetry no longer felt like "a secret and rebellious vice" but

"an ordinary effort" (Zami). She became literary editor of the

school arts magazine and her first love poem was published in Seventeen. (AT)

After graduating from high school, she attended Hunter College from 1954 to 1959,

graduating with a bachelors degree. While studying library science, Lorde supported

herself working various odd jobs: factory worker, ghost writer, social worker, X-ray

technician, medical clerk, and arts and crafts supervisor. In 1954, she spent a pivotal

year as a student at the National University of Mexico, a period described by Lorde as a

time of affirmation and renewal because she confirmed her identity on personal and

artistic levels as a lesbian and poet. On her return to New York, Lorde went to college,

worked as a librarian, continued writing, and became an active participant in the gay

culture of Greenwich Village. Lorde furthered her education at Columbia University,

earning a master’s degree in library science in 1961. During this time she also

worked as a librarian at Mount Vernon Public Library and marred attorney Edward Ashley

Rollins; they later divorced in 1970 after having two children, Elizabeth and Johnathan.

In 1966, Lorde became head librarian at Town School Library in New York City where she

remained until 1968. (BK)

Lorde’s poetry was published regularly during the 1960s: in Langston Hughes’s 1962

New Negro Poets, USA, in several foreign anthologies, and in black literary

magazines. During this time she was politically active in the civil rights, antiwar, and

feminist movements. (AT)

A turning point for Lorde was the year 1968. She received a National Endowment for the

Arts grant, and in spring of 1968 she became poet in residence at Tougaloo College, a

small historically black institution in Mississippi. Her experiences as both teacher and

writer of poetry virtually changed Lorde’s life. (BK)

She discovered that teaching is similar to writing: "Both became ways of exploring

what I need for survival" (Tate, Black Women Writers at Work). At Tougaloo she

met her companion of many years, Frances Clayton. (AT)

Her first volume of poetry, The First Cities (1968), was published by the

Poet’s Press and edited by Diane di Prima, a former classmate and friend from Hunter High

School. This volume was cited as an innovative and refreshing rhetorical departure from

the confrontational tone prevalent in African American poetry at the time. Dudley Randall,

fellow poet and critic, asserted in his review of the book that "[Lorde] does not

wave a black flag, but her blackness is there, implicit, in the bone." Lorde’s second

volume, Cables to Rage (1970), which was mainly written during her tenure at

Tougaloo, addresses themes of love, betrayal, childbirth, and the complexities of raising

children. It is particularly noteworthy for the poem "Martha" in which Lorde

poetically confirms her homosexuality: "we shall love each other here if ever at

all." (BK)

Her experience as a poet in residence at Tougaloo College in Mississippi (her first

trip to the Deep South, her first workshop situation with young African American students,

her first time away from her children) and the circumstances that followed her stay there

(Martin Luther King, Jr.’s assassination, Robert Kennedy’s death, a close friend’s

accident) made her see the shortness of life and the necessity for immediate action. The

pieces in her second volume of poetry reflect this urgency and the function, for Lorde, of

art to protest if not change destructive social patterns.

Rooted in her anger at the racism and sexism that have marked the history of the United

States, the poems in Cables to Rage introduced themes that carried through much of

Lorde’s work: violence, hunger, cloaks of lies, dishonest silences, struggle for voice,

faith in the capacity to love, growth through dreams, desperate hope and defiance amid

dying and loss, and painful birthing. Recurrent in these poems are images of shedding and

of fiery renewal: obsolete or false coverings (snakeskin, cocoon, weeds, dead poems) must

be stripped and discarded so that the new can grow. While many African American poets of

her time focused on black nationalism and urban realism, Lorde placed relationships amid

global concerns and gave voice to what many had rejected, hidden, or ignored.

"Martha," for instance, Lorde’s first overtly lesbian poem to be published and

the longest piece in the volume, was strategically centered in Cables to Rage. A

writer who saw herself in relational dialogue with the rest of the world, Lorde explained

that her work owed much to her ancestors, to the love and support of women, and to African

and African American artists, and she insisted in her poetry and prose that without

community, coalition across differences, and freedom from all oppression, there is no true

liberation at all. (AR)

Her next volume of poetry, From A Land Where Other People Live (1973), was

published by Broadside Press. There exists obvious personal and poetic growth in her

expanding thematic scope and vision of worldwide injustice and oppression. Her subtle

anger is fully developed yet she addresses other important concerns: the complexities

surrounding her existence as an African American and as a woman, mother, lover, and

friend. Anger, terror, loneliness, love, and impatience illuminate the pages of From a

Land Where Other People Live as Lorde’s personal experiences have now become

universal. This volume was nominated for the National Book Award for poetry in 1973.

