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Smoking 2 Essay, Research Paper

Second-Hand smoke causes 3,000 deaths from lung cancer, 13,000 deaths from other cancers, and 37,000 deaths from lung disease in the

United States, each year. Second-Hand smoke, or passive smoke, is not as hazardous as mainstream smoke, it is still a dangerous matter.

More people die each year from second-hand smoke than from car accidents. A report by the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, declared that second-hand smoke had killed 62,000 people from heart attacks and had caused 200,000 nonfatal heart attacks. Half of all American children live with a person who smokes and nine million kids breathe cigarette smoke regularly. Recently, there has been a law passed to protect waiters and waitresses from second-hand smoke. There have been several other efforts to control second-hand smoke. One act to stop non-smokers intake of cigarette smoke happened in 1969. ASH (Action on Smoking and Health) filed a petition to stop people from smoking on airlines. It passed and now there is no smoking on publiSmoking is a bad habit, which plagues the young, as well as the old. It is the largest source of preventable mortality in North America1. Not only does smoking lead to an early grave, but it can also influence one’s daily life. Many studies have revealed links between smoking and reduced endurance capacity2. Nicotine, the addictive agent found in cigarettes, can also be used to control weight gain. Both of these factors can have considerable effect on the sporting world. There have been many studies done, indicating that if you smoked, you did less physical activity. It has also been shown that the more you smoke, the less activity you do. In one experiment done on smokers and non-smokers, the subjects were tested while running a marathon. The experimenters took a large group of mainly non-smokers and army conscripts and measured their performance. It was found that the distance covered in the race was inversely related to daily cigarette consumption3. That is, the more you smoked, the less distance you ran. The longer the participant in the race had been smoking, the worse he/she performed. For example, the average non-smoker could cover 2613 meters in 12 minutes, while a smoker of less than 2 years who smoked 21+ cigarettes a day could only cover 2284 meters. A smoker of more than 4 years who smoked 21+ cigarettes a day could only cover 2188 meters4. These results show how performance decreases the more a person smokes in their lifetime. An experiment performed by Robert C. Klesges et al. found that although smokers did fewer sports, and leisure time activities, they did the same amount of anaerobic activities5. The study also found that smokers had the same energy intake as non-smokers, indicating that eating habits were not a factor in the fitness levels. Smokers average 30-35 kcal per day less of high intensity activity than non-smokers6. This reduced aerobic physical activity can be attributed to the fact that smoking causes an increase in carboxyl hemoglobin, which decreases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, which would cause relative hypoxia in tissues and lead to reduce performance during maximal physical exertion7. Since smoking is so detrimental to the oxygen transport system, it affects endurance capacity more than any other element of fitness such as muscle strength or speed. This must be taken in consideration if an athlete wishes to smoke. No longer will his or her muscle strength be a factor. Instead, their decreased ability to carry oxygen will severely limit their performance. Many sports and activities require the athlete to do notable amounts of work and expend a fair amount of energy. When an athlete smokes, they will not be able to get the required oxygen to the necessary parts of the body, and therefore will not perform as well. It has been proven that even if you have smoked, when you quit smoking your levels of physical activity will increase8. When taking a glimpse of all the top athletes in the world, it can be noted that none of them are frequent tobacco product users. Another aspect of smoking and the human body is the effect of nicotine on body weight. Nicotine, the drug found in cigarettes, is usually what tends to get smokers addicted to tobacco products. Through many different experiments, it has been shown that smokers tend to weigh less than non- smokers9. These tests were done not only by measurement of weight, but by multiple skins fold thickness assessments. In a study done on rats, it was determined that nicotine exposed rats had significantly less carcass fat, suggesting that nicotine effects fat stores. The more nicotine, which was given, the less fat the rats had. It was hypothesized that nicotine effected these fat stores was by altering key enzymes in the regulation and uptake of triglycerides such as adipose-tissue lipoprotein lipase10. When dealing with humans, one study found that smokers had 2.8% lower total body fat than non-smokers11.

During the process of this test it was noted that smokers consumed more calories per day than non-smokers and much more sucrose than non-smokers. The researchers involved in this experiment devised that nicotine could increase the metabolic rate. A third and more recent study confirmed these two beliefs of how nicotine effects fat stores, by concluding that it was not only these two factors, but others as well which sped up the metabolic process12. This experiment also found that nicotine had no tumourigenic effect on any organ in the body13, thus indicating that if nicotine is taken, it should be inhaled as

