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Artificial Contraceptives Essay, Research Paper

Artificial Contraceptive should be eliminated. This is my argument. Why you ask?

Well, although my viewpoint sounds a little radical, I have come up with several

reasons why natural is better. Funk and Wagnall?s New Encyclopedia defines

with birth control as any method used to prevent pregnancy from occurring.

Methods available today range from permanent procedures such as surgical

sterilization to temporary methods that must be with each act of intercourse.

Sterilization, for example, has an effectiveness range from 99.5-99.9%. Yet, we

must keep in mind that this operation can be rather expensive, costing up to

$2,500. In addition, complications like infections or blood clots may occur

(Planned Parenthood, pg. 3). Moreover, sometimes people later regret not being

able to have children. Another form of birth control is the intrauterine device

or IUD. IUD?s are tiny metal or plastic loops or coils that are placed in the

uterus. They have an effectiveness of 95-99%(Funk & Wagnall?s, pg.98). A

physician must insert IUD?s, but they can remain there until it is desired to

be removed for a pregnancy. Although they sound ideal, some women have

experienced uterine cramps and increased menstrual flow when using an IUD.

(Billings, pg.63) in fact, some devices increase the risk of pelvic

infection(Funk & Wagnall?s, pg.98). Further, in Perry and Dawson?s book,

Nightmare, they proclaim the dangers of IUDs. They focus, especially, on the

Dalkon Shield IUD; an IUD described as ?the safest and most satisfying form of

contraception.? In their book, Perry and Dawson state that ?more than 12,000

women have filed damage suits for complications ranging from debilitating pain

and severe bleeding to perforated uteri, unplanned pregnancies, spontaneous

miscarriages, and septic abortions(Perry & Dawson, pg. 1). Yet, another

method of birth control is the oral contraceptive, better known as ?the

pill?. Oral contraceptives are chemicals that work by altering a woman?s

normal hormonal patterns so that ovulation does not occur(Funk &

Wagnall?s, pg.98). The pill is nearly 100% effective when taken according to

directions. More recently, however, ?Oxford University researchers showed an

association between oral contraceptives and an increased risk of blood clots

affecting the veins and arteries to the legs, lungs, and brain?(Billings,

pg.164). In addition, the estimated risk of heart attack is 2.8 times higher in

Pill-users than on non-users(Rosenfield, pg.96). Moreover, studies from the

World Health Organization states, ?the risk of death increases markedly among

women over the age of 35, especially if they are also smokers, are overweight,

or have diabetes, and have used the pill for a long time? (Billings. Pg. 172).

Lastly, former chairman of the ob-gyn department at John Hopkins, Dr. Allan

Barnes, stated that ?The risks of birth control pills far outweighed their

benefits?(Perry & Dawson, pg. 24-25). On the other hand, barrier methods

like the use of condoms and diaphragms are inexpensive and have no side effects.