Lorde’s New York Head Shop and Museum (1974) examines political and social

issues and was often characterized as her most radical poetry yet. In this volume, Lorde

takes the reader on a visual journey through her native New York City while presenting

poetic images of urban decay, neglect, and poverty that confront its inhabitants every

day. Lorde believed that political action was the necessary ingredient for change: "I

have come to believe in death and renewal by fire." Occasionally, New York Head

Shop and Museum resembles the rebellious yet proud tone of many black poets of the


Coal (1976) introduced Lorde to a wider audience because it was her first volume to

be released by a major publisher, W. W. Norton. This volume compiles poetry from her first

two books, The First Cities and Cables to Rage, but is significant also

because it began Lorde’s association with Adrienne Rich, one of Norton’s most acclaimed

poets, who introduced her to a larger white audience. Coal contains many themes

similar to those found in New York Head Shop and Museum and demonstrates her superb

metaphorical craft. In the title poem "Coal" she asserts and celebrates her

blackness. Lorde is painfully aware that many strangers overlook her blackness by

"cancelling me out." Many of her poems in Coal are also an indictment of

an unjust society that allows women to be treated unfairly, sometimes brutally, and this

acknowledgment by Lorde intensifies her plea for cooperation and sisterhood among women.

Lorde’s seventh book of poetry, The Black Unicorn (1978), also published

by Norton, is widely considered the most complex yet brilliant masterpiece written during

her prolific literary career. In this volume, Lorde spans three centuries of the black

diaspora to reclaim African mythology as the basis for her themes about women, racial

pride, motherhood, and spirituality. She also affirms her lesbianism and political

concerns. Poet Adrienne Rich wrote: "Refusing to be circumscribed by any simple

identity, Audre Lorde writes as a Black woman, a mother, a daughter, a Lesbian, a

feminist, a visionary." In this remarkable work, Lorde opens up the myths of Africa

to America readers and calls upon the female African gods to grant her wisdom, strength,

and endurance. (BK)

The Cancer Journals, published in 1980 by Spinsters Ink, was the first major prose

work of African American poet and essayist Audre Lorde as well as one of the first books

to make visible the viewpoint of a lesbian of color. In this collection, Lorde challenged

traditional Western notions of illness and advocated women’s ability, responsibility, and

right to make decisions about their health.

A three-part piece developed from journal entries and essays written between 1977 and

1979, The Cancer Journals chronicles Lorde’s experiences with her mastectomy

and its aftermath. The first section of the book, "The Transformation of Silence into

Language and Action," is a short address that was delivered by Lorde on a lesbians

and literature panel of the Modern Language Association in 1977, soon after she had

recovered from surgery that discovered a benign breast tumor. The second chapter,

subtitled "A Black Lesbian Feminist Experience," frankly describes the emotions

experienced by one without role models through the course of diagnosis, surgery, and

recovery. Central to this section is Lorde’s recognition of her fierce desire to survive,

to be a warrior rather than a victim, and her acknowledgment of the network of women whose

love sustained her. The last chapter, entitled "Breast Cancer: Power vs.

Prosthesis," traces the development of Lorde’s decision not to wear a prosthesis, a

cosmetic device that she felt placed profit and denial of difference over health and


In each of the sections of the book, Lorde sought the strength that could be found at

the core of the experience of cancer. Balancing her "wants" with her

"haves," she used this crisis to change patterns in her life. Rather than

ignoring pain and fear, she acknowledged, examined, and used them to better understand

mortality as a source of power. This tendency to face and metabolize pain Lorde saw as a

particularly African characteristic. Death, she realized, had to be integrated with her

life, loving, and work; consciousness of limitations and shared mourning of her loss

increased her appreciation of living. Underlining the possibilities of self-healing,

specifically the need to love her altered body, Lorde further stressed the importance of

accepting difference as a resource rather than perceiving it as a threat. Perhaps most

crucially, Lorde realized through the experience of cancer the necessity of visibility and

voice. Seeing silence as a tool for separation and powerlessness, she understood the

important function of her writing not only to free herself of the burden of the experience

but also to share her experiences so that others might learn. Survival, she wrote, is only

part of the task; the other part is teaching.

In 1981, The Cancer Journals won the American Library Association Gay Caucus

Book of the Year Award. In 1982, Lorde published Zami: A New Spelling of My

Name, a "biomythography" that she claimed was a "lifeline" through

her cancer experience. Six years after her mastectomy, Lorde was diagnosed with liver

cancer, the meaning of which she explored in the title essay of A Burst of Light (1988).

That The Cancer Journals, Zami, and A Burst of Light, the three works that

perhaps most directly reveal Lorde’s deeply felt vulnerabilities and affirmations, were

all published by small feminist presses and neglected by mainstream publishing firms

attests to the work still to be done. (AR)

Poems from Lorde’s first five volumes of poetry, The First Cities (1968), Cables

to Rage (1970), From a Land Where Other People Live (1973), New York

Headshop and Museum (1974), and Coal (1976), were collected in Chosen

Poems–Old and New (1982), along with several new poems. Poems from The Black

Unicorn (1978) were not included in this volume because Lorde felt the sequence, which

felt like a conversation between herself and an ancestor Audre, could not be broken.