a pure substance. Another aspect of the effects of nicotine on weight is what happens when the body is no longer exposed to nicotine. Many smokers who have quit found that they gained weight. In fact, it has been calculated that the average weight gain after quitting smoking is 2.3 kg (5 lbs) 14. This fear of weight gain can make smokers not want to quit smoking. A British study found that 42% of Canadian girls who smoked worried about their weight15. This shows a mild paranoia towards quitting smoking, and fear of body appearance. These effects of nicotine, if used right, could make a very good weight loss drug. It could be especially helpful in sport, where the athlete wants to be able to stay thin. Since studies have indicated that nicotine itself is not harmful to the body, it could be administered without tobacco products16. The athlete would not have the physical strains of smoking on the body, but still have the weight controlling nicotine. In such sports as boxing where the athlete wants to be at the top of his or her weight class, they could take nicotine supplements to rapidly decrease their weight and get into the lighter category. It could also be used in training in the “off-season” so when an athlete is not working hard, they will not gain any weight. Smoking can have many different effects on the human body. It can influence it in ways, which can either be detrimental, or beneficial. It affects the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, as well as the lungs themselves. This alone hinders performance in physical activities. Nicotine, on the other hand, is not actually harmful to the body. When used correctly, it can be a powerful weight loss agent. These two effects of smoking on the body causes one to make serious decisions on whether or not they should smoke. If you smoke for the weight loss aspect, nicotine by itself it betters for your body. But many feel a physical pleasure in smoking, which cannot be met by just nicotine supplements.

1 Marti, Bernard et al. “Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Endurance Capacity: An analysis of 6,500 19-Year-Old Conscripts and 4100 Joggers,” Preventive Medicine v17 (1988), p79.

2 Miser, William F. “Smoking Has Detrimental Effects on Physical Fitness,” American Family Physician v40 (Nov. 1989), p92s.

3 Marti, Bernard et al. “Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Endurance Capacity: An Analysis of 6,500 19-Year-Old Conscripts and 4100 Joggers,” Preventive Medicine v17 (1988), p82.

4 Marti, Bernard et al. “Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Endurance Capacity: An Analysis of 6,500 19-Year-Old Conscripts and 4100 Joggers,” Preventive

Medicine v17 (1988), p82.

5 Klesges, Robert C. et al. “Smoking Status: effects on dietary intake, physical activity, and body fat of adult men,” American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition v51 (May 1990), p787.

6 Larson, B. “Relationships Between Exercise, Smoking, Alcohol, and Other Factors,” Public Health Reports v100 (Mar./Apr. 1985), p176.

7 Marti, Bernard et al. “Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Endurance Capacity: An Analysis of 6,500 19-Year-Old Conscripts and 4,100 Joggers,” Preventive Medicine v17 (1988), p89.

8 Marti, Bernard et al. “Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Endurance Capacity: An

Analysis of 6,500 19-Year-Old Conscripts and 4,100 Joggers,” Preventive Medicine v17 (1988), p89.

9 Winders, Suzan E. and Neil E. Grunberg. “Effects of nicotine on body weight, food consumption and body composition in male rats,” Life Sciences v46 no.21 (1990), p1523. 10 Winders, Suzan E. and Neil E. Grunberg. “Effects of nicotine on body weight, food consumption and body composition in male rats,” Life Sciences v46 no.21 (1990), pp1528-1529.

11 Klesges, Robert C. et al. “Smoking Status: effects on dietary intake, physical activity, and body fat of adult men,” American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition v51 (May 1990), p786.

12 Waldum, Helge L. et al. “Long-Term Effects of Inhaled Nicotine,” Life Sciences v58 no.16 (Mar. 1996), p1345.

13 Waldum, Helge L. et al. “Long-Term Effects of Inhaled Nicotine,” Life Sciences v58 no.16 (Mar. 1996), p1345.

14 “Smoking To Stay Thin–The Body-Image Connection,” OPHEA Journal Autumn, 1996, p17.

15 “Smoking To Stay Thin–The Body-Image Connection,” OPHEA Journal Autumn, 1996, p17.

16 Waldum, Helge L. et al.

“Long-Term Effects of Inhaled Nicotine,” Life Sciences v58 no.16 (Mar. 1996), p1346.

Second-Hand smoke causes 3,000 deaths from lung cancer, 13,000 deaths from other cancers, and 37,000 deaths from lung disease in the United States, each year. Second-Hand smoke, or passive smoke, is not as hazardous as mainstream smoke, it is still a dangerous matter. More people die each year from second-hand smoke than from car accidents. A report by the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, declared that second-hand smoke had killed 62,000 people from heart attacks and had caused 200,000 nonfatal heart attacks. Half of all American children live with a person who smokes and nine million kids breathe cigarette smoke regularly. Recently, there has been a law passed to protect waiters and waitresses from second-hand smoke. There have been several other efforts to control second-hand smoke. One act to stop non-smokers intake of cigarette smoke happened in 1969. ASH (Action on Smoking and Health) filed a petition to stop people from smoking on airlines. It passed and now there is no smoking on public airlines.

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