In fact, they have an effectiveness range from 86-97%(Funk & Wagnall?s,

pg. 98). But, I must also add, they provide a false sense of security. Often,

sexually active people who tend to relay on condoms and diaphragms become a

little irresponsible. They feel secure against pregnancy. Nevertheless, this is

when trouble arises. For instance, youngsters, being told that condoms and

diaphragms are safe, are many times lured to believing that it is okay to have

sex. Yes, condoms and diaphragms do provide protection, but many times they are

forgotten to be used, especially when sexual intercourse is spontaneous. In

short, if artificial contraceptives were not available, youngsters as well as

adults would not be forced to take sexual intercourse as a highly responsible

act. This would, most likely, decrease the amount of youngsters taking part in

premarital sex. As a result, there would be least teenage pregnancies. Now that

I have started the pros and cons to artificial contraceptives, one question may

remain I your head: ? How does she plan to prevent pregnancy?? The answer or

solution is natural. The reasons so many problems arise with artificially

prevent life. Life is something that happens naturally. Therefore, if life is

desired to be prevented, it should be prevented naturally as well. Naturally

family planning is becoming more and more popular. This is because as

dissatisfaction with contraceptives drugs and devices grows, so grows the number

of women seeking a fertility control method that is natural-that does not

interfere with the body?s normal processes(Billings, pg. 185). We know that

nature has provided various indications that ovulation is occurring or has

occurred. These indications have been researched, and many different methods of

natural birth control have been devised. Among them are the Rhythm Method, the

Basal Body Temperature Method, the Sympto-Thermal Method, and the Ovulation

Method(Billings, pg. 186). Of all the main candidates, my personal choice is the

Ovulation or Billings Method. This is because it is suitable for everyone. The

Ovulation Method can be used by all women at all phases-whether her menstrual

cycles are regular or irregular, during adolescence, coming off the pill, when

breast feeding or approaching the menopause(Billings, pg. 14). The Billings

Ovulation Method was developed by Melbourne physician Dr. Evelyn Billings

together with her husband, Dr. john Billings. In her book, Billings describes

that the basis of the method is awareness of the mucus at the vaginal opening.

Basically, the mucus can indicate whether you are fertile or infertile by its

sensation and appearance(Billings, pg. 12). When the mucus indicates possible

fertility, it is necessary to postpone sexual intercourse if a pregnancy is not

desired. For most couples, this means that up to half the days of a typical

cycle are available for intercourse. In general, days available for intercourse

are scattered throughout the cycle, so that abstinence is not required for

lengthy periods in any cycle. In longer cycles, a greater portion of the cycle

is available(Billings, pg. 12). Billings also states that like other methods, it

is susceptible to the human factor, but couples who are motivated to make it

work will find it safe, reliable and simple to use. As a matter of fact,

preliminaries findings indicate an effectiveness of about 99%. This means that

among 100 couples who follow the method guidelines for a year, an average of one

pregnancy can be expected to occur. This with the effectiveness of artificial

contraceptives methods including the pill and IUDs(Billings, pg. 13). As also

mentioned in her book, the method requires a high level of motivation and

cooperation. Yet, unlike other contraceptives, the method causes not side

effects or changes in the natural body processes. With this method no equipment

is necessary, making it inexpensive. In addition, a bonus to the method is the

?sense of wonder and deep satisfaction that comes from tuning in to the

natural rhythms of your own body?(Billings, pg. 15). often, artificial

contraceptive advocators agree that natural family planning is not reliable.

Part of their argument is that it never worked in the past centuries. In

addition, they state that the number of children per household has decreased

from 10-15 to 2-3 in the past fifty years(Billings, pg. 53). Yet the reason for

the decrease is that children in the past were needed to help out the family,

for example to work in the fields. On the other hand, today children represent a

great economic cost to parents. A cost, which in turn, is one of the most common

reasons couples choose to use contraceptives in the first place(Billings, pg.

54). In addition, the Ovulation Method is so reliable that many women have

discovered the significance of the mucus themselves, and have used it as a sign

of their fertility or infertility even without the scientific verification of

the method that is available today(Billings, pg. 13). ?For instance, it is

known that at least three African tribal groups (the Taita, Kamba, and Luo) have

used the mucus produced by the cervix as a marker of fertility for generations

past. [In addition], an elder of an Australian Aboriginal tribe, Nirangi,

recently described how young girls of his tribe were taken away to a sacred

place by the older women and taught about the mucus. [Also], in western

societies, it is not unusaul to hear of an individual woman who has discovered

for herself the message of the mucus?(Billings, pg. 14). In sum, if artificial

contraceptives were eliminated, we would be forced to relay on natural family

planning. In doing so, sexual intercourse would become for everyone as an act of

high responsibility. Moreover, if this method was well taught and adopted by

everyone, it is possible that we might even decrease the number of unwanted and

aborted children.

Billings, Evelyn. 1st Ed. The Billings Method. Random House: New York, 1980.

Perry, Susana and Jim Dawson. 1st Ed. Women and The Dalkon Shield. New York:

Macmillan, 1985. Rosenfield, Albert. Responsible Parenthood, The Child’s Psyche

Through the Six-Year Pregnancy. 1st Ed. Holt, Rinehart and Winston: New York,

1980. Funk and Wagnall?s. Contraceptives. 30 vols. Raintree Milwaukee: WI,

1997.


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