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SIR ISAAC NEWTON

Newton was born on December 25,1642. He was an English

mathematician and physicist, considered one of the greatest

scientist in history, who made important contributions to many

fields of science. His discoveries and theories laid the

foundation for much of the progress in science since his time.

Newton was one of the inventors of the branch of mathematics

called Calculus. He also solved the mysteries of light and

optics. Formulated the three laws of motions, and derived from

them the law of universal gravitation.

Newton?s birth place was at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in

Linclonshire. Where he lived with his widowed mother, Until

around his third birthday. At this time his mother remarried,

leaving him in the care of his Grandmother and sent to grammar

school in Grantham. Later, in the Summer of 1661, he was sent to

Trinity Collage, at the University of Cambridge. Newton received

his bachelors degree in 1665. After an intermission of nearly two

years to avoid the plague, Newton returned to Trinity, Which

elected him to a fellowship in 1667. He received his master

degree in 1668. Newton ignored much of the established curriculum

of the University to pursue his own interests: mathematics and

natural philosophy.

By joining them in what he called the Fluxional method,

Newton developed in the autumn of 1666 a kind of mathematics that

is now known as calculus. Was a new and powerful method that

carried modern mathematics above the level of Greek geometry.

Although Newton was its inventor, he did not introduce calculus

into European Mathematics.

Always Fearful of publication and Criticism. Newton kept his

Discovery to himself. However, enough was known of his abilities

to effect his appointment in 1669as a Luciasian Professor of

Mathematics at the University of Cambbridge.

Optics was another area of Newton?s early interests. In

trying at explain now colors occur, he arrived at the idea that

sunlight is a heterogeneous blend of different rays each of,

which

represents a different color-and that reflections and

refraction cause colors to appear by separating the blend into

its components. Newton demonstrated his theory of colors by

passing the beam of sunlight through a type of prism, which split

the beam into separate colors.

In 1672 Newton sent a brief exposition of his theory of

colors to the Royal Society in London. In 1704 however, Newton

published appliqu?s, which explained his theories in details.

During

the following two and a half years, Newton established the modern

science of dynamics by formulating his three laws of motion.

Newton applied there laws to Kempler?s law of orbital

motion-formulated by the German astronomer Johannes Kempler-and

derived the law of Universal Gravitation. Newton is probably best

known for discovering Universal Gravitation, which explains that

all bodies in space and on earth are affected by the force of

Gravity, and another thing he invented was the Reflecting

Telescope. He published this theory in his book Philosophiae

Natural is Principia Mathematica in 1687. This book marked a

turning point in the history of science; it also ensured that its

author could never regain his privacy.

In the same year, 1687, Newton helped lead Cambridge?s

resistance to the efforts of King James II to make the University

a Catholic institution, After the English Revolution in 1688,

which drove James from England, the University elected Newton one

of its representatives in a special convening of the county?s

Parliament.

In the summer of 1693 Newton showed symptoms of a severe

emotional disorder. Although he regained his health, his creative

period had come to an end. Newton?s connections with the leaders

of the new regime in England led to his appointment as warden.

And later master of Royal Mint in London, where he lived after

1696. In 1703 the Royal Society elected him President, an office

he held for the rest of his life. As President, he ordered the

immediate Publication of the Astronomical Observations of the

First Astronomer Royal of England, John Flamsteed. Newton needed

these observations to perfect his Lunar theory.

Newton also compiled the book of evidence that the society

published. The effects of the quarrel lingered nearly until his

death in 1727.

In addition to science, Newton also showed an interest in

Alchemy, Mysticism, and Theology. Many pages of his notes and

writing-particularly from the later years of his career are

devoted to these topics. However, historians have found little

connection between these interests and Newton?s scientific works.

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