Gloria Hull describes her poetry as "basically a traditional kind of modernist free

verse–laced with equivocation and . . . allegory." The poems focus on the particular

and personal while exploring political implications and making global connections. Lorde’s

voice calls us to witness violence, comprehend oppression, recognize differences, honor

ancestors, celebrate love, nurture children, and visualize possibilities. (AT)

In Our Dead Behind Us (1986) Lorde shows herself to be "a mature poet in

full command of her craft" (Phillips, Times Literary Supplement, 15-20 April

1988). An updated edition of Chosen Poems entitled Undersong: Chosen Poems Old

and New (1992) offers some new poems and stylistic revisions of many others. Many

would consider Lorde one of the finest contemporary poets, yet her poetry has received

mixed reviews. Lorde herself agrees with Gloria Hull’s assessment: "Readers who–by

whatever means of experience, empathy, imagination, or intelligence–are best able to

approximate Lorde’s own positionality most appreciate her work." (AT)

As a noted feminist, Lorde painstakingly struggled against the limitations of the

label, insisting that feminism is important to all factions of African American life. As a

perceived outsider on many fronts, Lorde believed that bringing together divergent groups

can only strengthen and heal a torn society: "When I say I am a Black feminist, I

mean I recognize that my power as well as my primary oppressions come as a result of my

Blackness as well as my womanness, and therefore my struggles on both these fronts are

inseparable." These views are explored further in Sister Outsider: Essays and

Speeches (1984), published by Crossing Press. This nonfiction collection explores the

fear and hatred existing between African American men and women, feminists, or lesbians

and the challenge between African American women and white women to find common ground.

Another crucial area of emphasis presented in Sister Outsider is the isolation

found among African American women and their subsequent rejection of each other’s

trust, friendship, and gifts. (BK)

Lorde died on 17 November 1992 in St. Croix, where she had been living with Gloria I.

Joseph. She expressed this hope for her last poetry collection, The Marvelous

Arithmetics of Distance- Poems 1987-1992 (1993): "I want this book to be filled

with shards of light thrown off from the shifting tensions between the dissimilar, for

that is the real stuff of creation and growth." (AT)

Before she died, Lorde in an African naming ceremony took the name Gambda Adisa,

meaning Warrior: She Who Makes Her Meaning Known. (AR)

Audre Lorde, who wrote at a feverish pace throughout her literary career, remains an

influential and serious talent. To Lorde, her writing was more than a choice or a

vocation. It was a responsibility that was necessary for her survival and the survival of

others. Her emotional precision blends rage, anger, and destruction with a luminous vision

of hope, love, and renewal. (BK)

Note: This biographical collage weaves together writing by several critics. The

comments on Cables to Rage and The Cancer Journals are by Ann E. Reuman,

from The Oxford Companion to African American Literature, ? 1997 by Oxford

University Press, as are Beverly Threatt Kulii’s comments. Ann Trapasso’s

passages are from The Oxford Companion to Women’s Literature in the United States,

? 1995 by Oxford University Press.

Загрузить файл

Похожие страницы:

  1. On Audre Lorde

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    On Audre Lorde’s "Sisters In Arms" Essay, ... deep, joyous, authenticating eroticism Lorde describes in another of her ... Gloria T. "Living on the Line: Audre Lorde and Our Dead Behind Us ... the Contours of Poetry with Audre Lorde." Feminist Studies 18.2 (1992): ...
  2. Hanging Fire Essay Research Paper Writers use

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... create meaning. In Audre Lorde s Hanging Fire, Lorde used informal diction ... simple, common words. Audre Lorde used this common technique ... to the speaker, Audre Lorde used very little punctuation ... pass through adolescence. Audre Lorde had many issues that ...
  3. On Lesbian Poetry Essay Research Paper Mary

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... The Dream of a Common Language, Audre Lorde’s The Black Unicorn (which includes ... own ethnic heritages. For example, Audre Lorde incorporates the African Yoruba tradition ... including contemporary writers Adrienne Rich, Audre Lorde, Olga Broumas, Paula Gunn Allen ...
  4. About Judy Grahn Essay Research Paper Mary

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... the Muse: Adrienne Rich, Audre Lorde, Judy Grahn, Olga Broumas." ... writers as diverse as Rich, Audre Lorde, Pat Parker, Helene Cixous, ... ‘She Who’ series" to Audre Lorde’s work, in which international, ... such as Adrienne Rich, Audre Lorde, Judy Grahn, and Olga ...
  5. The Effects Of Scientific Racism On Black

    Реферат >> Остальные работы
    ... The words of Angela Davis, Audre Lorde, Barbara Smith, and Alice ... 1983; Barbara Smith 1983; Lorde 1984). But when it comes ... The words of Angela Davis, Audre Lorde, Barbara Smith, and Alice ... norm as deviant and threatening (Lorde 1984; Vance 1984). Maintaining ...

Хочу больше похожих работ...

Generated in 0.0027360916137695